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1556, the profits of certain lands are to be appropriated to the purchase of Shrouds for Criminals, who should suffer at Ringswell.5

Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride,
And e'en his failings lean'd to Virtue's side;
But in his duty prompt at every call,
He watch'd and wept, he pray'd and felt for all.

The Deserted Village.
Rep. vi. p. 118.



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An early notice of Bread, in the nature of Charity, occurs in The Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, in Ripon, which was founded by THURSTON, Archbishop of York, in the early part of the Twelfth century,—where every year, on St. Mary Magdalen’s day, a farthing loaf (the Quarter of Wheat being worth 5s.) and a herring, were to be given to every poor person that came-but by an Inquisition on the state of the Hospital, taken in the 10th year of EDWARD the Second, 1317, it appears that that Charity, during the time of NICHOLAS de Molins, the Master, was withdrawn, and in place of it he

gave poor people who came on that day, a Salt cellar of beans or meal, but the greater part of the poor got nothing --and, that the minor acts of charity which ought to proceed from such an Hospital, and particularly from that Hospital, were fallen to nothing, through the absence of the Master, as he rarely resided."

BARTHOLOMEW, who was Bishop of Exeter from the year 1161 to the year 1184, with the assent of the Chapter of St. Peter, of Exeter, granted, for a perpetual alms to the Lepers of St. Mary Magdalen of Exeter, five marks of silver to be received yearly from his Treasury, and also the tenth of a certain Toll, and the profit which should arise from the bark of his wood at Chudleigh,—and the Chapter further granted to them for a perpetual alms, fourteen loaves, to be received weekly from their common stock.?

By the Will of John SLUGGE, in 1486, it appears that, before he sold his house in Exeter to WILLIAM HURST, he gave and devised out of the same 20s. annually, to be paid in Bread every Midsummer, to the use of the poor, by the Stewards of the City at the Guildhall, but that

! Rep. vii. p. 765. ? Rep. viii. p. 54.

WILLIAM HURST being lothe to be troubled with the distribution of this bread, compounded with the City, and

about 201. to The Corporation, for them thenceforth to pay the same.


3 Rep. VIII. p. 68.



HARRISON, who wrote in the reign of Queen ELIZABETH, describes the principal Bread then in use in England, as of three sorts,~" Manchet, Cheat, and Ravel bread.”

“ Our good workmen," he observes, “ deliver commonlie such proportion, that “ of the flour of one bushel with another, “ they make 40 cast of Manchet, of which “ éverie loaf weigheth 8 ounces, into the

oven, and 6 ounces out."

The second is the Cheat, or wheaten bread, - so named, because the colour thereof resembleth the graie and yellowish wheat, being cleane and well dressed, and out of this is the coarsest of the bran (usually called gurgeons, or pollard) taken."

- The Ravelled is a kind of Cheat bread

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