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politan jurisdiction over the other sees less ordinary man; but in him, like the of Bombay and Madras.
This post he somewhat corresponding qualities in held for just a quarter of a century, Rowland Hill, of whom he was said to discharging its duties with much energy be a great admirer, if not partial and firmness as a devoted minister of imitator, these served only to impart a the Gospel. His lordship was visitor of certain spicy zest to all his appearances, Bishop's College, Calcutta, and enjoyed alike public and private. an annual allowance of £5,000 a-year. “While fondly and conscientiously Bishop Wilson was the author of attached to the government and disciseveral volumes of " Discourses" and pline of his own church, he had a large Sermons," and of a very popular catholic heart, which eagerly embraced “Tract on Confirmation.” In 1803, he and sympathised with whatever was married a daughter of W. Wilson, of really good, holy, or excellent in the Worton House, Oxfordshire, and was membership of any other. Of this trait left a widower in 1827. His son, the or feature in his renewed nature, one Rev. Daniel Wilson, M.A., of Wadham characteristic exemplification now occurs College, Oxford, still holds the valuable
About the end of July, 1847, living of Islington, to which he suc- shortly after tidings of the sudden death ceeded at the elevation of his father to of Dr. Chalmers had reached us, I the episcopate.
happened to visit a poor countryman of Like not a few good and useful men, ours, who had been confined to the Mr. Wilson sprung from Whitefield's great jail for debt. On my return from Tabernacle, Moorfields, London. There, jail, passing the new cathedral, which at the side of his excellent parents, he was at no great distance from it, and imbibed his genuine evangelism, and seeing the door of it open, 1 turned the noble spirit which governed him aside to have a look at the interior. to the latest day. The late W. Bateman, There, unexpectedly, I encountered the Esq., a name still revered by us and many bishop himself, and his excellent chapmore, as that of a man forward in lain, Mr. Pratt, now archdeacon of every good work, the impersonation of Calcutta. The bishop, saluting me in all that was true, just, upright, and his own usual frank and hearty way honourable, married Mr. Wilson's sister. took me by the arm, and, walking up The bishop, therefore, was the uncle of and down for a little, making a few Mr. Henry Bateman, of Clapton, a friendly inquiries, he suddenly stopped gentleman who reflects honour on the and with much feeling addressed me as name he bears, and on his highly follows:-'Ah, dear friend, what a loss respectable connexions.
has your church, and not
church The following is from the eloquent only, but the whole Christian world, pen of Dr. Duff:
sustained in the death of the great and “ It is not for me to attempt to good man, Dr. Chalmers ! How sin. delineate the character and labours of gular, that the Lord should be pleased such a man. And yet I should be false to leave me behind, who am three years to my own convictions, and a traitor to older than he was! Is it not a warning the great cause of the communion and to me to be ready? Dr. Chalmers was brotherhood of saints, were I to pass a man whom I not only admired, but over in silence the departure from loved. I have all his works in my amongst us of such a • master in library, and have not only read, but Israel. When he arrived here a quarter studied them. And what think you? of a century ago, he was in the very I myself once became a Dissenter in zenith of his powers of active useful- order to hear him preach. That is, I ness; and certainly few men have rushed with the crowd to a Disserting toiled more, or to more good purpose. chapel in London ; and, though it is Naturally endowed with great energies thirty years ago, I never think of that of mind and body-energies, in his wonderful sermon without feeling the case, happily sanctified and consecrated thrill of it here still,'—laying his band exclusively to the promotion of God's on his heart—and I seem as if I felt it glory,--he kept all around him in a
now!' state of constant friction and glow. “But the most distinguishing pecuAbout his manner of speech and action liarity of his character, and that which there were some peculiarities, and even constituted the real secret and fountain. eccentricities, which might have proved head of its catholicity, indefatigable fatal to the credit and influence of a laboriousness, glowing warmth, and
atbletic force, was his remarkably vivid apprehension of and resolute adherence to the doctrines of pure primitive apostolic Christianity. On the fundamental Pauline doctrine of `justification through faith alone, without the works of the law, never did Luther's own trumpet give a clearer or more certain sound. On the sovereignty of Divine grace in salvation, so glorifying to God and so humbling to man, Augustine, Calvin, and Knox would have hailed his utterances as those of a kindred spirit. Pelagianism, in all its forms, by repudiating the inherent depravity of human nature, and the consequent necessity of the Holy Spirit's regenerating, power, was the object of his special abhorrence. On Socinianism, under its varied Proteus-like modifications—which, by denying the Lord that bought us with His own atoning blood, would degrade the eternal Word, the Son of God, the brightness of His Father's glory, into a mere creature, and so reduce Christianity to the baldness and the barrenness of at best a mystic Mobammedanism or æsthetic Deism,-he was wont to cast the most withering frown. Into the anti-Scriptural character of Popery no Reformer had a more penetrating insight, or with intenser aversion denounced its malig. nant, soul-destroying tendencies. In modern Tractarianism, with its patristic and high-sounding medieval preten. sions, he, from the very first, was led to discern the very germ and rudiment of the whole Popish system; or, as that noble champion of Protestantism, Captain Gordon, late M.P. for Dundalk, once with rare felicity termed it,' the tadpole of Popery; and hence the frequency and vehemence, the severity and success, of his exposures of it. For his eminent services in this department alone, not his own church or other churches in India only, but all the Reformed churches throughout the world, owe him an everlasting debt of gratitude
" But, without enlarging any farther, as my heart would prompt me, I may compendiously express my own conception of his character as a Christian man and Evangelical bishop, by asserting my firm persuasion that, bad his lot been cast in less favoured times, he would, ‘for the testimony of Jesus,' have been found marching joyfully to the stake, in company with Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer, and, by the
fires of his own martyrdom, helping to light up that torch of evangelism in England which all the powers of darkness never can extinguish. Besides his services in the cause of Christ generally, those which he rendered to the cause of Missions must ever be conspicuous. The evangelisation of the world at large, and of India in particular, was ever uppermost in his heart as a subject of prayer and exhortation. Under this head, perhaps his most notable achievement was the authoritative repudiation and ejection of the caste system from the native churches of southern India. His task was all the more difficult from its having been tolerated in modified forms by Swartz and his associates, and treated and connived at as a civil rather than & religious institution by the gentle Heber and his successors in the Indian Episcopate. But the principle of caste being evil and heathenish to the very core, and entering into the very essence of Hindooism, did not fail, however guarded and fenced, gradually to issue in intolerable practicable abuses. With these Bishop Wilson was called upon, at an early period of his career, officially to grapple. And it redounds to his eternal credit that he did so in a Josiah-like style. Having fairly, mas tered the subject, and satisfied himself of its utterly antichristian character, he proposed no mere half-measures-no merely modifying limitary regulations. No; his firm and resolute decree was, that the system must be extirpated, root and branch, from the membership of the native churches, or the membership of the native churches must be ejected from their bosom, until they heartily abjured and flung out the evil thing from among them. This decree swept through the churches like the blast of a hurricane tárough an ancient forest. All that was crazy with age, or gnawed into cankers, or crusted with the moss of rottenness, fell before it. But the canse of truth and righteousness was all the better for the clearance. And the future sons and daughters of India's expurgated churches will rise up to bless the memory of Bishop Wilson."
ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. The death of Humboldt, in the republic of letters, is one of the greatest events of the year. He was one of those men whom it is the lot of few nations either to possess or lose. He was born for the aniverse, a chief among men, a prince among nobles. He will stand forth to the age of posterity as the first German of the nineteenth century.
Frederick Henry Alexander Humboldt, Baron, the greatest naturalist that has appeared since Aristotle, was born in Berlin, September 14, 1769, and was thus in the 90th year of his age. He was educated with a view to employment in the direction of the Govern. ment mines successively at Gottingen, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, at Hamburg, and at the Mining School of Frieberg. In 1792 he was appointed assessor to the Mining Board, a post which he soon exchanged for that of a director of the works at Baireuth. In 1795 he relinquished these duties in order to connect himself with those pursuits of investigation and discovery in which he has won an undying fame. From the earliest period he had evinced a faculty for physical inquiry, which he had assiduously cultivated by the study of chemistry, botany, geology, and galvanism, the latter then a new and incipient science.
He now proceeded to arrange and condense his scientific ideas, and test them comparatively before applying them in countries yet unexplored. His next care was to look round for a country whose undiscovered natural riches might open to the industrious inquirer a prospect of numerous and valuable discoveries. Meanwhile, he made a journey with Haller to North Italy, to study the volcanic theory of rocks in the mountains of that district, and in 1797 started for Naples on a similar purpose with Bach.
Compelled to surrender this plan by the events of war, he turned his steps to Paris; met with a most friendly reception from the savans of that capital, and made the acquaintance of Bonpland, just appointed naturalist to Baudin's expedition. Humboldt had only time to arrange to accompany his newly acquired friend, when the war compelled the postponement of the entire project. Upon this he resolved to travel in North Africa, and with Bonpland had reached Marseilles for embarkation, when the events of the times again thwarted his intentions.
The travellers now turned towards Spain, where Humboldt, whose great merits were made known by Baron von Forell, the Saxon minister, was
couraged by the Government to under: take the exploration of Spanish America, and received promises of assistance in his investigations. On the 4th of June, 1799, Humboldt and Bonpland sailed from Corunna, and happily escaped the English cruizers; and on the 19th landed in the haven of Santa Cruz, Teneriffe. They ascended the Peak, and in the course of the few days of their stay collected a number of new observations on the natural history of the island. They then crossed the ocean without accident, and landed on American ground near Cumana, on the 16th of July. They employed eighteen months in examining the territory which now forms the Free State of Venezuela, arrived at the Caraccas in February, 1800, and left the sea coast anew near Puerto Cabella, in order to reach the Orinoco by crossing the grassy steppes of Calobozo. They embarked on the Orinoco in canoes, and proceeded to the extreme Spanish post, Fort San Carlos on the Rio Negro, two degrees from the equator, and returned to Cumana, after having travelled thousands of miles through an uninhabited wilderness. They left the continent for the Havannah, and stayed there for some months, until, receiving a false report that Baudin was awaiting them according to appointment on the coast of South America, they sailed from Cuba in March, 1801, for Carthagena, in order to proceed thence to Panama.
The season being unfavourable to a further advance, they settled for a time åt Bogota, but in September, 1801, set out for the south despite the rains, crossed the Cordillera di Quindin, followed the valley of Cauca, and by the greatest exertions reached Quito, January 6th, 1802. Eight months were spent in exploring the valley of Quito and the volcanic mountains which enclose it. Favoured by circumstances, they ascended several of these surmounting heights previously unattained. On June 23, 1802, they climbed Chimborazo, and reached a height of 19,300 feet, a point of the earth higher than any which had hitherto been attained. Humboldt next travelled over Loxa, Jean de Bracomoros, Carxamarca, and the high chain of the Andes, and reached, near Truxillo, the shore of the Pacific. Passing thence through the desert of Lower Peru he came to Lima.
In January, 1803, he sailed for Mexico, visited its chief cities, collecting
facts, and departed for Valladolid. vations, or to combine such observations Traversing the province of Mechracan in a systematic manner, so as to derive and reaching the Pacific coast near from their diversity one rational whole; Jonillo, he retruned to Mexico. Here he Humboldt has done both so well that stayed some months, gaining large ac- his performances in either department cossions to his stores of knowledge by would entitle him to admiration. intercourse with the observant portion With a mind, in which was treasured of the educated classes of that country. up every observation or conjecture of In January, 1804, he embarked for the preceding philosophers, not excepting Havannah from Vera Cruz, remained those of antiquity, he set out measuring there a short time, paid a visit of two heights of mountains, noting temperamonths to Philadelphia, and finally ture, collecting plants, dissecting animals, returned to Europe, landing at Havre and everywhere pressing forward to in August, 1804, richer in collections of penetrate the meaning of the relations objects but especially in observations which he found to subsist between the on the great field of the natural sciences different portions of the organic king-in botany, zoology, geology, geography, dom and man. This latter new and statistics, and ethnology, than any pre- practical aspect of the natural science ceding traveller. Paris at that time was first presented by Humboldt, and offering a greater assemblage of scien- gives to such studies an interest for tific aids than any other city on the thousands who have no taste for the Continent, he took up his residence mere enumeration of rocks, plants, and there, in order to prepare the results of animals. The sciences which deal with his researches for the public eye. He the laws governing the geographical disshortly commenced a series of gigantic tribution of plants, animals, and men, publications in almost every depart- had their origin in the observations and ment of science; and in 1817, after generalisations of Humboldt, who may twelve years of incessant toil, four- be justly regarded as the founder of a fifths were printed in parts, each of new school of physical inquiry. which cost in the market more than In addition to the general and ulti£1000 sterling. Since that time the pub- mate gain to humanity of such an lication has gone on more slowly, and advance in science as Humboldt has was just completed a week before his effected, is to be reckoned the immediate death.
practical benefit of his observations, Having visited Italy in 1818 with according to which charts have been Gay-Lussac, and afterwards travelled in constructed, agriculture extended, and England in 1820, he returned, took up territories peopled. Humboldt is most his residence in Berlin, and enjoying popularly known by his
Kosmos," à the personal favour, and most intimate work written in the evening of his life, society of the Sovereign, was made a in which he contemplates all created councillor of State, and entrusted with things as linked together and forming more than one diplomatic mission. In one whole, animated by internal forces; 1829, at the particular desire of the and rears a monument at which sucCzar, he visited Siberia and the Caspian ceeding generations will gaze in astonishSea, in company with Gustav Rose and ment. Of this noble work a recent Ehrenberg. The traveller'accomplished critic says :-" Who else could have à distance of 2,142 geographical miles, achieved—who but he could have atjourneying on the Volga from Novogorod tempted—the Atlantean service ? to Casan, and by land to Catharineberg, Spread his · Kosmos' before a young Tobolsk, Barnaul, by Buchtarminsk to and ardent intelligence, which has just the Chinese frontier. On their return then accomplished its regular liberal they took the route by Ust-Kamono- nurture, and say, ' Read and compregorsk, Orusk, the Southern Ural, Oren- hend.' The comprehension exacted berg, Sarepta, Astrahan, Moscow, and will, when acquired, have added an Petersburg. Taken singly, there is not education." one of Humboldt's achievements which Such was Humboldt, in his own has not been surpassed, but viewed as walk, one of the mightiest among the a whole they constitute a body of ser- sons of men. It is to be wished that vices rendered to society such as is his spiritual views had been more fully without a parallel. The activity of developed. There is reason to believe, naturalists is commonly directed either however, that he feared God: as to the to accumulate rich materials in obser- clearness of his evangelical views, we
have no means of ascertaining the true | tion on a lone bill that overhungs the facts. From a private letter of his to a Bristol Channel.” friend of ours, a copy of which has been Among historians it may be affirmed sent us, we incline to judge favourably. that no one is equal to Mr. Hallam in
impartiality. There bave been histo
rians as erudite and not less acute, more HALLAM AND PRESCOTT.
inspiring as thinkers, more elegant as ENGLAND and America have each
writers, but for stern justice he was been called upon to surrender their probably without a rival. His unflinchmost ancient and renowned historian
ing integrity, his subjugation of personal Hallam and Prescott. Hallam died on prejudice, his determination to speak the 22nd of January, 1859, six days the truth under all circumstances, is one before the death of Prescott. He had
of the rarest things in literature. This reached the great age of eighty-one perfect frankness never takes in him the years, having been born in 1778. He
form, which it assumes in minds less was educated at Eton and Oxford. He
accurately balanced, of an impatient afterwards settled in London, where he desire to speak unpalatable truths in has always since resided. In 1830 he
season and out of season. Perhaps received one of the two fifty-guinea gold there never was a critic who was medals instituted by George IV. for little of an egotist, and whose judgment eminence in historical composition, the was so little swayed by personal feel. other being awarded to Washington ings, either of regard for himself or of Irving. He was at an early period en- regard for others. gaged as a regular contributor for the
The subjects of Hallam's works are of Edinburgh Review, contemporaneously a l'econdité and thoroughly unpopular with his friend Sir Walter Scott, and
character, requiring immense research bore an active part in Mr. Wilberforce's and a sound understanding, qualities great movement for abolishing the wbich he supplied in a measure that slave trade. Mr. Hallam's works are:- could scarcely have been exceeded. The “ The Constitutional History of Eng. sole and only object of his inquiry was land,” 2 vols. 8vo.; "The History of truth. His mind was of a character Europe during the Middle Ages,” 2 vols.
that approached perfection. It is not 8vo.; “ An Introduction to the Literary
easy to espy in it a single token of History of Europe during the 15th, infirmity. 16th, and 17th centuries,” 3 vols. 8vo. Hallam was sober-minded in the exIt was his bitter fate to outlive those
treme; he was, in a sense, devout, but who should have come after him, to see it
be doubted if he knew that truth two sons of rare promise, who should which sets the soul at liberty. The have preserved his name, go before him, lack of this is the great defect of our the pride of his life snatched from his literary men. The grace and simplicity eyes, the delight of his old age laid low
of the Gospel are a stumbling-block to in the rest of death. One of these was them. that Arthur Henry Hallam, who died in 1838, and to whom Tennyson dedicated
NEW ENGLAND HISTORIC-GENEALOGICAL the remarkable series of poems which have been published under the title of The regular meeting of this Society “In Memoriam.” He was engaged to was held at their room, when, after be married to the poet's sister. The be- some introductory remarks, the Rev. reaved father was broken-hearted for his Dr. Copp presented the following trison, and spoke of his hopes on this side bute to the memory of William H. the tomb being struck down for ever. Prescott, which was ordered to be en. His second son, Henry Fitzmaurice tered on the minutes of the Society, and Hallam, was taken from him shortly a copy sent to the family of the deceased after he had been called to the bar in historian :1850, and the poor bereaved father “ The death of William H. Prescott, buried him in Clevedon Church, in So- the eminent historian, which took place mersetshire, by the side of his brother, at his residence in this city, on the 29th and his sister and his mother. He se- ult., is an event in the wise and holy lected the place, as he says in his me- providence of God, over which the litemoir of the elder son, “not only from rary world is called to mourn. the connexion of kindred, but on ac- "The New England Historic and count of its still and sequestered situa- Genealogical Society, of which the de.