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CThese thoughts are fond; for since the bodies born
Be more in number far, than those that die,

Thousands must be abortive, and forlorn
Ere others' deaths to them their souls supply:)

But as God's handmaid, Nature, doth create Bodies in time distinct, and order due ;

So God gives souls the like successive date, Which himself makes, in bodies formed new :

Which himself makes of no material thing;
For unto angels he no pow'r hath giv'n
Fither to form the shape, or stuff to bring
From air or fire, or substance of the Heav'n.
Nor herein doth he Nature's service use;
For though from bodies she can bodies bring,
Yet could she never souls from souls traduce,"
As fire from fire, or light from light doth spring.

SECTION VI.

That The soul Is Not Ex TRADuce.

Alas! that some who were great lights of old, And in their hands the lamp of God did bear!

Some rev'rend fathers did this errour hold, Having their eyes dimm'd with religious fear.

objection.

For when, say they, by rule of faith we find,
That ev'ry soul unto her body knit,

Brings from the mother's womb the sin of kind,
The root of all the ill she doth commit.

How can we say that God the soul doth make, But we must make him author of her sin 2

Thea from man's soul she doth beginning take, Since in man's soul corruption did begin.

For if God make her first he makes her ill, [unto;)
(Which God forbid our thoughts should yield

Or makes the body her fair form to spill,
Which, of itself, it had not pow'r to do.

Not Adam's body, but his soul did sin,
And so herself unto corruption brought;
But our poor soul corrupted is within,
Ere she had sinn'd, either in act or thought:
And yet we see in her such pow'rs divine,
As we could gladly think, from God she came :
Fain would we make him author of the wine,
If for the dregs we could some other blame.

ANSWER.

Thus these good men with holy zeal were blind, When on the other part the truth did shine;

Whereof we do clear demonstrations find,

* By light of nature, and by light divine.

None are so gross as to contend for this, That souls from bodies may traduced be ; Between whose natures no proportion is,

But many subtle wits have justify'd,
That souls from souls spiritually may spring; a

Which (if the nature of the soul be try'd)
Will e'en in nature prove as gross a thing. ,

SECTION VII.

reasons drawn from nature

For all things made, are either made of nought,
Or made of stuff that ready made doth stani:

Of nought no creature ever formed ought,
For that is proper to th' Almighty's hand.

If then the soul another soul do make, Because her pow'r is kept within a bound,

She must some former stuff or matter take; But in the soul there is no matter found.

Then if her heav'nly form do not agree -
With any matter which the world contains,

Then she of nothing must created be;
And to create, to God alone pertains.

Again, if souls do other souls beget, -
'T is by themselves, or by the body's pow'r:

lf by themselves, what doth their working let, But they might souls engender ev'ry hour?

If by the body, how can wit and will
Join with the body only in this act,

Since when they do their other works fulfil,
They from the body do themselves abstract.

Again, if souls of souls begotten were,
Into each other they should change and move:

And change and motion still corruption bear;
How shall we them the soul immortal prove 2

If, lastly, souls do generation use,
Then should they spread incorruptible seed:

What then becomes of that which they do lose,
When th’ act of generation do not speed .

And though the soul could cast spiritual seed, Yet would she not, because she never dies;

For mortal things desire their like to breed, That so they may their kind immortalize.

Therefore the angels sons of God are nam’d,
And marry not, nor are in marriage giv'n:
Their spirits and ours are of one substance fram’d,
And have one father, e'en the Lord of Heaven;

Who would at first, that in each other thing
The earth and water living souls should breed,
But that man's soul, whom he would make their king,
Should from himself immediately proceed. .

And when he took the woman from man's side,
Doubtless himself inspir'd her soul alone:
For ’t is not said, he did man's soul divide,
But took flesh of his flesh, bone of his bone.

Lastly, God being made man for man's own sake,
And being like man in all, except in sin,
His body from the virgin's womb did take ;

When root and branch in nature still agree.

But all agree, God form'd his soul within,

Then is the soul from God; so Pagans say,
which saw by Nature's light her heav'nly kind;

Naming her kin to God, and God's bright ray,
A citizen of Heav'n, to Earth confin'd.

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He looks on Adam as a root or well;
And on his heirs as branches, and as streams:

He sees all men as one man, though they dwell
In sundry cities, and in sundry realms.

And as the root and branch are but one tree,
And well and stream do but one river make;

So, if the root and well corrupted be,
The stream and branch the same corruption take-

So, when the root and fountain of mankind
Did draw corruption, and God's curse, by sin;

This was a charge, that all his heirs did bind,
And all his offspring grew corrupt therein.

And as when th’ hand doth strike, the man offends,
(For part from whole, law severs not in this)

So Adam's sin to the whole kind extends;
For all their natures are but part of his.

Therefore this sin of kind, not personal,
But real and hereditary was;
The guilt thereof, and punishment to all,
By course of nature and of law doth pass.
-
For as that easy law was giv'n to all,
To ancestor and heir, to first and last;
So was the first transgression general;
And all did pluck the fruit, and all did taste.

Of this we find some footsteps in our law,
Which doth her root from God and Nature take;

Ten thousand men she doth together draw,
And of them all one corporation make :

Yet these, and their successors, are but one; And if they gain or lose their liberties,

They harm or profit not themselves alone, But such as in succeeding times shall rise.

And so the ancestor, and all his heirs, *
Though they in number pass the stars of Heav'n,

Are still but one; his forfeitures are theirs,
And unto them are his advancements giv'n:

His civil acts do bind and bar them all;
And as from Adam all corruption take,

So, if the father's crime be capital,
In all the blood, law doth corruption make.

Is it then just with us, to disinherit
Th’ unborn nephews, for the father's fault;

And to advance again, for one man's merit,
A thousand heirs that have deserved nought?

And is not God's decree as just as ours,
If he, for Adam's sin, his sons deprive

Of all those native virtues, and those pow'rs,
Which he to him and to his race did give 2

For what is this contagious sin of kind,
But a privation of that grace within,

And of that great rich dowry of the mind,
Which all had had, but for the first man's sin

If then a man on light conditions gain
A great estate, to him and his, for ever;

If wilfully he forfeit it again,
Who doth bemoan his heir or blame the giver?

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