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considerable, were still less than might have been apprehended. It affords no small room both for satisfaction and hope, that no diminutionof national glory has taken place through any failure of native valour in our Seamen and Soldiers : they have fupported in all cases, and under whatever circumstances of disadvantage, their antient character.
With the importance and variety of the work, our labour has increased; and every year of this period, so full of trouble both abroad and at home, has produced fo much matter, that the business of one has upon
the other : the Reader will thus account for the delay which has annually increased. Perhaps we ought rather to apologize for bringing out the matter fo crudely, as we are obliged to do, to keep tolerably within time, than for a delay rendered necessary by the magnitude of our task. Happy shall we deem the hour, when, recurring from the horrors of war to the pleasant ways of peace, we shall have the pleasure of announcing to the Public the glad tidings of returning tranquillity.
For the YEAR 1779.
H I S T O R Y
E U R O P E.
с нА Р. І.
Retrospective view of American affairs in the year 1778. Expedition to
Bedford, Fair Haven, and to Martha's Vineyard. Admiral Montague difpobeljes the French of the islands of St. Pierre, and Miquelon. Lord Cornwallis, and Gen. Knyphaufen, advance into the enemy's country, on both sides of the North River. Surprize of Baylor's light horse. Success of the expedition to Egg Harbour. Surprize of Pulaski's legion. Cruel depredations by Butler, Brandt, and the favages, on the back frontiers. Deftrudion of the new settlement at Wyoming, altended with circumstances
of fingular cruelty and barbarity. Col. Clarke's expedition from Virgina, for the reduaion of the Canadian towns and settlements in the Illinois country. Consequences of Clarke's success. Expedition from Schoharie to the Upper Susquehanna. Destruction of the Unadilla and Anaquago settlenients.
E have seen in our last failure of hope with respe&t to his volume, that the effec- primary object, the noble Admiral
tual protection which immediately returned to the fucthe French squadron received from cour of Rhode Illand, which we their new allies, at Boston, had have also seen had been invested, Sept. 8th. entirely frustrated Lord and vigorously attacked, by Ge1778.
Howe's design of at- neral Sullivan. And finding that
tacking D'Efaingin island already freed from danger, that road or harbour, Upon this he proceeded to New York, where, VoL, XXII.
in consequence of what is under- zards Bay, in that part of New Itood by a previous leave of ab. England called the Plymouth Cosence, he resigned the command lony; which from their vicinity of the Aeet into the hands of Ad- to Rhode Isand and the Sound, miral Gambier, and returned to greatly infested the trade of New England.
York, as well as the adjacent Sir Henry Clinton, who had coasts of Long Iland; whilst the embarked with 4,000 men for the nearness of their retreats, with the relief of Rhode Iand, had two smallness of their vessels, and the other material objects in view, in shallowness of their creeks, secured one or both of which he might pro- them in a great measure from all bably have succeeded, if he had pursuit. not been detained by contrary
This service was performed with winds a few hours beyond his great effect by the detachment untime, or that Sullivan had not been der the command of the Major Geattentive to the danger to which neral. Between fix in he was exposed, when he found the evening, when the Sept. 5th. himself finally abandoned by the troops were landed, and twelve, French fleet, and in consequence on the following day, the work was deserted by the New England vo- completely done; destroying in lunteers, who composed the better their course about seventy sail of part of his force. One of these shipping, besides a great number was to cut off Sullivan's retreat of small craft. The detachment to the continent; and the other, likewise burnt or destroyed, in which might have been either the fame manner, the magazines, adopted as principal, or pursued wharfs, stores, warehouses, rope as a secondary object, was to attack walks, and vessels on the stocks, the Americans in their head quar. both on the Bedford and Fair Haters and principal place of arins at ven fides of the Acushinet river. Providence ; the destruction or ef The transports and troops profeétual dismantling of which, would ceeded from Fair Haven to the have removed an eye-fore, and island called Martha's Vineyard ; conftant source of apprehension, at the inhabitants of which, like iealt, from the immediate vicinity those of Nantucket, were once ce. of Rhode Iland.
lebrated for their enterprise, skill, Sullivan's timely retreat having and great success in the filheries. frustrated these designs, Sir Henry This island being, however, the Clinton, on his return to New reverse of Nantucket in point of York, dispatched Major General fertility, afforded a considerable Grey, with the feet of transports and most desirable contribution, and troops, under the convoy of consisting of 10,000 sheep, and Captain Fantbawe, of the Ca- 300 oxen, for the public service at rysfort frigate, upon an expedi. New York. tion to the eastward. The first In the mean time, Admiral Monobject of this expedition was to tague, who commanded on the exterminate fome nests of small Newfoundland station, no sooner privateers, which abounded in the received intelligence that D'Estaing rivers and creeks adjoining to Buz- had commenced hostilities on the
coasts of North America, than, in in order also to procure forage and consequence of provisional orders fresh provisions for the army, Lord with which he had been furnished Cornwallis advanced into Jersey for the purpose, he dispatched with a strong body of troops, where Commodore Evans, with the Rom- he took a position between Newbey and some frigates, together bridge, on the Hackinsack, to his with a detachment of marines and left, and the North River to his artillery, to seize on the small right. At the same time, Lieut. islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, Gen. Knyphausen, advancing with which had been allotted to France another division of the army on by the laft treaty of peace, for the the West Chester lide, took a paralpurpose of curing and drying their lel position, his left reaching to fish, and serving as a store-house the North River, near Wepperand shelter for the vessels employed ham, and his right extending to in their fishery.
the Brunx. As France had been particularly It would not be easy to conreftri&ted by the late treaty from ceive any situation more favourable fortifying those islands, and equally for the carrying on of military tied down from any increase of a operations with advantage. The small limited number of troops in two divisions being only feparated them, which were only adapted to by the North River, could, by the the support of the civil govern- means of their flat boats, unite ment, and not to any purposes of their whole force on either lide defence, against whatever might of it within twenty-four hours; deserve the name of enemy, this whilst, by the command of the fervice was accordingly performed Channel, which their marine afwithout difficulty. A capitula- forded all the way up to the tion was granted, in consequence Highlands, Washington's forces, of which the Governor, with the which were likewise separated in inhabitants, and the garrison, the fame manner, but much more amounting in the whole to about dispersed, could not have been af2,000, were transmitted to France; sembled in less than ten days. all the accommodations of habita- And even then, if he should quit tion, trade, and fishery were de- bis strong ground in the Highstroyed; and the islands thrown lands, in order to pass over to the back into their original state, relief of the Jerseys, he must have
Upon the return of the troops subjected himself tó hazard the from the Bedford expedition, and consequences of a general action, with the contributions raised at in a country which, from its naMartha's Vineyard, Gen. Sir Hen- ture, would have been very unfa. ry Clinton determined upon ano
vourable to him in such an event. ther to Egg Harbour, on the Jer. By this means, the provinces of fey coast, where the enemy had a New York and the Jerseys were in number of privateers and prizes, a great measure laid open to the and, what was still more interesting, army; the necessary supplies of fosome very considerable falt works. rage and proviGone were plentifully To draw away their attention from obtained; and an opportunity was the objects of this expedition, and afforded to the well affected of
coming in for protection or service. nity for their escape, before the ca. Such was one, among the number- lumn could come up But the Maless advantages, which our naval jor General conducted his division command of the seas and rivers af. with so profound a Glence, and forded in the course of this war. such excellency of order, that they
Baylor's regiment of light horse, not only cut off a ferjeant's pawhich had been lately raised in trole of twelve men, without any Virginia, and was generally called noise, but completely surrounded Mrs. Washington's regiment, be the village of Old Taapan without came a victim upon this occasion, any discovery, and surprized Bayto the design of Lord Cornwallis, lor's horse, asleep and naked, in with the immediate address, and the barns where they lay. A sepromptexecution, of Major General vere execution took place, and the Grey. This regiment having been regiment was entirely ruined. detached with some militia to Capt. Ferguson of the 70th re. watch and interrupt the foragers, giment, with about 300 land forces, their vicinity to the North River, were detached on the expedition to in the villages of Old and New Little Egg Harbour, on the Jersey Taapan, where they lay, with coast, under the convoy of Capt. other circumstances of situation, Colins of the Zebra, with two and perhaps, more than any, their other frigates, besides some light unfoldierly security, and careles- armed vessels and gallies, which, ness with respect to guards and from their capacity of running into posts, induced Lord Cornwallis to shallow water, were particularly form a plan for their surprize in adapted to the nature of the intend. the night. In pursuit of this de- ed service. sign, whilst Gen. Grey, with the The convoy arrived at the place light infantry, and some other of its destination about the begin. Sep. 27th.
troops, advanced by ning of October ; but as the wind
night on the left, to and other circumstances retarded surprize the enemy on that side, a the passage of the ships over a bar detachment was made from Kny. which lay in their way, and that phaufen's corps, on the right, con every thing in such an enterprize listing of the 71st regiment under depended upon expedition, the Col. Campbell, and an American troops were crowded, as circumlight corps, called the Queen's stances would admit, into the galRangers, who, having passed the lies and small craft, which were North River, intended to have en- lightened, by taking out every closed them so effectually, that, be. thing that was not ellentially neing placed between two fires, few ceffary to the immediate service. or none of them could escape. It feems, that the enemy, having
Some deferters from the column received some intelligence of the on the right prevented the com- design against them, had suddenly pletion of the scheme. These have sent out to sea fuch of their priing at the most critical moment, vateers as were in any degree of souzed the militia who lay in readiness, in order thereby to New Taapan from their trance of evade the impending danger. The fecurity, afforded a clear opportu-, larger of their remaining vessels,