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more variable than faces and countenances; yet men can bear in memory the infinite distinctions of them; nay, a painter with a few shells of colours, and the benefit of his eye, and habit of his imagination, can imitate them all that ever have been, are, or/may be, if they were brought before him. Nothing more variable than voices; yet men can likewise discern them personally: nay, you shall have a buffoon, or pantomimus, who will express as many as he pleaseth. Nothing more variable than the differing sounds of words; yet men have found the way to reduce them to a few simple letters. So that it is not the insufficiency or incapacity of man's mind, but it is the remote standing or placing thereof, that breedeth these mazes and incomprehensions: for as the
man's body hath made it as an instrument easy to distemper; and therefore the poets did well to conjoin music and medicine in Apollo: because the office of medicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's body and to reduce it to harmony. So then the subject being so variable, hath made the art by consequence more conjectural; an art being conjectural hath made so much the more place to be left for imposture. For almost all other arts and sciences are judged by acts or masterpieces, as I may term them, and not by the successes and events. The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his pleading, and not by the issue of the cause. The master of the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, and not by the fortune of the voyage. But the physician, and perhaps the politician, hath no particular acts demon-sense afar off is full of mistaking, but is exact at strative of his ability, but is judged most by the event; which is ever but as it is taken: for who can tell, if a patient die or recover, or if a state be preserved or ruined, whether it be art or accident? And therefore many times the impostor is prized, and the man of virtue taxed. Nay, we see the weakness and credulity of men is such, as they will often prefer a mountebank or witch before a learned physician. And therefore the poets were clear-sighted in discerning this extreme folly, when they made Esculapius and Circe brother and sister, both children of the sun, as in the verses, Æn. vii. 772.
'Ipse repertorem medicinæ talis et artis
Fulmine Phœbigenam Stygias detrusit ad undas :" And again, Æn. vii. 11.
"Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos," &c.
For in all times, in the opinion of the multitude, witches and old women and impostors have had a competition with physicians. And what followeth?
Even this, that physicians say to themselves, as Solomon expresseth it upon a higher occasion; "If it befall to me as befalleth to the fools, why should I labour to be more wise?" And therefore I cannot much blame physicians, that the use commonly to intend some other art or practice, which they fancy more than their profession. For you shall have of them antiquaries, poets, humanists, statesmen, merchants, divines, and in every of these better seen than in their profession; and no doubt upon this ground, that they find that mediocrity and excellency in their art maketh no difference in profit or reputation towards their fortune; for the weakness of patients, and sweetness of life, and nature of hope, maketh men depend upon physicians with all their defects. But, nevertheless, these things which we have spoken of, are courses begotten between a little occasion, and a great deal of sloth and default; for if we will excite and awake our observation, we shall see in familiar instances what a predominant faculty the subtilty of spirit hath over the variety of matter of form. Nothing
hand, so is it of the understanding; the remedy
Which that they should do, the nobleness of their
Medicine is a science which hath been, as we have said, more professed than laboured, and yet more laboured than advanced; the labour having been, in my judgment, rather in circle than in progression. For I find much iteration, but small addition. It considereth causes of diseases, with the occasions or impulsions; the diseases themselves, with the accidents; and the cures, with the preservations. The deficiencies which I think good to note, being a few of many, and those such as are of a more open and manifest nature, I will enumerate, and not place.
The first is the discontinuance of the ancient and serious diligence of Hippocrates, which used to set down a narrative of the special cases of his patients, and how they proceeded, and how they were judged by recovery or death. Therefore having an example proper in the father of the art, I shall not need to allege an example foreign, of the wisdom of the lawyers, who are careful to report new cases and decisions, for the direction of future judgments. This continuance of Medicinal History I find deficient; which I understand neither to be so infinite as to extend to every com
mon case, nor so reserved as to admit none but | cures of many, some as in their nature incurable, wonders; for many things are new in the manner, which are not new in the kind; and if men will intend to observe, they shall find much worthy to observe.
and others as past the period of cure; so that Sylla and the triumvirs never proscribed so many men to die, as they do by their ignorant edicts; whereof numbers do escape with less difficulty than they did in the Roman proscriptions. Therefore I will not doubt to note as a deficience, that they inquire not the perfect cures of many diseases, or extremities of diseases; but, pronouncing them incurable do enact a law of neglect, and
Nay, further, I esteem it the office of a physician not only to restore health, but to mitigate pain, and dolours; and not only when such mitigation may conduce to recovery, but when it may serve to make a fair and easy passage: for it is no small felicity which Augustus Cæsar was wont to wish to himself, that same "euthanasia;" and which was specially noted in the death of Antoninus Pius, whose death was after the fashion and semblance of a kindly and pleasant sleep. So it is written of Epicurus, that after his disease was judged desperate, he drowned his stomach and senses with a large draught and ingurgitation of wine, whereupon the epigram was made, "Hinc Stygias ebrius hausit aquas;" he was not sober enough to taste any bitterness of the Stygian water. But the physicians, contrariwise, do make a kind of scruple and religion to stay with the patient after the disease is deplored; whereas, in my judgment, they ought both to inquire the skill, and to give the attendances, for the facilitating and assuaging of the pains and agonies of death.
In the inquiry which is made by anatomy I find much deficience: for they inquire of the parts, and their substances, figures, and collocations; but they inquire not of the diversities of the parts, the secrecies of the passages, and the seats or nestlings of the humours, nor much of the foot-exempt ignorance from discredit. steps and impressions of diseases: the reason of which omission I suppose to be, because the first inquiry may be satisfied in the view of one or a few anatomies; but the latter, being comparative and casual, must arise from the view of many. And as to the diversity of parts, there is no doubt but the facture or framing of the inward parts is as full of differences as the outward, and in that is the cause continent of many diseases; which not being observed, they quarrel many times with the humours, which are not in fault; the fault being in the very frame and mechanic of the part, which cannot be removed by medicine alterative, but must be accommodate and palliate by diets and medicines familiar. As for the passages and pores, it is true, which was anciently noted, that the more subtile of them appear not in anatomies, because they are shut and latent in dead bodies, though they be open and manifest in live; which being supposed, though the inhumanity of "anatomia vivorum" was by Celsus justly reproved; yet in regard of the great use of this observation, the inquiry needed not by him so slightly to have In the consideration of the cures of diseases, been relinquished altogether, or referred to the I find a deficience in the receipts of propriety, casual practices of surgery; but might have been respecting the particular cures of diseases: for well diverted upon the dissection of beasts alive, the physicians have frustrated the fruit of tradiwhich notwithstanding the dissimilitude of their tion and experience by their magistralities, in parts, may sufficiently satisfy this inquiry. And adding, and taking out, and changing "quid pro for the humours, they are commonly passed over quo," in their receipts, at their pleasures; comin anatomies as purgaments; whereas it is most manding so over the medicine, as the medicine necessary to observe, what cavities, nests, and cannot command over the diseases: for except it receptacles the humours do find in the parts, with be treacle and mithridatum, and of late diascorthe differing kind of the humours so lodged and dium, and a few more, they tie themselves to no received. And as for the footsteps of diseases, receipts severely and religiously: for as to the and their devastations of the inward parts, im-confections of sale which are in the shops, they posthumations, exulcerations, discontinuations, are for readiness, and not for propriety; for they putrefactions, consumptions, contractions, extensions, convulsions, dislocations, obstructions, repletions, together with all preternatural substances, as stones, carnosities, excrescences, worms, and the like; they ought to have been exactly observed by multitude of anatomies, and the contribution of men's several experiences, and carefully set down, both historically, according to the appearances, and artificially, with a reference to the diseases and symptoms which result from them, in case where the anatomy is of a defunct patient; whereas now; upon opening of bodies, they are passed over slightly and in silence.
In the inquiry of diseases, they do abandon the
are upon general intentions of purging, opening, comforting, altering, and not much appropriate to particular diseases: and this is the cause why empirics and old women are more happy many times in their cures than learned physicians, because they are more religious in holding their medicines. Therefore here is the deficience which I find, that physicians have not, partly out of their own practice, partly out of the constant probations reported in books, and partly out of the traditions of empirics, set down and delivered over certain experimental medicines for the cure of particular diseases, besides their own conjecItural and magistral descriptions. For as they
were the men of the best composition in the state | likewise hath two parts, hardness against wants of Rome, which either being consuls inclined to the people, or being tribunes inclined to the senate; so in the matter we now handle, they be the best physicians, which being learned incline to the traditions of experience, or being empirics incline to the methods of learning.
In preparation of medicines, I do find strange, especially considering how mineral medicines have been extolled, and that they are safer for the outward than inward parts, that no man hath sought to make an imitation by art of natural baths and medicinable fountains; which nevertheless are professed to receive their virtues from minerals and not so only, but discerned and distinguished from what particular mineral they receive tincture, as sulphur, vitriol, steel, or the like; which nature, if it may be reduced to compositions of art, both the variety of them will be increased, and the temper of them will be more commanded.
But lest I grow to be more particular than is agreeable either to my intention or to proportion, I will conclude this part with the note of one deficience more, which seemeth to me of greatest consequence; which is that the prescripts in use are too compendious to attain their end: for, to my understanding, it is a vain and flattering opinion to think any medicine can be so sovereign or so happy, as that the receipt or use of it can work any great effect upon the body of man. It were a strange speech, which, spoken, or spoken oft, should reclaim a man from a vice to which he were by nature subject: it is order, pursuit, sequence, and interchange of application, which is mighty in nature; which, although it require more exact knowledge in prescribing, and more precise obedience in observing, yet is recompensed with the magnitude of effects. And although a man would think, by the daily visitations of the physicians, that there were a pursuance in the cure; yet let a man look into their prescripts and ministrations, and he shall find them but inconstancies and every days' devices, without any settled providence or project. Not that every scrupulous or superstitious prescript is effectual, no more than every straight way is the way to heaven; but the truth of the direction must precede severity of observance.
and extremities, and indurance of pain or torment: whereof we see the practices in tumblers, in savages, and in those that suffer punishment: nay, if there be any other faculty which falls not within any of the former divisions, as in those that dive, that obtain a strange power of containing respiration, and the like, I refer it to this part. Of these things the practices are known, but the philosophy that concerneth them is not much inquired; the rather, I think, because they are supposed to be obtained, either by an aptness of nature, which cannot be taught, or only by continual custom, which is soon prescribed ; which though it be not true, yet I forbear to note any deficiencies: for the Olympian games are down long since, and the mediocrity of these things is for use; as for the excellency of them, it serveth for the most part but for mercenary ostentation.
For arts of pleasure sensual, the chief deficience in them is of laws to repress them. For as it hath been well observed, that the arts which flourish in times while virtue is in growth, are military; and while virtue is in state, are liberal; and while virtue is in declination, are voluptuary; so I doubt that this age of the world is somewhat upon the descent of the wheel. With arts voluptuary I couple practices joculary; for the deceiving of the senses is one of the pleasures of the senses. As for games of recreation, I hold them to belong to civil life and education. And thus much of that particular human philosophy which concerns the body, which is but the tabernacle of the mind.
For Human Knowledge which concerns the Mind, it hath two parts; the one that inquireth of the substance or nature of the soul or mind, the other that inquireth of the faculties or functions thereof. Unto the first of these, the corsiderations of the original of the soul, whether be native or adventive, and how far it is exempte l from laws of matter, and of the immortality thereof, and many other points do appertain: which have been not more laboriously inquired than variously reported: so as the travail therein taken seemeth to have been rather in a maze than in a way. But although I am of opinion that this knowledge may be more really and soundly inquired, even in nature, than it hath been; yet I hold that in the end it must be bounded by religion, or else it will be subject to deceit and delusion: for as the substance of the soul in the creation was not extracted out of the mass of heaven and earth by the benediction of a "producat," but was immediately inspired from God: so it is not possible that it should be otherwise For Athletic, I take the subject of it largely, than by accident, subject to the laws of heaven that is to say, for any point of ability whereunto and earth, which are the subject of philosophy; the body of man may be brought, whether it be and therefore the true knowledge of the nature of activity, or of patience; whereof activity hath and state of the soul must come by the same intwo parts, strength and swiftness; and patience [spiration that gave the substance. Unto this
For Cosmetic, it hath parts civil, and parts effeminate for cleanness of body was ever esteemed to proceed from a due reverence to God, to society, and to ourselves. As for artificial decoration, it is well worthy of the deficiencies which it hath; being neither fine enough to deceive, nor handsome to use, nor wholesome to please.
part of knowledge touching the soul there be two | the secret passages of things, and specially of appendices; which, as they have been handled, the contagion that passeth from body to body, do have rather vapoured forth fables than kindled truth, divination and fascination.
used sincerely and intentionally for that purpose; yet I should hold them unlawful, as opposing to that first edict which God gave unto man, “In sudore vultus comedes panem tuum." For they propound those noble effects, which God hath set forth unto man to be bought at the price of labour, to be attained by a few easy and slothful observances. Deficiencies in these knowledges I will report none, other than the general deficience, that it is not known how much of them is verity, and how much vanity.
conceive it should likewise be agreeable to nature, that there should be some transmissions and Divination hath been anciently and fitly divided operations from spirit to spirit without the mediainto artificial and natural; whereof artificial is, tion of the senses; whence the conceits have when the mind maketh a prediction by argument, grown, now almost made civil, of the mastering concluding upon signs and tokens; natural is, spirit, and the force of confidence, and the like. when the mind hath a presentation by an internal Incident unto this is the inquiry how to raise and power, without the inducement of a sign. Arti- fortify the imagination: for if the imagination ficial is of two sorts; either when the argument fortified have power, then it is material to know is coupled with a derivation of causes, which is how to fortify and exalt it. And herein comes in rational; or when it is only grounded upon a crookedly and dangerously a palliation of a great coincidence of the effect, which is experimental part of ceremonial magic. For it may be prewhereof the latter for the most part is super-tended that ceremonies, characters, and charms, stitious; such as were heathen observations upon do work, not by any tacit or sacramental contract the inspection of sacrifices, the flights of birds, with evil spirits, but serve only to strengthen the the swarming of bees; and such as was the imagination of him that useth it; as images are Chaldean astrology, and the like. For artificial said by the Roman church to fix the cogitations, divination, the several kinds thereof are distri- and raise the devotions of them that pray before buted amongst particular knowledges. The as-them. But for mine own judgment, if it be adtronomer hath his predictions, as of conjunctions, mitted that imagination hath power, and that aspects, eclipses, and the like. The physician ceremonies fortify imagination, and that they be hath his predictions of death, of recovery, of the accidents and issues of diseases. The politician hath his predictions; "O urbem venalem, et cito perituram, si emptorem invenerit !" which stayed not long to be performed, in Sylla first, and after in Cæsar. So as these predictions are now impertinent, and to be referred over. But the divination which springeth from the internal nature of the soul, is that which we now speak of; which hath been made to be of two sorts, primitive and by influxion. Primitive is grounded upon the supposition, that the mind, when it is withdrawn and collected into itself, and not diffused into the organs of the body, hath some extent and latitude of prenotion; which therefore appeareth most in sleep, in ecstasies, and near death, and more rarely in waking apprehensions; and is induced and furthered by those abstinences and observances which make the mind most to consist in itself: by influxion, is grounded upon the conceit that the mind, as a mirror or glass, should take illumination, from the foreknowledge | of God and spirits; unto which the same regimen doth likewise conduce. For the retiring of the mind within itself, is the state which is most susceptible of divine influxions; save that it is accompanied in this case with a fervency and elevation, which the ancients noted by fury, and not with a repose and quiet, as it is in the other. Fascination is the power and act of imagination, intensive upon other bodies than the body of the imaginant: for of that we spake in the proper place: wherein the school of Paracelsus, and the disciples of pretended natural magic have been so intemperate, as they have exalted the power of the imagination to be much one with the power of miracle-working faith; others, that draw nearer to probability, calling to their view
The knowledge which respecteth the faculties of the mind of man is of two kinds: the one respecting his understanding and reason, and the other his will, appetite, and affection; whereof the former produceth direction or decree, the latter action or execution. It is true that the imagination is an agent or "nuncius," in both provinces, both the judicial and ministerial. For sense sendeth over to the imagination before reason have judged; and reason sendeth over to imagination before the decree can be acted; for imagination ever precedeth voluntary motion. Saving that this Janus of imagination hath differing faces; for the face towards reason hath the print of truth but the face towards action hath the print of good · which nevertheless are faces,
tr Quales decet esse sororum.'
Neither is the imagination simply and only a messenger; but is invested with, or at least usurpeth no small authority in itself, besides the duty of the message. For it was well said by Aristotle, "That the mind hath over the body that commandment, which the lord hath over a bondman; but that reason hath over the imagination that commandment which a magistrate hath over a free citizen;" who may come also to rule in his turn. For we see that, in matters of faith
arts must be four; art of inquiry or invention; art of examination or judgment; art of custody or memory; and art of elocution or tradition.
Invention is of two kinds, much differing; the one, of arts and sciences; and the other, of speech and arguments. The former of these I do report deficient; which seemeth to me to be such a de ficience as if, in the making of an inventory touch
and religion, we raise our imagination above our | invented; or to retain that which is judged; or reason; which is the cause why religion sought to deliver over that which is retained. So as the ever access to the mind by similitudes, types, parables, visions, dreams. And again, in all persuasions that are wrought by eloquence, and other impressions of like nature, which do paint and disguise the true appearance of things, the chief recommendation unto reason is from the imagination. Nevertheless, because I find not any science that doth properly or fitly pertain to the imagination, I see no cause to alter the former di-ing the estate of a defunct, it should be set down, vision. For as for poesy, it is rather a pleasure that there is no ready money. For as money will or play of the imagination, than a work or duty fetch all other commodities, so this knowledge is thereof. And if it be a work, we speak not now that which should purchase all the rest. And of such parts of learning as the imagination pro-like as the West Indies had never been discover. duceth, but of such sciences as handle and con- ed, if the use of the mariner's needle had not been sider of the imagination; no more than we shall first discovered, though the one be vast regions speak now of such knowledges as reason pro-and the other a small motion; so it cannot be duceth, for that extendeth to all philosophy, but found strange if sciences be no farther discovered, of such knowledges as do handle and inquire of if the art itself of invention and discovery hath the faculty of reason: so as poesy had its true been passed over. That this part of knowledge is wanting, to my place. As for the power of the imagination in nature, and the manner of fortifying the same, we judgment standeth plainly confessed; for first, have mentioned it in the doctrine "De anima," logic doth not pretend to invent sciences, or the whereunto it most fitly belongeth. And lastly, axioms of sciences, but passeth it over with a for imaginative or insinuative reason, which is the "cuique in sua arte credendum." And Celsus subject of rhetoric, we think it best to refer it to acknowledgeth it gravely, speaking of the emthe arts of reason. So therefore we content our-pirical and dogmatical sects of physicians, "That selves with the former division, that Human Philosophy, which respecteth the faculties of the mind of man, hath two parts, Rational and Moral. The part of Human Philosophy which is rational is of all knowledges, to the most wits, the least delightful, and seemeth but a net of subtilty and spinosity. For as it was truly said, that knowledge is " pabulum animi ;" so in the nature of men's appetite to this food, most men are of the taste and stomach of the Israelites in the desert, that would fain have returned “ad ollas carnium,” and were weary of manna; which, though it were, celestial seemed less nutritive and comfortable. So generally men taste well knowledges that are drenched in flesh and blood, civil history, morality, policy, about the which men's affections, praises, fortunes, do turn and are conversant: but this same "lumen siccum" doth parch and offend most men's watery and soft natures. But, to speak truly of things as they are in worth, rational knowledges are the keys of all other arts; for as Aristotle saith aptly and elegantly, "That the hand is the instrument of instruments, and the mind is the form of forms :" so these be truly said to be the art of arts: neither do they only direct, but likewise confirm and strengthen; even as the habit of shooting doth not only enable to shoot a nearer shoot, but also to draw a stronger bow.
The arts intellectual are four in number; divided according to the ends whereunto they are referred for man's labour is to invent that which is sought or propounded; or to judge that which is
medicines and cures were first found out, and
“Dictamnum genetrix Cretæa carpit ab Ida,
So that it was no marvel, the manner of antiquity
"Omnigenumque Deum monstra, et latrator. Anubis,