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with it in case.

In French and Italian it is varied to agree with its noun in gender and number. In the Latin it agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case. In the three last named languages the adjective comes after the noun.


1. Large cities were destroyed.

2. The Asiatic mountains are high.

3. The shooting star vanished upon the earth.
4. This work is well done.

5. Every man went to his own home.

6. All men are mortal.

7. He paid a long-standing debt.

8. The three houses looked alike.
9. The room above is but a closet.
10. Every one else had trials enough.
11. He is worse to-day

12. The star called Sirius is double.
13 Wheat is worth more than oats.
14. Yonder trees are full of apples.

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1. Some authors distinguish a class of words which they call Demonstrative Pronouns. Can you give reasons for such a classification?

2. Is there really such a thing as a possessive pronoun ?

3. Why is the word thou, second person, singular, of the personal pronoun, falling into disuse?

4. In what constructions is it an expletive?

5. What other name is sometimes given to the relative pronoun?

6. When was the possessive form of the pronoun it first used?

7. What word has been suggested for the third person, singular number, common gender, of the personal pronoun ? 8. What pronoun is indeclinable?

9. Is it exactly correct to say that a pronoun is a word used instead of a noun?

10. What is remarkable about the derivation of the English pronouns ?





1. The demonstratives this and that are so classed by Dr. Whitney, of Yale College, and others. Example: This is the man. These words have plural forms. They are very often used in the place of nouns. Originally these were pronouns. See Webster's Dictionary, page XXXIV. Most grammarians, however, think that their modern significations in such uses as in the above example differ from their ancient meaning, and believe that a noun is supplied by the mind to which the word this refers as an adjective.

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2. In the sentence,-I see that house of yours,—the use of the word yours is peculiar, and very difficult of satisfactory explanation. Some suggest that it means, that house of your houses; but that might be contrary to fact. In the original sentence no reference was made to more than one house, while the last statement puts house in the

plural number. This difficulty has led some eminent writers to make a separate class for this form.

The most serious objection to this is, that it gives to the pronoun two antecedents, one of the person and one of the thing, with both of which it can not agree in gender. Others, again, say that the above sentence is not good English, but this is a weak argument as the sentence conveys a very clear idea, and is, in fact, the most emphatic mode of stating it.

3. In the use of language we are constantly avoiding those words which are difficult of articulation. The pronoun thou requires the verb to which it is nominative to end in a number of consonants, whose articulation requires some effort. For this reason the word is gradually disappearing from the language. While the disuse of this word is to be regretted, from a grammatical standpoint, the use of you in its stead adds to the euphony of our language. So we may truly say to this word, Thou deservedst to be dropped.


4. When it introduces a sentence and is followed by an infinitive which refers to the same thing it is an expletive, and the infinitive assumes the functions which seem to belong to it. Example: It is pleasant to see the sun. When it is used for the sake of euphony it is an expletive. Example: Trip it lightly on the green.


5. It is frequently called the conjunctive pronoun.

6. The word its does not appear in literature before the seventeenth century. Its is the youngest pronoun in our language.

7. The word thon has been suggested to supply this defect in the language.

8. The relative pronoun as.

9. It seems very difficult to give an exact definition of the pronoun. This definition is taken from the meaning of the prefix pro, which means for, or instead of. No noun will exactly express the meaning of I, you, or who.

Pronouns are words used to refer to objects already mentioned, or already understood by the person to whom they are addressed.

10. They are all derived from the Anglo-Saxon.

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1. I know him by his dress.

2. It is her book, and my slate."
3. You may put the child in its cradle.
4. They themselves told me so.

5. That wife of *yours has gone to town.
6. He who is diligent will thrive.

7. I know not of whom you speak.

8. Such as are faithful shall be rewarded. 9. Whom did you take me to be? James. 10. He gave me 'what he had.

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NOTES. 'The word what is a double relative, equivalent to that which. Since They suggests the same persons as themselves, it may, with propriety, be called its antecedent—which means going before. The preposition to is understood. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, gender and number. Such is an adjective used as a noun. "This is called the subsequent. It is like the antecedent in grammatical relation. "Intransitive verbs, and verbs in the passive voice, take the same case after them as before them when both words refer to the same person or thing.

*See question 2, in Supplement.


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