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REM. 1. In 2. the clause "that he should go home” is the direct object of told. Him is the indirect object, or the object of a preposition understood. Home is also the object of a preposition understood.

2. In (1), to go is the direct object of told as it seems to express the same thought as the clause of which it is an abridgment.

3. This sentence cannot be abridged by means of a participle, so as to preserve its euphony.

*The construction of to go is another obscure and much disputed point.

EXERCISES: Abridge the following, and diagram each in its original and abridged forms:

1. We saw him as 'he went into the house.
2. The captain ordered that a boat should be lowered.

3. The orchard 'which is standing on the hill was planted by the Indians.

4. The pupil studied that he might excel.
5. He came in order that he might be ready to assist us.
6. When the sun was up, we renewed the battle.


NOTES: Adverbial clause. ?Objective clause. Adjective clause. 4Adverbial clause.



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1. After a time he noticed that many of the stones around him contained gleams of gold and veins of silver.

2. 'Having prepared everything I 'could, &to make the journey, I departed at 'once for parts unknown.

3. Finding myself suddenly deprived of those things which tend to make man's lot happy in this world, I began 'to grow ®melancholy.

4. “The reason 'why the seven stars are more 10than seven is a pretty reason.'

5. "For "as for the first wrong, it does but "offend the law; but the revenge of that law puts the law out of office."

6. “When he found I would leave him, he took care to prevent my getting "employment in any other printing house in town, 18by going round and speaking to every master who "accordingly refused to give me work."

7. "Now the bright morning star, aday's harbinger, comes dancing from the east.”

8. "His praise, ye winds, that from four quarters blow,
24 Breathe 25soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye

With every plant, in sign of worship 26 wave.”
9. “27 Jura answers, through her misty shroud,

Back to the joyous "Alps who call to her aloud.” 10. “For the moon never beams without bringing me


Of the beautiful Annabel Lee."
11. "A wandering harper, scorned and poor,

He begged his way from door to door;
And tuned, "to please a peasant's ear,

The harp a king had loved to hear."
12. "Princes and lords may flourish or may fade;

A breath can make them, las a breath has made ;
But a bold peasantry, 3their country's pride,
When once destroyed, can never be supplied.”

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1. Having prepared modifies I. 2. Could [prepare] governs which understood. 3. To make is used as an adverb, modifies could [prepare]: 4. Once is an adverb. . See lesson VIII, question 6. 5. To make modifies tend. 6. Happy is a factitive adjective and belongs to lot. 7. To grow is the object of began. 8. Melancholy modifies 1. 9. Why the ....... ...than seven is an adjective element, modifies reason. 10. Than seven (stars are many] is the full form. 11. For is used as an expletive. 12. As for is an idiomatic expression. It is used as a preposition, governs wrong. 13. But is an adverb. 14. Does offend is the full verb. 15. Care is the object of took. 16. Getting is used as a noun, the object of to prevent. 17. Employment is the object of getting. 18. By going... work is an adjective element of the second class, and modifies care. 19. Round is an adverb, modifies going. 20. Accordingly modifies refused. 21. To give is the object of refused. 22. Day's harbinger is an appositive element. 23. Dancing is used as an adjective, modifies star. 24. Breathe is an imperative verb of which ye is the subject, and praise, the object. 25. Soft and loud are adjectives, which, however, “shade off” somewhat into the meaning of adverbs. Some prefer to call them adverbial predicates. The same may be said of the word dancing. 26. The subject of wave is ye understood. 27. Jura and Alps are respectively feminine, and common gender by personification. 28. Scorned and poor are modifiers of harper. The first is a participle; the second, a pure adjective. 29. To please modifies tuned. 30. To hear modifies had loved, and governs which understood. 31. As is a conjunctive adverb, and joins its clauses to can make. 32. Their is plural number, while its antecedent, peasantry, is singular. Many authors contend that the pronoun should always agree with its antecedent in person, gender, and number. The best writers however, frequently violate this rule."[Who are] their country's pride,'' is the full form of this clause.

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REVIEW: NOUN AND ADJECTIVE. 1. Each man received his wages.


No. of Sent.

Part of









Masc. Third




Mod., Man.
Subj. of

received. 2. The brilliant sun brings forth the fresh green leaves. 3. The elder brother seemed 'the younger of the 'two.

4. These boys are irritable, and extremely selfish in their bearing.

5. The American gold fields have proved to be *alluring phantoms to many an early settler.

6. The man who wore a double-breasted 'Prince Albert coat tried to assume a ministerial air.

7. The peculiar penetrating power of the RX-ray was discovered by a German philosopher.

8. George Washington, the “father of his country," was our first president.

9. "There is lovirtue in the expression, "" I will."

10. After they made him "leader of the choir, he sang his "throat hoarse.

11. Philosophy is a good horse in the stable, but an arrant jade on the journey."

12. “In by-gone days, nq, well-to-do farmer thought he could get "in his hay without a good-sized jug of oldfashioned whiskey to refresh himself and his hired men.”

13. “Don't put too fine a point on your wit for fear it should get "blunted." 14. "The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,

And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold.” 15. “'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore,

And "coming events cast their shadows ?before.” *See foot-note, page 78.


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16. “Seven cities warr'd for Homer being dead;

Who "living had no roof 25to shroud his head.” 17. "The young girl mused beside the well,

'Till the rain on the unraked clover fell."
18. “The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,
The plowman homeward plods his weary way,

And leaves the world to darkness and to me."

See sug

SUGGESTIONS. 1. The is an adverb. See Lesson IV, Ques. 10. 2. Two may be parsed as an adjective modifying a noun understood, or as an adjective used as a noun. 3. Have proyed to be is a (strengthened) copula. 4. Alluring is a participial adjective. 5. Phantoms is in the nominative case. 6. Many an is parsed as a single adjective. 7.

7. Prince Albert is a a proper descriptive adjective. 8. X-ray is a common

X noun. 9. There is an expletive. 10. Virtue is the subject. 11. "I will" is used as a noun, in apposition with expression, 12. Him is in the objective case. . gestion 10, page 45. Some call it “objective by abridgment,” without giving it any special syntax. Others apply the name factitive (objective). Others call it "objecttive subject,” of to be understood. 13. Leader is also objective. The best authorities consider this an objective use after to be understood. See note 7, page 23. 14. The syntax of “throat” is the same as of “him." 15. Hoarse is an adjective, and belongs to throat. It is another “factitive.” 16. But [it is ) an arrant jade, etc., is the full form. 17. In is an adverb. 18. Hay is the object of could get. 19. Blunted is a part of the verb should get blunted. Some attempt to discriminate a little closer, and call it an adjective. This view does not seem very well warranted. 20. Like, in constructions like this, is treated by some as an adverb, and by others as a preposition. Both sides are defended by eminent authorities. The writer inclines to the latter view. 21. Coming is a participial adjective. 22. Before is an adverb. When the object of a preposition is omitted, it becomes an adverb. 23. The syntax of dead is like that of hoarse, above. 24. Living is a participle; it belongs to who. 25. To shroud has the construction of an adjective. Its parsing is not to be taken up at this point.

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