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English merchant ships on which the Prince' often used to launch out into the praises of of Orange had laid an embargo in the Scheldt matrimony.' in retaliation for acts of piracy committed by According to Beale's account he was very English privateers upon Dutch shipping. ill provided with funds for this journey, while The ships were set free at once, but a pecu- | his royal mistress, of course, complained of niary indemnity for the detention, which his extravagance. In a letter to the lord Beale was instructed to claim, was the subject treasurer vindicating himself from the charge of much dispute, and apparently was never he says : • And I protest upon my allegiance conceded. In June 1576 Augustus, elector of that the gifts I gave at the Duke of BrunSaxony, had summoned to Torgau a conven- ' swick's in ready money and money's worth tion of Saxon divines for the purpose of set- for her majesty's honour, being her gossips, tling certain disputed questions of theology, in and having had nothing to my knowledge particular, whether omnipresence was or was sent unto them (and in other places), came to not an attribute of the physical body of Jesus. better than 1001. And whoso knoweth the The result of their labours was seen in the fashions and cravings of these princes' courts
Book of Torgau,' which, after revision at Ber- may well see that, having been at so many gen in the following year by James Andrea, or places, I could not escape with less. My Andreas, chancellor and provost of the univer- charges came in this voyage to 9321. one way sity of Tübingen, and certain other eminent or another. Before my going over I sold a theologians, was issued under the title, 'For- chain which I had of the Queen of Scots for mula of Concord,'as the only authoritative ex- 651. The fact that Beale received a token of position of the orthodox creed of Saxony. This esteem from Mary Stuart is interesting in work not only explicitly affirmed the ubiquity connection with his subsequent relations with of the body of Jesus to be an integral part of that unfortunate lady. During Walsingham's the creed, but declared all such as denied absence in the Netherlands in the summer of that doctrine (Cryptocalvinists, as they were 1578 Beale acted as secretary of state, as also called) to be heretics. At this juncture in 1581 and 1583, on occasion of Walsingham's Elizabeth saw fit to despatch Beale on a kind missions to France and Scotland in those of circular tour to visit the courts of the years. In the autumn of 1580 he took part Lutheran princes of Germany, and put in a in the examination of Richard Stanihurst, plea for toleration in favour of the Crypto- the jesuit, touching the conveying of the calvinists. We learn from one of his papers late Lord Garret (Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord that, for the purposes of this mission, "he Offaley) into Spain at the instigation of made a long and winter journey, making a Thomas Fleming, a priest, and in 1581 circuit to and fro of 1400 English miles at was one of the commissioners who took the the least, repairing personally to nine princes, depositions of Edmund Campion before his and sending her majesty's letters to three trial. It is significant, however, that the others.' Elsewhere he says that he obtained commission under which he acted extended that which he was sent for, i.e.that the Elector only to threatening with torture. When it of Saxony and Palatine would surcease from was determined to have actual recourse to proceeding to a condemnation of other re- that method of persuasion, Beale's name was formed churches that did not agree with the omitted (doubtless at his own request) from ubiquitaries. Languet, in a letter to Sidney, the commission. This year Walsingham, being dated Frankfort, 8 Jan. 1577-8, is able to write: appointed governor of the Mines Royal, made • Master Beale has met with no small difficul- Beale his deputy. According to the latter's ties in going through his appointed task, but own account he did his duty in this post for by his prudence and dexterity he has so sur- fifteen years, keeping the accounts with regumounted them that I hope our churches are larity, without receiving any remuneration. saved from the perils which threatened them Between 1581 and 1584 he was employed in from the movements of Jacobus Andreas and negotiating with the Queen of Scots at Shefsome other theologians. In the same letter field. Camden suggests that he was chosen Languet praises Beale's 'agreeable conversa- for this business on account of his notorious tion,' and his character, genius, and manifold bias in favour of puritanism, designating him experience.' Beale was at that time return- hominem vehementem et austere acerbum, ing to England, and Languet's letter, with quo non alter Scotorum Reginæ præ reliwhich he was entrusted, was to serve as an gionis studio iniquior. However this may introduction to Sidney. Writing of marriage, have been, it is certain that he soon came to Languet observes : "Take the advice of Mas- be suspected of secret partiality to the cause ter Beale on the matter. He believes that of Mary, and of something like treachery a man cannot live well and happily in celi- to the council. Of these negotiations he bacy. In another letter he writes that Beale gives the following account: Six several times or more I was sent to the late Queen cannot fix the precise date of either of these of Scots. At the first access my commission books, but we may infer that the second was was to deal with her alone. Afterwards I a recent publication in 1584 from the fact did, for sundry respects, desire that I might that Whitgift then thought it necessary to not deal without the privity of the Earl of take cognisance of its existence by drawing Shrewsbury, being a nobleman and a coun- up and laying before the council a schedule cillor. She was with much difficulty brought of misdemeanours' alleged to have been to make larger offers unto her majesty than committed by its author, of which the conshe had before done to any others whose ne- tents of these two works furnished the pringotiations I had seen. I was then suspected cipal heads. What precisely he meant to do to have been, as some term it, won to a new with this formidable indictment (the articles mistress. Whereupon the charge was com- were fourteen in number) remains obscure. mitted to the said earl and Sir Walter Mild- Probably he wished to procure Beale's dismay, and I was only appointed to attend missal from the post of clerk of the council. upon them to charge her by word of mouth If so, however, he was disappointed, as apwith certain articles gathered out of the earl's parently no notice whatever was taken of it. and my letters. She avowed all that we had In the spring of the same year Beale had reported, and, I thank the Lord, I acquitted shown the archbishop the manuscript of myself to be an honest man.'
another work which he had nearly comBeale was hardly fit to treat with a pleted, dealing with another branch of the person of such dexterity and resource as same subject, viz. the proper prerogative of Mary Stuart. She seems to have contrived the bishops, which the archbishop refused to to delude him with the idea that she had return when Beale (5 May) presented himself really given up ambition, and was desirous at Lambeth to receive it. On this occasion only to live a retired life for the rest of her a great deal of temper appears to have been days. This appears from the tone of a letter lost on both sides, Beale predicting that the to Walsingham, written in the spring of 1583. archbishop would be the overthrow of the A year later he appears to have formed a church and a cause of tumult, and Whitgift juster estimate of the character of the queen. accusing Beale of levity and irreverence,
With all the cunning that we have,' he then speaking in very disparaging terms of his wrote to Walsingham,' we cannot bring this work, and saying that 'neither his divinity lady to make any absolute promise for the ' nor his law was great.' Beale addressed a performance of her offers, unless she may be lengthy epistle to the archbishop (7 May), in assured of the accomplishment of the treaty. which he avers that by the space of twentySince the last break off she is more circumspect six years and upwards he has been a student how she entangle herself.'
of the civil laws, and long sith could have Next year (1585) Beale was returned to taken a degree if he had thought (as some do) parliament for Dorchester, which place he that the substance of learning consisteth more also represented in the two succeeding parlia- ' in form and title than matter, and that in diviments (1586 and 1588). In November 1586 nitie he has read as much as any chaplain his he was despatched with Lord Buckhurst to lordship hath, and when his book shall be Fotheringay, to notify the Queen of Scots of finished and answered let others judge thereof.' the fact that sentence of death had been In the summer he served under Leicester passed upon her. Early in the following year in the Netherlands during the ill-fated atBeale carried the warrant to Fotheringay and tempt to relieve Sluys, in what precise capaperformed the ghastly duty of reading it city does not appear, but we infer that he was aloud in the hall of the castle by way of preli- employed in connection with the transport minary to the execution, of which he was an department. In 1589 he was emploved in eye-witness, and wrote an account. Though negotiation with the States, and next year a zealous puritan, Beale seems to have had a we find him engaged with Burghley and dispassionate and liberal mind. During the Buckhurst in adjusting the accounts of Perepersecution of the Jesuits which marked the grine Bertie, Lord Willoughby, commander in latter years of Elizabeth's reign, he fearlessly the Netherlands. In 1592 the attitude which and ably maintained the principle of tolera- Beale assumed in a debate upon supply, tion, both in parliament and as a writer, coupled with an animated speech which he Thus, we know that he published a work made about the same time against the inimpugning the right of the crown to fine or quisitorial practices of his old enemies the imprison for ecclesiastical offences, and con- bishops, gave so much offence to the queen demning the use of torture to induce confes- that he was commanded to absent himself both sion, and followed it up at a later date with from court and from parliament. In 1592 a second treatise upon the same subject. We he addressed a lengthy letter to the lord treasurer, vindicating his opinions on church Society of Antiquaries, and is mentioned by government with great learning and consider- Milles in the epistle dedicatory to his Caable apparent ability. The same year he was talogue of Honour' by the designation of returned to parliament for Lostwithiel, in 'worthy Robert Beale, that grave clerk of the Cornwall. In 1595 the Earl of Essex appears council,' as one of the learned friends' from to have tried to deprive Beale of his office of whom he had received assistance. He seems clerk to the council in favour of one of his also to have taken an interest in geographiown creatures. Accordingly, we find Beale cal discovery; for in Dr. Dee's Diary,' under writing (24 April 1595) a letter to the lord date 24 Jan. 1582, we read: ‘I, Mr. Awdrian treasurer, in which he sets forth his claims to Gilbert, and John Davis, went by appointconsideration at great length and with no ment to Mr. Secretary Beale his house, where little emphasis. It appears from this docu- only we four were secret, and we made Mr. ment that he had held this office for twenty- Secretary privy of the north-west passage, three years, that he enjoyed it with the fee and all charts and rutters were agreed upon of 501. yearly under the great seal of Eng- in general.' Such of Beale's letters as have land,' and that he was then suffering from been printed are dated vaguely 'at his poor several grievous maladies, amongst them house in London.' He certainly had another gout and stone. Beale also at this time held | house at Priors Marston, in Warwickshire. another post, that of clerk to the council in as he is described as of that place in the inthe northern parts, and resided at York at least scriptions on the tombstone of his wife and for some part of the year. The emoluments daughter Catherine. of the office at York amounted, according to Throughout life Beale was a close student Beale's own reckoning, to 4001. yearly, though and ardent collector of books. He is the nominally he had there' but 331. by instruc- author of the following works: 1. "Argutions only alterable without other warrant or ment touching the Validity of the Marriage assurance.' Beale concluded his letter by beg- of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, with ging that on the score of his growing infir- Mary, Queen-dowager of France (sister to mities he might be allowed a deputy to do King Henry VIII), and the Legitimacy of the business of the office at York during his the Lady Frances, their daughter.' In Latin, absence. His request was granted, one John MS. Univ. Libr., Cambr. Dd. 3, 85, art. 18. Ferne being appointed in the following Au- 2. 'A Large Discourse concerning the Margust. In 1597 he was joined with Sir Julius riage between the Earl of Hertford and the Cæsar in a commission to examine into com- Lady Catherine Grey.' In Latin, MS. Univ. plaints by the inhabitants of Guernsey against Libr. Cambr. li. 5, 3, art. 4. This work conSir Thomas Leighton, the governor of that tains also the opinions of the foreign jurists island. In 1599 he was placed on a special consulted by Beale upon the case. 3. Discommission to hear and adjudge the grievances course after the Massacre in France,' 15 pp. of certain Danish subjects who complained of MS. Cotton, Tit. F. iii. 299. 4. “Rerum piratical acts committed by English subjects. Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot ex Biblio
In 1600 he was appointed one of the envoy's theca clarissimi viri Domini Roberti Beli to treat for peace with the King of Spain at Angli.' Frankfort, 3 vols. folio, 1579. Boulogne. The negotiation fell through, the Contents: Vol. i., M. Aretius, Jo. Gerunrepresentatives not being able to agree upon densis, Roderici Toletani, Roderici Santii, the important question of precedency. Next Joannis Vasxi; vol. ii., Alfonsia Carthagena, year Beale died at his house at Barnes, Michaelis Ritii, Francisci Faraphre, Lucii Surrey, at eight o'clock in the evening of Marinei Siculi, Laurentii Vallae, Ælii An25 May. Ile was buried in Allhallows tonii Nebrissensis, Damiani a Goes; vol. ii., Church, London Wall. He appears to have Al. Gomecius De Rebus Gestis Fr. Ximenis left no son, but we know of two daughters, Cardinalis. 5. 'A Book against Oaths miof whom one, Margaret, married Sir Henry nistered in the Courts of Ecclesiastical ComYelverton, justice of the common pleas in mission from her Majesty, and in other Courts the time of Charles I, who thus became Ecclesiastical.' Printed abroad and brought possessed of Beale's books and papers, which to England in a Scotch ship about 1583. were long preserved by his descendants in the Strype's Whitgift,' vol. i. bk üi, c. xii. pp. library of the family seat at Easton-Maudit, 211-12. 6. 'A Book respecting Ceremonies. Northamptonshire. The library was sold in the Habits, the Book of Common Prayer, and 1784. The manuscripts are now in the the Power of Ecclesiastical Courts,' 1584. British Museum. The other daughter, Ca-Strype's · Whitgift,' vol. i. bk. iii. c. v. pp. therine, married Nathaniel Stephens, of 113-5, 212, vol. iii. bk. iii. nos. v. vi. Easington, Gloucestershire.
7. • The Order and Manner of the Execution Beale was a member of the Elizabethan of Mary Queen of Scots, Feb. 8, 1587.
Strype's ' Annals,' vol. iii. bk. ii. c. ii. p. 383. Bod. iv. 827; Winwood's Memorials; Hardwicke,
Earl of Leicester's Placard to f. 245, 82, f. 43, 1110 f. 102; MSS. Lansd. 27,
| art. 2; 79, art. 80; 143, art. 59; 155, art. 62;
ne 737, art. 2; MSS. Addit. 2442, f. 186; 4114,
Strype's Whitgift, i 181, 5935. 1140.5, 12503. 140:28. 14029. Mal
J. M. R.
majorem partem sociorum ex mandato regio.'
In 1634 he was chosen vice-chancellor of
the university. On 27 Oct. 1637 he was
county, and in 1639 he was presented to the
In the year 1642 Beale took an active
part in urging the various colleges to send
money and plate to the king at Nottingham.
Oliver Cromwell, having failed to intercept
the treasure in Huntingdonshire, proceeded
'to Cambridge with a large force, surrounded
| At this period Beale was deprived of his
mastership and all his ecclesiastical prefer-
ments. From the Tower the prisoners were
removed to Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate
Street, and on 11 Aug. 1643, after having
islands' (MS. Addit, 5808, f. 152). At ham's Hist, of Ely, 231, 232; Bridges's Northlength, after a confinement of three years, amptonshire, i. 313; Cooper's Memorials of Beale was released by exchange, and joined the Cambridge, ii. 88; Cooper's Annals of Camking at Oxford. There he was incorporated bridge, iii. 328; Prynne's Tryal of Abp. Laud, D.D. in 1645, and in the following sear he 7:3, 167, 177, 193, 357, 359, 360 ; Parr's Life of was nominated dean of Ely, though he was
Abp. Usher, 471 ; Life of Dean Barwick, 22, 32, never admitted to the dignity. He was one 941, 444; Baker's Northamptonshire, ii, 205.]
T. Č. of the divines selected by the king to accompany him to Holdenby (1616). Ultimately | BEALE, WILLIAM (1784-1854), musihe went into exile and accompanied the em- ' cian, was born at Landrake, in Cornwall,1 Jan. bassy of Lord Cottington and Sir Edward 1781. He was a chorister at Westminster Hyde to Spain. His death occurred at Madrid Abbey under Dr. Arnold until his voice broke, on 1 Oct. 1651. The antiquary Baker gives when he served as a midshipman on board the this curious account of his last illness and Révolutionnaire, a 44-gun frigate which had clandestine interment : *The doctor, not long been taken from the French. During this after his coming to Madrid, was taken ill, and period he was nearly drowned by falling being apprehensive of danger and that he overboard in Cork harbour. On his voice had not long to live, desired Sir Edward settling into a pure baritone he left the sea, Hide and some others of the family to re- and devoted himself to the musical profession. ceive the holy sacrament with him, which he He became a member of the Royal Society in perfect good understanding, though weak of Musicians on 1 Dec. 1811. On 12 Jan. in body, being supported in his bed, conse- 1813 he won the prize cup of the Madrigal crated and administered to himself and to Society for his beautiful madrigal, · Awake, the few other communicants, and died some sweet Muse,' and on 30 Jan. 1816 he obfew hours after he had performed that last tained an appointment as one of the gentleoffice. He was very solicitous in his last men of the Chapel Royal, in the place of sickness lest his body should fall into the Robert Hudson, deceased. At this period he hands of the inquisitors, for the prevention was living at 13 North Street, Westminster. whereof this expedient was made use of, that On 1 Nov. 1820 Beale signed articles of apthe doctor dying in a ground chamber, the pointment as organist to Trinity College, boards were taken up, and a grave being dug, Cambridge, and on 13 Dec. following he rethe body, covered with a shroud, was de- signed his place at the Chapel Royal. In posited therein very deep, and four or five December 1821 he threw up his appointment bushels of quicklime thrown upon it in order at Cambridge, and returned to London, to consume it the sooner. Everything in where, through the good offices of Dr. Attthe room was restored to the same order it wood, he became successively organist of was in before, and the whole affair, being Wandsworth parish church and St. John's, committed only to a few trust y persons, was Clapham Rise. He continued occasionally kept so secret as to escape the knowledge or to sing in public until a late period of his suspicion of the Spaniards, and may so re- life, and in 1810 he won a prize at the main undiscovered till the resurrection. Adelphi Glee Club for his glee for four voices,
Beale greatly embellished the chapel of Harmony. He died at Paradise Row, St. John's College, and left manuscripts and Stockwell, 3 May 1854. Beale was twice other books to the library. His portrait is married: (1) to Miss Charlotte Elkins, a in the master's lodge, Sir Edward Hyde, daughter of the groom of the stole to afterwards Lord Clarendon, in one of his George IV, and (2) to Miss Georgiana manuscript papers styles Dr. Beale his worthy Grove, of Clapham. His voice was a light and learned chaplain, commemorates the baritone, and he is said to have imitated blessings he had enjoyed from him, and be- Bartleman in his vocalisation. He was an moans his loss; while Baker, the historian extremely finished singer, though somewhat of St. John's, declares him to have been one of wanting in power. His compositions, which the best governors the university or college principally consist of glees and madrigals, ever had. Contributions of his are found in though few in number, are of a very high almost all the collections of poems published degree of excellence, and often rival, in their on state occasions by the university of Cam- purity of melody and form, the best composibridge during his time.
tions of the Elizabethan madrigalists. [Addit. MSS. 5808 ff. 151, 152, 5858 f. 194, (Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal; Records 5863 f. 91; Baker's list. of St. John's Coll. of the Royal Society of Musicians; London Camb., ed. Mayor; Cambridge Antiquarian Com- Magazine for 1822, p. 474; Records of Trinity munications, ii. 157; Alumni Westmon. 73, 74; College, Cambridge; information from Mr. W. Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic., ed. Hardy; Bent- Beale.]
W. B. S.