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2. Of the erroneous opinions upon fascination.
1. Division: 1st. As to the origin of the mind. 2d. 3. Inquiry how to fortify the imagination. 4. The only defect in this subject is as to not distinguishing its extent.2
As to its faculties.
The Origin of the Mind......... 205
1 To this appertains the consideration of the origin of the soul and its faculties.
2. This subject may be more diligently inquired than
THE USE AND OBJECT OF THE FACULTIES OF man 206 1. Division of this knowledge: 1st. Relating to the understanding. 2d. Relating to the will.
it hath been in philosophy: but it is referable 2. The understanding produces decrees; the will acto divinity.
3. Appendices to this knowledge: 1. Divination. 2.
2. Natural. 1. Native.
22. By Influxion.
2. Artificial is a prediction by argument, concluding upon signs and tokens.
3. Division: 1st. Rational. 2d. Superstitious.
4. Rational artificial divination is when the argument 3.
The astronomer hath his predictions, as of
5. Superstitious artificial divination is when there is a
Such as were the heathen observations upon 2.
6. Artificial divination is not proper to this place, but
This Janus of imagination hath differing faces; for the face towards reason hath the print of truth, but the face towards action hath the print of good; which nevertheless are faces,
"Quales decet esse sororum."
1. Of arts and sciences.
2. The art of inventing arts and sciences is deficient. This is such a deficience as if, in the muking of an inventory touching the state of a defunct, it should be set down, that there is no ready money. For as money will fetch all other commodities, so this knowledge is that which should purchase all the rest. And like as the West Indies had never been discovered, if the use of the mariner's needle had not been first discovered, though the one be vast regions, and the other a small motion; so it cannot be found strange if sciences be no further discovered, if the art itself of invenProofs that the art of inventing arts and sciences is tion and discovery hath been passed over. deficient.
6. Divination of influxion' is furthered by abstinence. 3. 7. Native divination is accompanied by repose and quiet divination by influxion is fervent and impatient.
206 1. It is the power of imagination upon other bodies than the body of the imaginant.
'Query, Whether divination by influxion is not descriptive of the feeling which influences the benevolent and orderly class of society called Quakers?
1. Their logic does not pretend to invent sciences or axioms.. 207 Men are rather beholden to a wild goat for surgery, or to a nightingale for music, or to the ibis for some part of physic, or to the pot
2 Here, in the Treatise De Augmentis, is an extensive addition upon Voluntary Motion-Sense and Sensibility-Perception and Sense-The Form of Light.
lid that flew open for artillery, or generally
It was no marvel, the manner of antiquity
his shop, but only work as he is bespoken, he should be weakly customed.
Our Saviour, speaking of divine knowledge, saith, that the kingdom of heaven is like u good householder, that bringeth forth both new and old store.
3. This subject is more fully investigated under the head of rhetoric.
Who taught the raven in a drought to throw
to her hive? Who taught the ant to bite every 2. Different sorts of topics: 1. General. 2. Particular.
2. The forms of induction which logic pro-
To conclude upon an enumeration of par-
1. Its uses are to furnish arguments to dispute probably to minister to our judgments: to conclude right, and to direct our inquiries.
A faculty of wise interrogating is half a knowledge. For as Plato saith, "Whosoever seeketh, knoweth that which he seeketh for in a general notion; else how shall he know it when he hath found it ?"
sons of Jesse which were brought before him, 1. It is a direction of invention in every particular
3. Allowing some axioms to be rightly in-
2. Ars inveniendi adolescit cum inventis.
In going of a way, we do not only gain that part of the way which is passed, but we gain the better sight of that part of the way which remaineth.
1. It relates to the nature of proofs and demonstrations.
Here was their chief error; they charged
4. Bacon's intention to propound the art of inventing
1. It is the storing arguments on such things as are 4. frequently discussed.
2. It consists chiefly of diligence.
Aristotle, said the sophists, "did as if one
The nature of man doth extremely covet to have somewhat in his understanding fixed and immoveable, and as a rest and support of the mind. And therefore as Aristotle endeavoureth to prove, that in all motion there is some point quiescent; and as he elegantly expoundeth the ancient fable of Atlas, that stood fixed, and bare up the heaven from falling, to be meant of the poles or axle-tree of heaven, whereupon the conversion is accomplished; so assuredly men have a desire to have an Atlas or axle-tree within, to keep them from fluctuation.
The art of judging by syllogism is the reduction of propositions to principles by an agreed middle
Syllogisms are direct, or ex absurdo.
Division of the art of judgment: 1st. The analytic art. 2. The doctrine of elenches.
The Analytic Art.
that professed the art of shoemaking should 5. It is for direction.
not teach how to make a shoe, but only exhibit, 6. It sets down the true form of arguments, from which any deviation leads to error.
in a readiness, a number of shoes of all fash-
The Doctrine of Elenches........ 210
that if a shoemaker should have no shoes in 7. It is for caution to detect fallacies.
1 The Experientia Literata is contained in the Treatise Do Augmentis; and his Interpretatio Naturæ constitutes his Novum Organum.
In the more gross sorts of fallacies it happeneth, as Seneca maketh the comparison well, as in juggling feats, which though we know
not how they are done, yet we know well it is
8. Elenches are well laboured by Plato and Aristotle.
The difference is good which was made be-
10. Elenches extend to divers parts of knowledge.
12. Seducements that work by the strength of im
pression are elenches..
13. Elenches of idols.
The rigour and curiosity in requiring the more severe proofs in some things, and chiefly the facility in contenting ourselves with the more remiss proofs in others, hath been amongst the greatest causes of detriment and hinderance to knowledge. This is deficient.
Retaining knowledge is by writing or memory.
The nature of the character is referred to grammar. The disposition of our knowledge depends upon common-places.
Of common-places injuring the memory.
The mind of man, which I find not obBecause it is but a counterfeit thing in served or inquired at all, and think good to knowledges to be forward and pregnant, explace here, as that which of all others appercept a man be deep and full, I hold the entry taineth most to rectify judgment: the force of common-places, to be a matter of great use whereof is such, as it doth not dazzle or snare and essence in studying, as that which asthe understanding in some particulars, but sureth "copia" of invention, and contracteth doth more generally and inwardly infect and corrupt the state thereof. For the mind of The mode of common-placing is defective. judgment to a strength. man is far from the nature of a clear and equal glass, wherein the beams of things should reflect according to their true incidence; nay, it is rather like an enchanted glass, full of superstition and imposture, if it be not delivered and reduced.
14. The mind is more affected by affirmatives than negatives.
As was well answered by Diagoras to him that showed him in Neptune's temple the greater number of pictures of such as had escaped shipwreck and had paid their vows to Neptune, saying, "Advise now, you that think it folly to invocate Neptune in tempest:" Yea, but," said Diagoras, "where are they painted that are drowned ?"
It is weakly inquired.
15. The mind supposes a greater equality then exists.2
16 The mind is prejudiced by the false appearances
If a child were continued in a grot or cave under the earth until maturity of age, and came suddenly abroad, he would have strange and absurd imaginations. So in like manner, although our persons live in the view of heaven, yet our spirits are included in the caves of our own complexions and customs, which minister unto us infinite errors and vain opinions, if they be not recalled to examina
not for use.
I make no more estimate of repeating a great number of names or words upon once hearing, or the pouring forth of a number of verses or rhymes ex tempore, or the making of a satirical simile of every thing, or the turning of every thing to a jest, or the falsifying or contradicting of every thing by cavil, or the like, (whereof in the faculties of the mind there is great" copia," and such as by device and practice may be exalted to an extreme degree of wonder,) than I do of the tricks of tumblers, funambuloes, baladines; the one being the same in the mind that the other is in the body, matters of strangeness without worthiness.
of memory is built upon prenotion and emblem. Prenotion is a limitation of an indefinite seeking by directing us to seek in a narrow compass. Emblem reduces conceits intellectual to images sensible.
Periander, being consulted with how to preserve a tyranny newly usurped, bid the messenger attend and report what he saw him do; and went into his garden and topped all the highest flowers.
Hypotheses respecting the origin of words...... 213
Man still striveth to reintegrate himself in those benedictions, from which by his fault he hath been deprived; and as he hath striven against the first general curse by the invention of all other arts, so hath he sought_to_come forth of the second general curse, which was the confusion of tongues, by the art of grammar: whereof the use in a mother tongue is small, in a foreign tongue more; but most in such foreign tongues as have ceased to be vulgar tongues, and are turned only to learned tongues.
The accidents of words, as measure, sound, &c. is an appendix to grammar.
There are various sorts of ciphers.
As there be many of great account in their countries and provinces, which, when they come up to the seat of the estate, are but of mean rank and scarcely regarded; so these arts, being here placed with the principal and supreme sciences, seem petty things; yet to such as have chosen them to spend their labours and studies in them, they seem great
Philosophical grammar examines the power of words
Second Method. A concealed or revealed style. 214 Third Method. Method or aphorisms.
1. Delivery by aphorisms is a test of the knowledge of the writer.
2. Methodical delivery is better to procure consent than to generate action.
3. Aphorisms invite to augment knowledge. Fourth Method. Delivery by assertions with their proofs or interrogations.
4. Delivery by interrogations should be used only to remove stray prejudices.
If it be immoderately followed, is as prejudicial to the proceeding of learning, as it is to the proceeding of an army to go about to besiege every little fort or hold. For if the field be kept, and the sum of the enterprise pursued, those smaller things will come in of themselves.
Fifth Method. Accommodation of delivery according to the matter which is to be treated. Sixth Method. Delivery according to the anticipation in the minds of the hearers.
1. Those whose conceits are seated in popular opinions need only to dispute or to prove.
2. Those whose conceits are beyond popular opinions have a double labour. 1st. That they may be conceited. 2d. That they may prove.
3. Science not consonant to presuppositions must bring in aid similitudes. Method considers the disposition of the work, and the limitation of propositions.
It belongeth to architecture to consider not only the whole frame of a work, but the several beams and columns.
Observations upon the limits of propositions.
A mass of words of all arts, to give men countenance, that those which use the terms might be thought to understand the art which collections are much like a fripper's or broker's shop, that hath ends of every thing but nothing of worth.
ILLUSTRATIVE OF SPEECH.
as they are the footsteps of reason...... 213 1. Eloquence is in reality inferior to wisdom; but in First Method. Magistral which teaches, or initiative
He that delivereth knowledge, desireth to deliver it in such form as may be best believed, and not as may be best examined; and he
popular opinions superior to it.
It is said by God to Moses, when he disabled himself for want of this faculty, Aaron shall be thy speaker, and thou shalt be to him as God.
that receiveth knowledge, desireth rather pre- 2. The deficiences in eloquence are rather in some
sent satisfaction, than expectant inquiry; and so rather not to doubt, than not to err. Knowledge that is delivered as a thread to
collections than in the art itself.
The office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagina
tion for the better moving of the will.
be spun on, ought to be delivered and inti- 4. The disturbers of reason are fallacies of arguments:
5. The counteractors of these disturbers are logic, morality and rhetoric.
It is in knowledge as it is in plants; if you
Speech is more conversant in adorning what is good than in colouring evil.
"Virtue, if she could be seen, would move great love and affection;" so seeing that she cannot be showed to the sense by corporal shape, the next degree is to show her to the imagination in lively representation.
The affections not being pliant to reason, rhetoric is necessary.
Difference between logic and rhetoric.
1. It contains that difference of tradition which is proper for youth.
2. Different considerations.
1. The timing and seasoning of knowledges. 2. The judicious selection of difficulties and of easy studies.
part or member of a greater body; whereof the latter is in degree the greater and the worthier, because it tendeth to the conservation of a more general form. Therefore we see the iron in particular sympathy moveth to the loadstone; but yet if it exceed a certain quantity, it forsaketh the affection to the loadstone, and like a good patriot moveth to the earth, which is the region and country of massy bodies.
5. Public is more worthy than private good.
It is one method to practise swimming with The bladders, and another to practise dancing with heavy shoes.
3. The application of learning according to the mind to be instructed.
There is no defect in the faculties intellectual, but seemeth to have a proper cure contained in some studies: as, for example, if a child be bird-witted, that is, hath not the faculty of attention, the mathematics giveth a remedy thereunto; for in them, if the wit be caught away but a moment, one is to begin
Pompeius Magnus, when being in commission of purveyance for a famine at Rome, and being dissuaded with great vehemency and instance by his friends about him, that he should not hazard himself to sea in an extremity of weather, he said only to them, "Necesse est ut eam, non ut vivam."
The Degrees of Good.
questions respecting the supreme good are by Christianity disclosed.
6. An active is to be preferred to contemplative life.
As the wronging or cherishing of seeds or young plants is that that is most important to their thriving: so the culture and manu- 7. rance of minds in youth hath such a forcible, though unseen, operation, as hardly any length of time or contention of labour can countervail it afterwards.
1. Writers on this subject have described virtue with out pointing out the mode of attaining them.
Those which have written seem to me to have done as if a man, that professeth to teach to write, did only exhibit fair copies of alphabets and letters joined, without giving any precepts or directions for the carriage of the hand and framing of the letters.
These Georgics of the mind, concerning the husbandry and tillage thereof, are no less worthy than the heroical descriptions of virtue, duty, and felicity.
2. Division of moral philosophy
1. The image of good.
2. The culture of the mind.
THE IMAGE OF GOOD.
1. Describes the nature of good.
1. The kinds of good.
2. The degrees of good.
3 The ancients were defective in not examining the springs of good and evil.
4. Good is: 1. Private. 2. Public.
There is formed in every thing a double nature of good: the one, as every thing is a total or substantive in itself; the other, as it is a,
Pythagoras being asked what he was, answered, "That if Hiero were ever at the Olympian games, he knew the manner, that some came to try their fortune for the prizes, and some came as merchants to utter their commodities, and some came to make good cheer and meet their friends, and some came to look on; and that he was one of them that came to look on." But men must know, that in this theatre of man's life it is reserved only for God and angels to be lookers on.
For contemplation which should be finished in itself, without casting beams upon society, The ascendency of public good terminates many assuredly divinity knoweth it not. disputes of the ancient philosophers..... 220 1. It decides the controversies between Zeno and Socrates, and the Cyrenaics and Epicureans, whether felicity consisted in virtue or pleasure, or serenity of mind.. 220
2. It censures the philosophy of Epictetus, which placed felicity in things within