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politan jurisdiction over the other sees less ordinary man; but in him, like the of Bombay and Madras. This post he somewhat corresponding qualities in held for just a quarter of a century, Rowland Hill, of whom he was said to discharging its duties with much energy be a great admirer, if not partial and firmness as a devoted minister of imitator, these served only to impart a the Gospel. His lordship was visitor of certain spicy zest to all his appearances, Bishop's College, Calcutta, and enjoyed alike public and private. an annual allowance of £5,000 a-year. “While fondly and conscientiously Bishop Wilson was the author of attached to the government and disci. several volumes of “Discourses" and pline of his own church, he had a large “Sermons," and of a very popular catholic heart, which eagerly embraced “ Tract on Confirmation." In 1803, he and sympathised with whatever was married a daughter of W. Wilson, of really good, holy, or excellent in the Worton House, Oxfordshire, and was membership of any other. Of this trait left a widower in 1827. His son, the or feature in his renewed nature, one Rev. Daniel Wilson, M.A., of Wadham characteristic exemplification now occurs College, Oxford, still holds the valuable to me. About the end of July, 1847, living of Islington, to which he suc shortly after tidings of the sudden death ceeded at the elevation of his father to of Dr. Chalmers had reached us, I the episcopate.
happened to visit a poor countryman of Like not a few good and useful men, ours, who had been confined to the Mr. Wilson sprung from Whitefield's great jail for debt. On my return from Tabernacle, Moorfields, London. There, I jail, passing the new cathedral, which at the side of his excellent parents, he was at no great distance from it, and imbibed his genuine evangelism, and seeing the door of it open, l turned the noble spirit which governed him aside to have a look at the interior. to the latest day. The late W. Bateman, There, unexpectedly, I encountered the Esq., a name still revered by us and many bishop himself, and his excellent chapmore, as that of a man forward in lain, Mr. Pratt, now archdeacon of every good work, the impersonation of Calcutta. The bishop, saluting me in all that was true, just, upright, and his own usual frank and hearty way honourable, married Mr. Wilson's sister. took me by the arm, and, walking up The bishop, therefore, was the uncle of and down for a little, making a few Mr. Henry Bateman, of Clapton, a friendly inquiries, he suddenly stopped gentleman who reflects honour on the and with much feeling addressed me as name he bears, and on his highly follows:-'Ah, dear friend, what a loss respectable connexions.
has your church, and not your church The following is from the eloquent only, but the whole Christian world, pen of Dr. Duft:
sustained in the death of the great and “It is not for me to attempt to good man, Dr. Chalmers! How sindelineate the character and labours of gular, that the Lord should be pleased such a man. And yet I should be false to leave me behind, who am three years to my own convictions, and a traitor to older than he was! Is it not a warning the great cause of the communion and to me to be ready ? Dr. Chalmers was brotherhood of saints, were I to pass a man whom I not only admired, but over in silence the departure from loved. I have all his works in my amongst us of such a master in library, and have not only read, but Israel. When he arrived here a quarter studied them. And what think you? of a century ago, he was in the very I myself once became a Dissenter in zenith of his powers of active useful order to hear him preach. That is, I ness; and certainly few men have rushed with the crowd to a Dissenting toiled more, or to more good purpose. chapel in London ; and, though it is Naturally endowed with great energies thirty years ago, I never think of that of mind and body-energies, in his wonderful sermon without feeling the case, happily sanctified and consecrated thrill of it here still,'-laying his hand exclusively to the promotion of God's on his heart— and I seem as if I felt it glory,-he kept all around him in a now ! state of constant friction and glow. “But the most distinguishing pecuAbout his manner of speech and action liarity of his character, and that which there were some peculiarities, and even constituted the real secret and fountain: eccentricities, whicli might have proved head of its catholicity, indefatigable fatal to the credit and influence of a 1. laboriousness, glowing warmth, and atbletic force, was his remarkably vivid, fires of his own martyrdom, helping to apprehension of and resolute adherence light up that torch of evangelism in to the doctrines of pure primitive England which all the powers of darkapostolic Christianity. On the funda ness never can extinguish. Besides mental Pauline doctrine of justification his services in the cause of Christ through faith alone, without the works generally, those which he rendered to of the law,' never did Luther's own the cause of Missions must ever be trumpet give a clearer or more certain conspicuous. The evangelisation of the sound. On the sovereignty of Divine world at large, and of India in partigrace in salvation, so glorifying to God cular, was ever uppermost in his heart and so humbling to man, Augustine, as a subject of prayer and exhortation. Calvin, and Knox would have hailed Under this head, perhaps his most his utterances as those of a kindred notable achievement was the authoritaspirit. Pelagianism, in all its forms, by tire repudiation and ejection of the repudiating the inherent depravity of caste system from the native churches human nature, and the consequent of southern India. His task was all necessity of the Holy Spirit's regenera the more difficult from its having been ting power, was the object of his tolerated in modified forms by Swartz special abhorrence. On Socinianism, and his associates, and treated and under its varied Proteus-like modifica connived at as a civil rather than a tions—which, by denying the Lord that religious institution by the gentle bought us with His own atoning blood, Heber and his successors in the Indian would degrade the eternal Word, the Episcopate. But the principle of caste Son of God, the brightness of His being evil and heathenish to the very Father's glory, into a mere creature, core, and entering into the very essence and so reduce Christianity to the bald- of Hindooism, did not fail, however ness and the barrenness of at best a guarded and fenced, gradually to issue mystic Mobammedanism or æsthetic in intolerable practicable abuses. With Deism,-he was wont to cast the most these Bishop Wilson was called upon, withering frown. Into the anti-Scrip at an early period of his career, tural character of Popery no Reformer officially to grapple. And it redounds had a more penetrating insight, or with to his eternal credit that he did so in a intenser aversion denounced its malig. Josiah-like style. Having fairly masnant, soul-destroying tendencies. In tered the subject, and satisfied himself modern Tractarianism, with its patristic of its utterly antichristian character, he and high-sounding medieval preten. proposed no mere half-measures-no sions, he, from the very first, was led to merely modifying limitary regulations. discern the very germ and rudiment No; his firm and resolute decree was, of the whole Popish system; or, as that that the system must be extirpated, noble champion of Protestantism, Cap root and branch, from the membership tain Gordon, late M.P. for Dundalk, of the native churches, or the memberonce with rare felicity termed it, the ship of the native churches must be tadpole of Popery;' and hence the ejected from their bosom, until they frequency and vehemence, the severity heartily abjured and flung out the evil and success, of his exposures of it. For thing from among them. This decree his eminent services in this department swept through the churches like the alone, not his own church or other blast of a hurricane tarough an ancient churches in India only, but all the forest. All that was crazy with age, or Reformed churches throughout the gnawed into cankers, or crusted with world, owe him an everlasting debt of the moss of rottenness, fell before it. gratitude.
But the cause of truth and righteousness “ But, without enlarging any farther, was all the better for the clearance. as my heart would prompt me, I may And the future sons and daughters of compendiously express my own concep India's expurgated churches will rise tion of his character as a Christian man up to bless the memory of Bishop and Evangelical bishop, by asserting Wilson." my firm persuasion that, bad his lot been cast in less favoured times, he would, •for the testimony of Jesus,'
ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. have been found marching joyfully to The death of Humboldt, in the republic the stake, in company with Ridley, of letters, is one of the greatest events of Latimer, and Cranmer, and, by the the year. He was one of those men
whom it is the lot of few nations either to s couraged by the Government to underpossess or lose. He was born for the take the exploration of Spanish America, aniverse, a chief among men, à prince and received promises of assistance in among nobles. He will stand forth to his investigations. On the 4th of June, the age of posterity as the first German 1799, Humboldt and Bonpland sailed of the nineteenth century.
from Corunna, and happily escaped the Frederick Henry Alexander Hum English cruizers; and on the 19th boldt, Baron, the greatest naturalist landed in the baven of Santa Cruz, that has appeared since Aristotle, was Teneriffe. They ascended the Peak, born in Berlin, September 14, 1769, and and in the course of the few days of was thus in the 90th year of his age. their stay collected a number of new He was educated with a view to em observations on the natural history of ployment in the direction of the Govern. the island. They then crossed the ment mines successively at Gottingen, ocean without accident, and landed on Frankfort-on-the-Oder, at Hamburg, and American ground near Cumana, on the at the Mining School of Frieberg. In | 16th of July. They employed eighteen 1792 he was appointed assessor to the months in examining the territory Mining Board, a post which he soon which now forms the Free State of exchanged for that of a director of the Venezuela, arrived at the Caraccas in works at Baireuth. In 1795 he re February, 1800, and left the sea coast linquished these duties in order to anew near Puerto Cabella, in order to connect himself with those pursuits of reach the Orinoco by crossing the grassy investigation and discovery in which steppes of Calobozo. They embarked he has won an undying fame. From on the Orinoco in canoes, and proceeded the earliest period he had evinced a to the extreme Spanish post, Fort San faculty for physical inquiry, which he Carlos on the Rio Negro, two degrees had assiduously cultivated by the study from the equator, and returned to of chemistry, botany, geology, and gal Cumana, after having travelled thouvanism, the latter then a new and in sands of miles through an uninhabited cipient science. He now proceeded to wilderness. They left the continent for arrange and condense his scientific the Havannah, and stayed there for ideas, and test them comparatively be some months, until, receiving a false fore applying them in countries yet report that Baudin was awaiting them unexplored. His next care was to look according to appointment on the coast round for a country whose undiscovered of South America, they sailed from Cuba natural riches might open to the indus in March, 1801, for Carthagena, in order trious inquirer a prospect of numerous to proceed thence to Panama. and valuable discoveries. Meanwhile, The season being unfavourable to a he made a journey with Haller to North further advance, they settled for a time Italy, to study the volcanic theory of at Bogota, but in September, 1801, set rocks in the mountains of that district, out for the south despite the rains, and in 1797 started for Naples on a crossed the Cordillera di Quindin, folsimilar purpose with Bach.
lowed the valley of Cauca, and by the Compelled to surrender this plan by greatestexertions reached Quito, January the events of war, he turned his steps 6th, 1802. Eight months were spent in to Paris; met with a most friendly re exploring the valley of Quito and the ception from the savans of that capital, volcanic mountains which enclose it. and made the acquaintance of Bonpland, Favoured by circumstances, they asjust appointed naturalist to Baudin's cended several of these surmounting expedition, Humboldt had only time heights previously unattained. On June to arrange to accompany his newly ac 23, 1802, they climbed Chimborazo, and quired friend, when the war compelled reached a height of 19,300 feet, a point the postponement of the entire project. of the earth higher than any which had Upon this he resolved to travel in North hitherto been attained. Humboldt next Africa, and with Bon pland had reached travelled over Loxa, Jean de BraMarseilles for embarkation, when the comoros, Carxamarca, and the high events of the times again thwarted his chain of the Andes, and reached, near intentions.
Truxillo, the shore of the Pacific. PassThe travellers now turned towards ing thence through the desert of Lower Spain, where Humboldt, whose great Peru he came to Lima. merits were made known by Baron von In January, 1803, he sailed for Forell, the Saxon minister, was en | Mexico, visited its chief cities, collecting
facts, and departed for Valladolid. vations, or to combine such observations Traversing the province of Mechracan in a systematic manner, so as to derive and reaching the Pacific coast near from their diversity one rational whole; Jonillo, he retruned to Mexico. Here he Humboldt has done both so well that stayed some months, gaining large ac his performances in either department cessions to his stores of knowledge by would entitle him to admiration. intercourse with the observant portion With a mind, in which was treasured of the educated classes of that country. up every observation or conjecture of In January, 1804, he embarked for the preceding philosophers, not excepting Havannah from Vera Cruz, remained those of antiquity, he set out measuring there a short time, paid a visit of two heights of mountains, noting temperamonths to Philadelphia, and finally ture, collecting plants, dissecting animals, returned to Europe, landing at Havre and everywhere pressing forward to in August, 1804, richer in collections of penetrate the meaning of the relations objects--but especially in observations which he found to subsist between the on the great field of the natural sciences different portions of the organic king-in botany, zoology,geology, geography, dom and man. This latter new and statistics, and ethnology, than any pre practical aspect of the natural science ceding traveller. Paris at that time was first presented by Humboldt, and offering a greater assemblage of scien gives to such studies an interest for tific aids than any other city on the thousands who have no taste for the Continent, he took up his residence mere enumeration of rocks, plants, and there, in order to prepare the results of animals. The sciences which deal with his researches for the public eye. He the laws governing the geographical disshortly commenced a series of gigantic tribution of plants, animals, and men, publications in almost every depart had their origin in the observations and ment of science; and in 1817, after generalisations of Humboldt, who may twelve years of incessant toil, four be justly regarded as the founder of a fifths were printed in parts, each of new school of physical inquiry. which cost in the market more than In addition to the general and ulti£1000 sterling. Since that time the pub mate gain to humanity of such an lication has gone on more slowly, and advance in science as Humboldt has was just completed a week before his effected, is to be reckoned the immediate death.
practical benefit of his observations, • Having visited Italy in 1818 with according to which charts have been Gay-Lussac, and afterwards travelled in constructed, agriculture extended, and England in 1820, he returned, took up territories peopled. Humboldt is most his residence in Berlin, and enjoying popularly known by his “Kosmos," a the personal favour, and most intimate work written in the evening of his life, society of the Sovereign, was made a in which he contemplates all created councillor of State, and entrusted with things as linked together and forming more than one diplomatic mission. In one whole, animated by internal forces; 1829, at the particular desire of the and rears a monument at which sucCzar, he visited Siberia and the Caspian ceeding generations will gaze in astonishSea, in company with Gustav Rose and ment. Of this noble work a recent Ehrenberg. The traveller accomplished critic says :-" Who else could have a distance of 2,142 geographical miles, achieved—who but he could have atjourneying on the Volga from Novogorod tempted-the Atlantean service ? ... to Casan, and by land to Catharineberg, Spread his · Kosmos' before a young Tobolsk, Barnaul, by Buchtarminsk to and ardent intelligence, which has just the Chinese frontier. On their return then accomplished its regular liberal they took the route by Ust-Kamono nurture, and say, ' Read and compregorsk, Orusk, the Southern Ural, Oren hend.' The comprehension exacted berg, Sarepta, Astrahan, Moscow, and will, when acquired, have added an Petersburg. Taken singly, there is not education." one of Humboldt's achievements which - Such was Humboldt, in his own has not been surpassed, but viewed as walk, one of the mightiest among the a whole they constitute a body of ser sons of men. It is to be wished that vices rendered to society such as is his spiritual views had been more fully without a parallel. The activity of developed. There is reason to believe, naturalists is commonly directed either however, that he feared God: as to the to accumulate rich materials in obser- | clearness of his evangelical views, we have no means of ascertaining the true | tion on a lone bill that overhangs the facts. From a private letter of his to a Bristol Channel.” friend of ours, a copy of which has been Among historians it may be affirmed sent us, we incline to judge favourably. that no one is equal to Mr. Hallam in
impartiality. There have been histoHALLAM AND PRESCOTT.
rians as erudite and not less acute, more
inspiring as thinkers, more elegant as ENGLAND and America have each writers, but for stern justice he was been called upon to surrender their probably without a rival His unflinch. most ancient and renowned historian
| ing integrity, his subjugation of personal Hallam and Prescott. Hallam died on prejudice, his determination to speak the 22nd of January, 1859, six days the truth under all circumstances, is one before the death of Prescott. He had of the rarest things in literature. This reached the great age of eighty-one
perfect frankness never takes in him the years, having been born in 1778. He form, which it assumes in minds less was educated at Eton and Oxford. He
accurately balanced, of an impatient afterwards settled in London, where he
desire to speak unpalatable truths in has always since resided. In 1830 he season and out of season. Perhaps received one of the two fifty-guinea gold there never was a critic who was so medals instituted by George IV. for little of an egotist, and whose judgment eminence in historical composition, the was so little swayed by personal feel. other being awarded to Washington
ings, either of regard for himself or of Irving. He was at an early period en regard for others. gaged as a regular contributor for the The subjects of Hallam's works are of Edinburgh Review, contemporaneously a recondite and thoroughly unpopular with his friend Sir Walter Scott, and
character, requiring immense research bore an active part in Mr. Wilberforce's and a sound understanding, qualities great movement for abolishing the which he supplied in a measure that slave trade. Mr. Hallam's works are :
could scarcely have been exceeded. The “ The Constitutional History of Eng. sole and only object of his inquiry was land,” 2 vols. 8vo.; “ The History of truth. His mind was of a character Europe during the Middle Ages," 2 vols. that approached perfection. It is not 8vo.; “ An Introduction to the Literary easy to espy in it a single token of History of Europe during the 15th, infirmity. 16th, and 17th centuries,” 3 vols., 8vo. Hallam was sober-minded in the exIt was his bitter fate to outlive those treme; he was, in a sense, devout, but who should have come after him, to see it may be doubted if he knew that truth two sons of rare promise, who should which sets the soul at liberty. The have preserved bis name, go before him, lack of this is the great defect of our the pride of his life snatched from his
literary men. The grace and simplicity eyes, the delight of his old age laid low of the Gospel are a stumbling-block to in the rest of death. One of these was
them. that Arthur Henry Hallam, who died in 1838, and to whom Tennyson dedicated
NEW ENGLAND HISTORIC-GENEALOGICAL the remarkable series of poems which
SOCIETY, have been published under the title of The regular meeting of this Society “ In Memoriam.” He was engaged to l was held at their room, when, after be married to the poet's sister. The be. some introductory remarks, the Rev. reaved father was broken-hearted for his Dr. Copp presented the following tri. son, and spoke of his hopes on this side bute to the memory of William H. the tomb being struck down for ever. Prescott, which was ordered to be en. His second son, Henry Fitzmaurice tered on the minutes of the Society, and Hallam, was taken from him shortly a copy sent to the family of the deceased after he had been called to the bar in historian : 1850, and the poor bereaved father “ The death of William H. Prescott, buried him in Clevedon Church, in So the eminent historian, which took place mersetshire, by the side of his brother, at his residence in this city, on the 29th and his sister and his mother. He se ult., is an event in the wise and holy lected the place, as he says in his me providence of God, over which the litemoir of the elder son, “not only from | rary world is called to mourn. the connexion of kindred, but on ac « The New England Historic and count of its still and sequestered situa-| Genealogical Society, of which the de