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“ I would have that drum or another, or hic jacet."-- Act III., Scene 6. though much less frequently than males. “Innocent" meant, in the
good-natured language of our ancestors, an idiot, or natural fool. “ Hic jacet” (here lies) is a common commencement of epitaphs. The following is the entry of a burial in the parish register of Charlo Parolles means to say, tbat he would either recover the lost drum, or
wood, in Surrey:-“ Thomas Sole, an innocent, about the age of fifty another belonging to the enemy, or die in the attempt.
years and upwards, buried 19th September, 1605." “I will presently pen down mg dilemmas."— Act III., Scene 6.
“Why does he ask him of me?"-Act IV., Scene 3. By " dilemmas” is meant his plans, on the one hand, and the prob
This is nature. Every man is, on such occasions, more willing to able obstructions he was to meet with, on the other.
hear his neighbor's character than his own.- Jouxson.
" His grace is at Marseilles; to which place
We have convenient convoy.” — Act IV., Scene 4. “ IVhat is not holy, that we swear not by,
It appears from this line and others, in the present play and the But take the Highest to witness. Then, pray you, tell me,
* TAMING OF THE SAREW," that “Marseilles” was pronounced as a If I should swear by Jore's great attributes
word of three syllables. The old copy has bere Marcella, and in the I loved you dearly, would you believe my ouths,
last scene of this Act, Marcellus. When I did love you ill ?" -- Act IV., Scene 2. The sense is – We never swear by what is not holy, but swear by,
" Whose villainous saf'ron would have made all the unbaked and or take to witness, the Highest, the Divinity. The tenor of the rea- doughy youth of a nation in his color.”— Act IV., Scene 5. soning contained in the following lines, perfectly corresponds with Parolles is the person here alluded to. The meaning is, that his this:- If I should swear by Jove's great attributes that I loved you evil qualities are of so deep a dye, as to be sufficient to corrupt the dearly, would you believe my oaths, when you found by experience inexperienced, and to make them of the same disposition with him. that I loved you ill, and was endeavoring to gain credit with you in self. The general custom at that time, of coloring pastry with saffron, order to seduce you to your ruin? No, surely; you would conclude probably suggested the remark. In the “WINTER's Tale, we find, “I that I had no faith in Jove or his attributes, and that my oaths were must bavo safíron to color the warden-pies." mere words of course.
" I would give his wife my baulle, sir, to do her service." “ I see that men make hopes, in such a war,
Act IV., Scene 5. That we 'l forsake ourselves," - Act IV., Scene 2.
Part of the equipment of a professional fool, was a bauble, which The old copy reads, “ make ropes in such a scarre.” Rowe changed was a kind of short stick, or truncheon, with a fool's head carved on it to “make hopes in such affairs; and Malone to "hopes in such a it, or sometimes that of a doll or puppet. To this instrument was scene.” But asuirs and scene have no literal resemblance to the old frequently annexed an inflated bladder, with which the fool belabored word “scarre:” wirre is always so written in the old copy; the those with whom he was inclined to make sport. An ancient prorchange is therefore less violent, more probable, and, I think, makes erb in Ray's collection, points out the material of which these baubles better sense.-SINGER.
were made; “If every fool should wear a bauble, fuel would be dear.” “ Enter the two French Lords, and two or three Soldiers."
“But it is your carbonadoed face."— Act IV., Scene 5. Act IV., Scene 3.
“Carbonadoed" means “slashed over the face in a manner that The latter editors have, with great liberality, bestowed lordship
fetcheth the flesh with it." The term is derived from carbonado, a upon these interlocutors, who, in the original edition, are called with
collop of meat. In “King LEAR,” Kent says to the steward, " I'll carmore propriety, Capt. E. and Capt. G.-- JOBnson.
bonado your shanks for you." These two personages may be supposed to be two young French lords, serving in the Florentine camp, where they now appear in their military capacity. In the first scene, where the two French lords are introduced taking leave of the King, they are called, in the original edition, Lord E. and Lord G.-G. and E. were, I believe, only put to
“ Enter a Gentle Astringer." — Act V., Scene 1. denote the players who performed these characters. In the list of
This term signifies a gentleman falconer. The word is derived from actors prefixed to the first folio, I find the names of Gilburne and Ec
asturcus, or austurcus, a goshawk. Cowell, in his Law Dictionary, clestone, to whom these insignificant parts probably fell.-MALONE.
says,-“ We usually call a falconer who keeps that kind of hawk, an “I would gladly have him see his company anatomized ; that he might officer of the court, and a noble.
astringer.” The “Gentle Astringer” in question was probably an take a measure of his own judgments." -- Act IV., Scene 3. This is a very just and moral reason. Bertran, by finding how
“I will come after you, with what good speed erroneously he has judged, will be less confident, and more easily
Our means will make us means." - Act V., Scene 1. moved by admonition.-JOHNSON.
Helena intends to say, that they will follow with such speed as the
means which they have will give them ability to exert. “ Bring forth this counterfeit module.” -- Act IV., Scene 3. It appears that “module” and model were synonymous. The
“ We lost a jewel of her, and our esteem meaning is -- Bring forth this fellow, who, by counterfeiting virtue,
Was made much poorer by il.- Act V., Scene 3. pretended to make himself a pattern.
“Esteem” is here reckoning or estimato.- Since the loss of Telena,
with her virtues and qualifications, our account is sunk: what we “ His heds have deserved it in usurping his spurs so long." have to reckon ourselves king of, is much poorer than before.
Act IV., Scene 3.
" Whose beauty did astonish the survey The punishment of a recreant or coward was, to have bis spurs hacked off.
of richest eyes." — Act V., Scene 3.
That is, her beauty astonished those who, baving seen the greatest “ He was whipped for getting the sheriff's fool with child; a dumb
number of fair women, might be said to be the richest in ideas of innocent, that could not say him nay." — Act IV., Scene 3.
beauty. So, in “As You LIKE IT:”—“To have seen much and to Female fools were sometimes retained in families for diversion, I have nothing, is to have rich eyes and poor hands."
"In Flgrence was it from a casement thrown me." — Act V., Scene 3. nished with a specific of her father's, promises to effect a cure in eight
days: the penalty of failure is death; but if successful, she stipulates Bertram still continues to have too little virtue to deserve Helena.
for permission to choose a husband, with reservation only of the royal He did not know indeed that it was Helena's ring, but he knew that
blood. The King is cured ; Giletta fixes on Bertram; and he, unable he had it not from a window.-Johnson.
to disobey the King, consents to the marriage: disgusted, however, “ Plutus himself,
with the meanness of her family, he joins the Florentine army; and That knows the linct and mulliplying medicine."
in reply to her submissive messages from Rossiglione, he coldly says,
“Let her do what she list; for I do purpose to dwell with her wben Act V., Scene 3.
she shall have this ring upon her finger, and a son in her arms bePlutus is here spoken of as the grand alchemist, who knows the gotten by me.” tincture which confers the properties of gold upon base metals. In Giletta provides herself with money, and travels to Florence: hero the reign of Henry IV., a law was made to furbid all men henceforth she finds that Bertram is in love with the daughter of a poor but repto multiply gold, or use any crafts of multiplication. of this law, utable lady, to whose house she repairs, and, explaining her situaMr. Boyle, when he was warm with the hope of transmutation, pro- tion, proposes that the young woman should agree to the Count's cured a repeal.
wishes, on his giving him the ring he wore. Preparations are made
for Bertram's introduction at the dead of night, and Giletta, instead .“ Then, if you know
of the young lady, roceives him in her arms. The ring is obtained, That you are well acquainted with yourself,
and Giletta, in due time, has the satisfaction of giving birth to two Confess 't was hers."— Act V., Scene 3.
sons, both bearing a strong likeness to their father. That is, if you have the proper consciousness of your own actions, He gives, when there, a great entertainment; and Giletta, “ with bis
Bertram, informed of his wife's absonce, determines to return homo. and are able to recollect and relate what you have done, confess the ring on her finger, and twin sons, begotton by him, in her arms,' truth.
prostrates herself before him, and supplicates to be acknowledged as “ My forepast proofs, howe'er the matter fall,
his wife. The Count kisses her, and vows henceforth to love and
honor her. Shall las my fears of lillle vanity,
Haring vainly feared too lillle.”—Act V., Scene 3. The meaning probably is - The proofs which I have already had, The story of“ All 's WELL THAT ExDS WELL,” and of several others are sufficient to shew that my fears were not vain and irrational: I of Shakspeare's plays, is taken from Boccaccio. The poet has dramahave rather been more easy than I ought, and have unreasonably tised the original novel with great skill and comic spirit, and has prohad too little fear.
served all the beauty of character and sentiment, without improving
upon it, which was impossible. There are, indeed, in Boccaccio's “ Here's a petition from a Florentine,
serious pieces, a truth, a pathos, and an exquisite refinement of senWho hath, for four or fire removes, come short
timent, which are hardly to be met with in any other proso writer To tender it herself."- Act V., Scene 3.
whatever. Justice has not been done him by the world. He has in “ Removes" are stages or journeys. The petitioner had lost the general passed for å mere narrator of lascivious tales or idle jeste. opportunity of presenting the paper herself, either at Marseilles, or This character probably originated in his obnoxious attacks on the on the road from thence to Rousillon, in consequence of having been monks, and has been kept up by the grossness of mankind, who refour or five removes behind the court.
venged their own want of refinement on Boccaccio, and only saw in
his writings what suited the coarseness of their own tastes. But the "I will buy me a son-in-law in a fair, and toll for this."
truth is, that he has carried sentiment of every kind to its very highAct V., Scene 6.
est purity and perfoction. By sentiment, we would here understand
the habitual workings of some one powerful feeling, where the heart The allusion is to the custom of paying toll for the liberty of selling reposes almost entirely upon itself, without the violent excitement of in a fair. Lafeu means to say, he will buy a son-in-law in a fair, and opposing duties or untoward circumstances. * * * sell his intended one; pay toll for the liberty of selling him. The The invention implied in his different tales, is immense: but we are practice is thus alluded to in " IIUDIBRAS :"-
not to infer that it is all his own. IIe probably availed himself of all -“Can I bring proof
the common traditions which were floating in his time, and which ho Where, when, by whom, and what y' were sold for,
was the first to appropriate. Homer appears the most original of all And in the open market tolled for?”
authors, probably for no other reason than that we can trace the
plagiarism no further.- Hazlitt.
The comic parts of the plot of " ALL’s WELL THAT EXDs Well," and
the characters of the Countess, Lafeu, &c., are of the poet's own crea“Lordship” is probably intended for that protection which the tion; and, in the conduct of the fable, he has found it expedient to husband, in the marriage ceremony, promises to the wife.
depart from his original more than it is his usual custom to do.
Johnson has expressed his dislike of the character of Bertram, and “ But thou art too fine in thy evidence." — Act V., Scene 3.
most fair readers have manifested their abhorrence of him, and havo “Too fine” signifies too full of finesse. In Bacon's “ A POPHTHEGMS," thought, with Johnson, that he ought not to have gone unpunished, the term is used in its better sense :—“Your majesty was too fine for for the sake not only of poetical but of moral justice. Schlegel bas ny Lord Burleigh."
remarked, that “ Shakspeare never attempts to mitigate the impression of his unfeeling pride and giddy dissipation. Ilo intended merely
to give us a military portrait; and paints the true way of the world, The following is a short abstract of the novel of “Giletta of Nar according to which the injustice of men towards women is not conbonne,” in Painter's “ PALACE OF PLEASURE” (1575), on which the sidered in a very serious light, if they only maintain what is called present play is founded :
the honor of the family.” — The fact is, that the construction of his Isnardo, Count of Rossiglione, retains a famous physician, Gerardo plot prevented him. Ilelena was to be rewarded for her heroic and of Narbona, whose daughter is in love with the Count's son, Bertram. persevering affection; and any more serious punishment than the Isnardo dies; his son becomes the King's ward, and is sent to Paris. temporary shame and remorse that awaits Bertram, would have been The physician dying, Giletta makes a journey in pursuit of Bertram. inconsistent with comely. It should also be remembered that he was The King languishes under a malady thought incurable; Giletta, fur- constrained to marry IIelena against his will. Shakspearo was a good
Datured moralist: and, like his own creation, old Lafeu, though he
That you are well restored, my lord, I'm glad: was delighted to strip off the mask of pretension, he thought that
Let the rest go." punishment might be carried too far.— SINGER.
But shall she weakly relinquish the golden opportunity, and dash the
cap from her lips at the moment it is presented ? Shall she cast Helena is the union of strength of passion with strength of char away the treasure for which she has ventured life, honor, all — when acter. “To be tremblingly alive to gentle impressions, and yet able it is just within her grasp ? Shall she, after compromising her femito preserve, when the prosecution of a design requires it, an im- nine delicacy by the public disclosure of her preference, be thrust movable heart, amidst even the most imperious causes of subduing back into shame, “ to blush out the poor remainder of her life," and emotion, is, perhaps, not an impossible constitution of mind; but it is die a poor, lost, scorned thing? This would be very pretty, and inthe utmost and rarest endowment of humanity.”— FOSTER's Essays. teresting, and characteristic in Viola or Ophelia; butnot at all consistSuch a character, almost as difficult to delineate in fiction as to find ent with that high determined spirit, that moral energy, with which in real life, has Shakspeare given us in Helena, touched with the most Helena is portrayed. Prido is the only obstacle opposed to her. She soul-subduing pathos, and developed with the most consummate is not despised and rejected as a woman, but as a poor physician's skill. $ * *
daughter; and this, to an understanding so clear, so trong, so just Although Helena tells herself that she loves in vain, a conviction as IIelena's, is not felt as an unpardonable insult. The mero prido stronger than reason tells her that she does not. Her love is like a of rank and birth, is a prejudice of which she cannot comprehend the religion, pure, holy, and deep: the blessedness to which she has lifted force, because her mind towers so immeasurably above it; and, comher thoughts, is ever before her:- to despair would be a crime, and pared with the infinite love that swells in her own bosom, it sinks inwould be to cast herself away, and die. The faith of her affection, to nothing. She cannot conceive that he to whom she has devoted combining with the natural energy of her character, believing all her heart and truth, her soul, her life, her service, must not one day things possible, makes them so. It could say to the mountain of love her in return; and, once her own, beyond the reach of fate, that pride which stands between her and her hopes — “ Be thou removed!” ber cares, her carresses, her unweariad, patient tenderness, will not, and it is removed. This is the solution of her behavior in the mar- at last, "win her lord to look upon her." riage scene, where Bertram, with obvious reluctance and disdain, ac- It is this fond faith which, hoping all things, enables her to endure cepts her hand, which the King, his feudal lord and guardian, forces all things; - which hallows and dignifies the surrender of her woon him.
man's pride, making it a sacrifice on which virtuou and love the wa IIer maidenly shame is at first shocked, and who shrinks bach - mingled essence.- MRS. JAMESON.