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of houses and families; to this buildings, foundations, and monuments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, and celebration, and in effect the strength of all other human desires. We see then how far the monuments of wit and learning are more durable than the monuments of power or of the hands. For have not the verses of Homer continued twenty-five hundred years, or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter; during which time, infinite palaces, temples, castles, cities, have been decayed and demolished?
As for fortune and advancement, the beneficence of learning is not so confined to give fortune only to states and commonwealths, as it doth not likewise give fortune to particular persons. For it was well noted long ago, that Homer hath given more men their livings, than either Sylla, or Cæsar, or Augustus ever did, notwithstanding It is not possible to have the true pictures or statheir great largesses and donatives, and distribu- | tues of Cyrus, Alexander, Cæsar; no nor of the tions of lands to so many legions: and no doubt kings or great personages of much later years; it is hard to say, whether arms or learning have for the originals cannot last, and the copies cannot advanced greater numbers. And in case of but lose of the life and truth. But the images of sovereignty we see, that if arms or descent have men's wits and knowledges remain in books, excarried away the kingdom, yet learning hath empted from the wrong of time, and capable of carried the priesthood, which ever hath been in perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and some competition with empire. Again, for the pleasure and delight of know-cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking ledge and learning, it far surpasseth all other in and causing infinite actions and opinions in sucnature: for, shall the pleasures of the affections ceeding ages: so that, if the invention of the ship so exceed the senses, as much as the obtaining was thought so noble, which carrieth riches and of desire or victory exceedeth a song or a dinner; commodities from place to place, and consociateth and must not, of consequence, the pleasures of the most remote regions in participation of their the intellect or understanding exceed the plea- fruits, how much more are letters to be magnified, sures of the affections? We see in all other which, as ships, pass through the vast seas of pleasures there is satiety, and after they be used, time, and make ages so distant to participate of their verdure departeth; which showeth well they the wisdom, illuminations, and inventions, the be but deceits of pleasure, and not pleasures; one of the other? Nay further, we see, some and that it was the novelty which pleased, and of the philosophers which were least divine, and not the quality: and therefore we see that volup-most immersed in the senses, and denied genetuous men turn friars, and ambitious princes turn rally the immortality of the soul, yet came to this melancholy. But. of knowledge there is no point, that whatsoever motions the spirit of man satiety, but satisfaction and appetite are per- could act and perform without the organs of the petually interchangeable; and therefore appear- body, they thought, might remain after death, eth to be good in itself simply, without fallacy or which were only those of the understanding, and accident. Neither is that pleasure of small effi- not of the affections; so immortal and incorrupticacy and contentment to the mind of man, which | ble a thing did knowledge seem unto them to be. But we, that know by divine revelation, that not the poet Lucretius describeth elegantly, only the understanding but the affections purified, not only the spirit but the body changed, shall be advanced to immortality, do disclaim these rudiBut it must be remembered both in this last point, and so it may likewise be needful in other places, that in probation of the dignity of knowledge or learning, I did in the beginning separate divine testimony from human, which method I have pursued, and so handled them both apart.
"Suave mari magno, turbantibus æquora ventis," &c. "It is a view of delight," saith he, "to stand or walk upon the shore side, and to see a shipments of the senses.
tossed with tempest upon the sea; or to be in a fortified tower, and to see two battles join upon a plain; but it is pleasure incomparable, for the mind of man to be settled, landed and fortified in the certainty of truth; and from thence to descry and behold the errors, perturbations, labours, and wanderings up and down of other men."
or profoundness "of Satan;" so by argument of contraries, the just and lawful sovereignty over men's understanding, by force of truth rightly interpreted, is that which approacheth nearest to the similitude of the divine rule.
Nevertheless, I do not pretend, and I know it Lastly, leaving the vulgar arguments, that by will be impossible for me, by any pleading of learning man excelleth man in that wherein man mine, to reverse the judgment, either of Æsop's excelleth beasts; that by learning man ascendeth cock, that preferred the barleycorn before the gem; to the heavens and their motions, where in body or of Midas, that being chosen judge between he cannot come, and the like; let us conclude Apollo president of the Muses, and Pan god of the with the dignity and excellency of knowledge and flocks, judged for plenty; or of Paris, that judged learning in that whereunto man's nature doth | for beauty and love against wisdom and power, nor most aspire, which is, immortality or continu- of Agrippina, " occidat matrem, modo imperet," ance: for to this tendeth generation, and raising that preferred empire with conditions never so de
testable; or of Ulysses, "qui vetulam prætulit im- | things continue as they have been: but so will that mortalitati,” being a figure of those which prefer also continue whereupon learning hath ever relied, custom and habit before all excellency; or of a and which faileth not: "Justificata est sapientia number of the like popular judgments. For these a filiis suis."
THE SECOND BOOK
PROFICIENCE AND ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,
DIVINE AND HUMAN.
TO THE KING.
Ir might seem to have more convenience, though undertaken and performed by kings and others it come often otherwise to pass, excellent king, for the increase and advancement of learning: that those which are fruitful in their generations, wherein I purpose to speak actively without diand have in themselves the foresight of immor-gressing or dilating. tality in their descendants, should likewise be Let this ground therefore be laid, that all works more careful of the good estate of future times, are overcome by amplitude of reward, by soundunto which they know they must transmit and ness of direction, and by the conjunction of commend over their dearest pledges. Queen labours. The first multiplieth endeavour, the Elizabeth was a sojourner in the world, in respect second preventeth error, and the third supplieth of her unmarried life, and was a blessing to her the frailty of man: but the principal of these is own times: and yet so as the impression of her direction: for "claudus in via antevertit cursorem good government, besides her happy memory, is extra viam ;" and Solomon excellently setteth it not without some effect which doth survive her. down, "If the iron be not sharp, it requireth But to your majesty, whom God hath already more strength; but wisdom is that which prevailblessed with so much royal issue, worthy to con- eth ;" signifying that the invention or election of tinue and represent you forever; and whose the mean is more effectual than any enforcement youthful and fruitful bed doth yet promise many or accumulation of endeavours. This I am inof the like renovations; it is proper and agree-duced to speak, for that (not derogating from the able to be conversant, not only in the transitory noble intention of any that have been deservers parts of good government, but in those acts also towards the state of learning) I do observe, neverwhich are in their nature permanent and perpetual: theless, that their works and acts are rather matamongst the which, if affection do not transport ters of magnificence and memory, than of prome, there is not any more worthy than the furthergression and proficience; and tend rather to augendowment of the world with sound and fruitful ment the mass of learning in the multitude of knowledge. For why should a few received learned men, than to rectify or raise the sciences authors stand up like Hercules's columns, beyond themselves. which there should be no sailing or discovering, since we have so bright and benign a star as your majesty to conduct and prosper us? To return therefore where we left, it remaineth to consider of what kind those acts are, which have been
The works or acts of merit towards learning are conversant about three objects: the places of learning, the books of learning, and the persons of the learned. For as water, whether it be the dew of heaven, or the springs of the earth, doth
scatter and lose itself in the ground, except it be | the head doth; but yet, notwithstanding, it is the collected into some receptacle, where it may by stomach that digesteth and distributeth to all the union comfort and sustain itself, (and for that rest: so if any man think philosophy and univercause the industry of man hath made and framed sality to be idle studies, he doth not consider that spring-heads, conduits, cisterns, and pools, which all professions are from thence served and supmen have accustomed likewise to beautify and plied. And this I take to be a great cause that adorn with accomplishments of magnificence and hath hindered the progression of learning, because state, as well as of use and necessity,) so this these fundamental knowledges have been studied excellent liquor of knowledge, whether it descend but in passage. For if you will have a tree bear from divine inspiration, or spring from human more fruit than it hath used to do, it is not any thing sense, would soon perish and vanish to oblivion, you can do to the boughs, but it is the stirring of if it were not preserved in books, traditions, con- the earth, and putting new mould about the roots, ferences, and places appointed, as universities, that must work it. Neither is it to be forgotten, colleges, and schools, for the receipt and comfort- that this dedicating of foundations and donations ing of the same. to professory learning hath not only had a malign The works which concern the seats and places aspect and influence upon the growth of sciences, of learning are four; foundations and buildings, but hath also been prejudicial to states and goendowments with revenues, endowments with vernments. For hence it proceedeth that princes franchises and privileges, institutions and ordi- find a solitude in regard of able men to serve them nances for government; all tending to quietness in causes of state, because there is no education and privateness of life, and discharge of cares collegiate which is free; where such as were so and troubles; much like the stations which Virgil disposed might give themselves to histories, prescribeth for the hiving of bees: modern languages, books of policy and civil discourse, and other the like enablements unto service of estate.
"Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda,
The works touching books are two; first libraries, which are as the shrines where all the relics of the ancient saints, full of true virtue, and that without delusion or imposture, are preserved and reposed: secondly, new editions of authors, with more correct impressions, more faithful translations, more profitable glosses, more diligent annotations, and the like.
The works pertaining to the persons of learned men, besides the advancement and countenancing of them in general, are two: the reward and designation of readers in sciences already extant and invented; and the reward and designation of writers and inquirers concerning any parts of learning not sufficiently laboured and prosecuted.
These are summarily the works and acts, wherein the merits of many excellent princes and other worthy personages have been conversant. As for any particular commemorations, I call to mind what Cicero said, when he gave general thanks; "Difficile non aliquem, ingratum, quenquam præterire." Let us rather, according to the Scriptures, look unto that part of the race which is before us, than look back to that which is already attained.
And because founders of colleges do plant, and founders of lectures do water, it followeth well in order to speak of the defect which is in public lectures; namely, in the smallness and meanness of the salary or reward which in most places is assigned unto them; whether they be lectures of arts, or of professions. For it is necessary to the progression of sciences that readers be of the most able and sufficient men; as those which are ordained for generating and propagating of sciences, and not for transitory use. This cannot be, except their condition and endowment be such as may content the ablest man to appropriate his whole labour, and continue his whole age in that function and attendance; and therefore must have a proportion answerable to that mediocrity or competency of advancement, which may be expected from a profession or the practice of a profession. So as, if you will have sciences flourish, you must observe David's military law, which was, "That those which stayed with the carriage should have equal part with those which were in the action;" else will the carriages be ill attended. So readers in sciences are indeed the guardians of the stores and provisions of sciences, whence men in active courses are furnished, and therefore ought to have equal entertainment with them; otherwise if the fathers in sciences be of the weakest sort, or be ill-maintained,
First, therefore, amongst so many great foundations of colleges in Europe, I find it strange that they are all dedicated to professions, and none left free to arts and sciences at large. For if men judge that learning should be referred to action, they judge well; but in this they fall into the error described in the ancient fable, in which the other parts of the body did suppose the stomach had been idle, because it neither performed the and forsaking Minerva and the Muses as barren office of motion, as the limbs do, nor of sense, as | virgins, and relying upon Vulcan. But certain ‘t
"Et patrum invalidi referent jejunia nati." Another defect I note, wherein I shall need some alchymist to help me, who call upon men to sell their books, and to build furnaces; quitting
is, that unto the deep, fruitful, and operative study one should learn to weigh, or to measure, or to of many sciences, especially natural philosophy paint the wind,) doth work but this effect, that and physic, books be not the only instrumentals; the wisdom of those arts, which is great and uniwherein also the beneficence of men hath not versal, is almost made contemptible, and is degebeen altogether wanting: for we see spheres, nerate into childish sophistry and ridiculous affecglobes, astrolabes, maps, and the like, have been tation. And further, the untimely learning of provided as appurtenances to astronomy and cos- them hath drawn on, by consequence, the supermography, as well as books: we see likewise, ficial and unprofitable teaching and writing of that some places instituted for physic have an- them, as fittest indeed to the capacity of children. nexed the commodity of gardens for simples of Another is a lack I find in the exercises used in all sorts, and do likewise command the use of the universities, which do make too great a didead bodies for anatomies. But these do respect vorce between invention and memory; for their but a few things. In general, there will hardly speeches are either premeditate, "in verbis conbe any main proficience in the disclosing of na- ceptis," where nothing is left to invention; or ture, except there be some allowance for expenses merely extemporal, where little is left to memory: about experiments; whether they may be expe- whereas in life and action there is least use of riments appertaining to Vulcanus or Dædalus, either of these, but rather of intermixtures of furnace or engine, or any other kind; and there- premeditation and invention, notes and memory; fore as secretaries and spials of princes and states so as the exercise fitteth not the practice, nor the bring in bills for intelligence, so you must allow image the life: and it is ever a true rule in exerthe spials and intelligencers of nature to bring in cises, that they be framed as near as may be to their bills; or else you shall be ill advertised. the life of practice; for otherwise they do perAnd if Alexander made such a liberal assigna-vert the motions and faculties of the mind, and tion to Aristotle of treasure for the allowance of not prepare them. The truth whereof is not ob hunters, fowlers, fishers, and the like, that he scure, when scholars come to the practices of might compile an history of nature, much better professions, or other actions of civil life; which do they deserve it that travail in arts of nature. when they set into, this want is soon found by Another defect which I note, is an intermission themselves, and sooner by others. But this part, or neglect in those which are governors in uni- touching the amendment of the institutions and versities, of consultation; and in princes or su- orders of universities, I will conclude with the perior persons, of visitation: to enter into account clause of Cæsar's letter to Oppius and Balbus, and consideration, whether the readings, exer- “Hoc quemadmodum fieri possit, nonnulla mihi cises, and other customs appertaining unto learn-in mentem veniunt, et multa reperiri possunt; de ing, anciently begun, and since continued, be well iis rebus rogo vos, ut cogitationem suscipiatis." instituted or not; and thereupon to ground an amendment or reformation in that which shall be found inconvenient. For it is one of your majesty's own most wise and princely maxims, "That in all usages and precedents, the times be considered wherein they first began; which, if they were weak or ignorant, it derogateth from the authority of the usage, and leaveth it for suspect." And therefore in as much as most of the usages and orders of the universities were derived from more obscure times, it is the more requisite they be re-examined. In this kind I will give an instance or two, for example sake, of things that are the most obvious and familiar: the one is a matter, which though it be ancient and general, yet I hold to be an error; which is, that scholars in universities come too soon and too unripe to logic and rhetoric, arts fitter for graduates than children and novices: for these two, rightly taken, are the gravest of sciences, being the art of arts; the one for judgment, the other for ornament: and they be the rules and The last defect which I will note is, that there directions how to set forth and dispose matter; hath not been, or very rarely been, any public and therefore for minds empty and unfraught designation of writers or inquirers concerning with matter, and which have not gathered that such parts of knowledge as may appear not to which Cicero calleth "sylva" and "supellex," have been already sufficiently laboured or understuff and variety, to begin with those arts, (as if | taken; unto which point it is an inducement to
Another defect, which I note, ascendeth a little higher than the preceding: for as the proficience of learning consisteth much in the orders and institutions of universities in the same states and kingdoms, so it would be yet more advanced, if there were more intelligence mutual between the universities of Europe than now there is. We see there be many orders and foundations, which though they be divided under several sovereignties and territories, yet they take themselves to have a kind of contract, fraternity, and correspondence one with the other; insomuch as they have provincials and generals. And surely, as nature createth brotherhood in families, and arts mechanical contract brotherhoods in commonalties, and the anointment of God superinduceth a brotherhood in kings and bishops; so in like manner there cannot but be a fraternity in learning and illumination, relating to that fraternity which is attributed to God, who is called the Father of illuminations or lights.
enter into a view and examination what parts of | lomon, "Dicit piger, Leo est in via,” than that learning have been prosecuted, and what omitted: of Virgil, "Possunt quia posse videntur," I shall for the opinion of plenty is amongst the causes be content that my labours be esteemed but as the of want, and the great quantity of books maketh better sort of wishes; for as it asketh some a show rather of superfluity than lack; which knowledge to demand a question not impertinent, surcharge, nevertheless, is not to be remedied by so it requireth some sense to make a wish not making no more books, but by making more good absurd. books, which, as the serpent of Moses, might devour the serpents of the enchanters.
The parts of human learning have reference to the three parts of Man's Understanding, which is the seat of learning: History to his Memory, Poesy to his Imagination, and Philosophy to his
The removing of all the defects formerly enumerated, except the last, and of the active part also of the last, (which is the designation of wri- Reason. Divine learning receiveth the same disters,) are "opera basilica;" towards which the tribution; for the spirit of man is the same, endeavours of a private man may be but as an | though the revelation of oracle and sense be diimage in a crossway, that may point at the way, verse: so as theology consisteth also of the hisbut cannot go it: but the inducing part of the lat- tory of the church; of parables, which is divine ter, which is the survey of learning, may be set poesy; and of holy doctrine or precept: for as for forward by private travel. Wherefore I will now that part which seemeth supernumerary, which is attempt to make a general and faithful perambu- prophecy, it is but divine history; which hath that lation of learning, with an inquiry what parts prerogative over human, as the narration may be thereof lie fresh and waste, and not improved and before the fact as well as after. converted by the industry of man; to the end that such a plot, made and recorded to memory, may both minister light to any public designation, and also serve to excite voluntary endeavours: wherein, nevertheless, my purpose is, at this time, to note only omissions and deficiencies, and not to make any redargution of errors, or incomplete prosecutions; for it is one thing to set forth what ground lieth unmanured, and another thing to correct ill husbandry in that which is manured.
History is Natural, Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Literary; whereof the first three I allow as extant, the fourth I note as deficient. For no man hath propounded to himself the general state of learning to be described and represented from age to age, as many have done the works of nature, and the state civil and ecclesiastical; without which the history of the world seemeth to me to be as the statue of Polyphemus with his eye out: that part being wanting which doth most show the spirit and life of the person: and yet I am not ig
In the handling and undertaking of which work I am not ignorant what it is that I do now move | norant that in divers particular sciences, as of the and attempt, nor insensible of mine own weak-jurisconsults, the mathematicians, the rhetoriness to sustain my purpose; but my hope is that|cians, the philosophers, there are set down some if my extreme love to learning carry me too far, small memorials of the schools, authors, and I may obtain the excuse of affection; for that "it books; and so likewise some barren relations is not granted to man to love and to be wise." touching the invention of arts or usages. But a But, I know well, I can use no other liberty of just story of learning, containing the antiquities judgment than I must leave to others; and I, for and originals of knowledges and their sects. their my part, shall be indifferently glad either to per- inventions, their traditions, their diverse adminisform myself, or accept from another, that duty of trations and managings, their flourishings, their humanity: "Nam qui erranti comiter monstrat oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, reviam," &c. I do foresee, likewise, that of those moves, with the causes and occasions of them, things which I shall enter and register as defi- and all other events concerning learning, throughciencies and omissions, many will conceive and out the ages of the world, I may truly affirm to be censure that some of them are already done and wanting. The use and end of which work I do extant; others to be but curiosities, and things not so much design for curiosity, or satisfaction of no great use; and others to be of too great of those that are the lovers of learning, but chiefly difficulty, and almost impossibility to be com- for a more serious and grave purpose; which is passed and effected: but for the two first, I refer this, in few words, that it will make learned men myself to the particulars; for the last, touching wise in the use and administration of learning. impossibility, I take it those things are to be held For it is not St. Augustine's nor St. Ambrose's possible which may be done by some person, works that will make so wise a divine as ecclethough not by every one; and which may be done siastical history, thoroughly read and observed; by many, though not by any one; and which may and the same reason is of learning. be done in the succession of ages, though not within the hourglass of one man's life; and which may be done by public designation, though not by private endeavour. But, notwithstanding, tures, history of marvels, and history of arts. if any man will take to himself rather that of So-The first of these, no doubt, is extant, and tha:
History of Nature is of three sorts; of nature in course, of nature erring or varying, and of nature altered or wrought: that is, history of crea