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cult (as in Æsop's fable) to overrate the l they cost the public double that sum. immense injury to public health arising This amounts to £7,746,100, which, in all ways, directly and indirectly, from added to the charges for the expense of this obviously avoidable cause, whereas offenders in gaol, shows the criminal privation kills comparatively few. The classes entail an annual expense upon deaths by cold were only 45, against the community of not less than 195 in 1855, the difference clearly ex £10,000,000! The constabulary force hibiting the superior elevation of tem in England and Wales consists of perature in 1857.

20,256 persons, which is an increase on 428 deaths were referred to “poison," the preceding year. The total cost of such properly so called ; 2,807 to drowning police last year was £1,447,019 3s. 7d. (exclusive of cases at sea); 1,402 to There are 138 detective officers. In hanging or suffocation; 605 to wounds; September last, the criminal classes and 5,338 to fractures and contusions numbered 160,346, and of that number from all sorts of mechanical hurts.

134,922 were at large. Of the criminal Taking the ratio of 17 in 1,000, as classes mentioned in September there what may be called the “healthy stand were 101,657 males and 58,689 females. ard,” it is deplorable to hear that on an The youth of both sexes form a large average 57,582 persons died in London proportion, being 18,807 or 13.9 per annually during the five years 1849–53, cent. There are 3,122 houses of whereas the deaths should not, at rates receivers of stolen goods, 2,402 publicof mortality then prevailing in certain houses, the resort of thieves and prosti. districts of England, have exceeded tutes, and other houses of a similar 36,179; consequently 21,403 unnatural kind, numbering in the whole 7,096. deaths took place every year in London. There are 7,915 brothels and houses of In Liverpool, by the same method, it is ill-fame, and 6,987 tramps' lodgingfound that 6,418 lives were lost in the houses, making 15,120 houses of bad year 1857, in excess of the deaths at character. The number of felonies the healthy rates. In Manchester the committed in the year ending Septemsickness and mortality are also excessive. ber last was 57,868. In the same

period, 30,458 persons were appreTHE MORAL CONDITION OF ENG hended. Last year there were 85,472 LAND AND WALES.

persons charged with drunkenness, and The bulk of people have no conception of that number 51,861 were convicted. of the real state of the society in the The assaults committed were 83,086 in midst of which they are living, and but number, and of these 49,873 were confor our judicial and police systems, it victed. A larger number of offences could not be ascertained. The crimes were dealt with summarily under the of the day appear in the columns of the Criminal Justices' Act and Juvenile newspapers only in detail, and, there Offenders' Act. Proceedings were fore, the sum makes but little impres adopted against 24,636 common women, sion. The deeds of to-day overlay and and the number at large was 28,760. conceal those of yesterday, and the There were in the year 1858 as many deeds of to-morrow are not anticipated. as 260,290 summary convictions. Last To be duly estimated they must be year there were 19,846 coroners' inquests, viewed in the aggregate, and hence the being a decrease on the preceding year, value of the Parliamentary Returns by when the number was 20,157. The which we are enabled to do this.

costs of the inquests last year were In the annual “ Judicial Statistics," £58,973 11s. 9d., or on an average of in the parliamentary volume, recently £2 19s. 5d. each inquest. Last year published, a mass of useful information 13,246 persons were sentenced, and of is afforded. Some of the revelations that number 53 were capital convictions. made by Mr. Samuel Redgrave, in the The number executed was 1], in each Criminal Registrar, are astounding, and case for murder; they were all males, compilation must have been a work of and four of them foreigners, making in great labour. The number of the the last three years eight foreigners out criminal classes at large amount to of 40 persons executed. 134,922 in England and Wales. These Now, these few figures present a most live by the plunder and vices of the appalling spectacle. Who can comprecommunity ; to-day in wasteful extra. hend the misery caused and endured vagance, to-morrow in want. “Each | by the classes here specified ? What & spends less than £25 yearly, though | field for Christian philanthropy!

ISLAND OF ERROMANGA. ERROMANGA is the island on which the English missionary, John Williams, suffered martyrdom. Undaunted by his tragical fate, another missionary is at work among the same savage people. From a letter which he writes we make a few extracts :Dillon's Bay, Erromanga,

« March 22, 1859. “ As this island has become of classic interest to many Englishmen, by having been the scene of the martyrdom of a distinguished English philanthropist, I have no doubt that some of your readers will accept a brief statement of the present condition of its inhabitants from à missionary who has been nearly two years labouring among them. Some noble efforts were made for the conversion of this island to Christianity several years ago, but by reason of the unhealthiness of the climate, native teachers from the Eastern islands could not remain long on it at one time, and when we arrived we consequently found it destitute of teachers, and many of the natives engaged in war, in which, for the most part, they are still engaged ; even while I am writing, they are assembling around us for war, with their faces painted red and black-horriblelooking wretches. They use caves for forts, and some of them build fortifications, by which their wars are prolonged. When we first landed on the island we succeeded in collecting ten of them for instruction on the Sabbath day, and now ten times ten. But these, I am sorry to say, have not yet abandoned heathenism, with the exception, perhaps, of two or three young men, who are beginning to see that they have inherited lies,' for they still worship their own gods, and ask us to pay them for making narot (worship) for us. We also hope that a few interesting women are beginning to appreciate the Gospel, for they come to hear it preached, although some of them have been cruelly beaten by their brutish husbands for coming into our school-house. They frequently commit suicide. The chief's are the most opposed to the Gospel, because they now perceive that if it prevail, it will divest them of their priestly offices, and of some of their wives. Some of them have twenty.

“Like all other heathen nations, the

natives of this island have traditions derived from the primeval families of the earth. They believe that one creator (Nobu) created all things visible and invisible, and by his mighty power upholds all things—even the stars from falling. They however exclude him from ruling over human affairs, by the deification of their deceased patriarchs, whom they exalt to this office, while they give them the character of demons. There seems here to be the confounding of the primeval knowledge of evil spirits with that of the spirits of their deceased chieftains. They have a tradition of the flood which connects the agency of Nobu with the drying up of the waters. They practise circumcision on this and the neighbouring island, and when foreigners ask them why they hold this rite, they simply reply, ' Nobu, the creator, gave us this rite,' which is namon (secret). They have no carved idols, excepting some ring-formed stones, which are held in great veneration, not only as idols but also as relics of antiquity. They believe that the gods gave them to their progenitors. No one supposes that they were ever made by man. It is probable that their forefathers brought them with them when they migrated here.

“ The natives who surrounded Captain Cook when he discovered this island, "understood quite well the meaning of the green branch which he held in his

hand, and when they saw the new float| ing world in which he came, they said,

• This is Nobu;' and to this day they call all foreigners by this name who have wisdom to make and govern ships.

“ We have had again very recently another dreadful massacre of foreigners on this dark island, which calls vividly to remembrance the martyrdom of Williams and Harris. A few mornings ago, a bost of infuriated savages rushed on one of the foreign establishments and killed seven foreigners, three of whom were Europeans. Others have been wounded, and two more since have been killed and eaten, quite near to us. I, however, travel among them, and spend

nights with them where these deeds are | perpetrated, not of course without

danger, from which God is our shield. I have just put a party of fighting men to flight by a few words from the Book.”.

Literary Notices.

The Atonement; its Relation to Pardon : an

Argument and a Defence. By the Rev. E. |
MELLOR, M.A. London: Hamilton and

Co.
It is curious to see how Protestantism is
panting after conformity to Popish usages.
In addition to the red and the black ink
employed in the title-page of this book, it is
stamped with the impress of the Cross. We
do not like this: it seems to savour of a spirit
which bodes no good to the churches of our
times. The Cross on the breast, the Cross on
the Bible, the Cross on the book-marker, the
Cross on the mantelpiece, the Cross on the
pulpit, the Cross on the gable, the Cross
everywhere-is now the rage of a portion of
the 'Protestant world! The Cross easily
passes into the Crucifix; let men mark that!
Going this length they will by-and-by go
farther; and there will be no stopping till
we reach the “Flaminian Gate," and find
ourselves safely ensconced in the Vatican!
We may leave the Crucifix to those who know
nothing of the true doctrine of the Cross, on
which the Son of God expired in atoning for
the sins of men ! That doctrine is most ably
set forth in the valuable discourse or disserta-
tion of Mr. Mellor, who is always at home
when descanting on this incomparable theme.
We cannot desire a better dissertation; and
the appendix, in reply to the Unitarian
minister at Leeds, is in itself a considerable as
well as a very valuable publication. The
volume, taken as a whole, is worthy to con-
stitute a species of manual on the atonement.
It is a complete digest of this great and para-,
mount subject, presenting, within the smallest
compass, all the main points of the great
question. Mr. Mellor has performed a service
for which he is entitled to special thanks.

outlay of capital which few publishers would
feel disposed to hazard. Mr. Nichol, how-
ever, has dared the danger, and we trust the
public favour, which he has so richly merited,
will bring him safely through.
Manliness : Hints to Young Men. By JOHN

BROOKE. London: Blackwood.
The avowed object of this very racy publi-
cation is to expose some of the follies which
too extensively abound amongst young men,
-to point out the true principles of a manly
character, and encourage young men to be
virtuous, independent, grave, and energetic;
in a word, to cultivate in them the spirit of an
exalted manhood. The publication is greatly
to our taste. Notwithstanding its brevity, it
is the result of much thinking, much reading,
and much pains-taking. We should be at
some loss to point to any publication of about
one hundred pages comprising so much mas-
culine thought and excellent matter. We
could wish a copy of it to be in the hands of
every young man in the empire.
Gleanings from Gospel Story; or, New Testa-
ment Narratives explained and illustrated,

London : Knight and Son. We have here'twelve clever, instructive, and edifying essays on some of the more remarkable portions of the Sacred Volume, which will be read with interest by the Christian public generally. The illustrations of the volume are elegant and appropriate.

The Church Distinguished; or, the Christian

Community in its Relation to the World.
By CALEB WEBB, London: Houlston and

Wright.
MR. WEBB is a thoughtful man, and he has
here supplied a large amount of thinking.
An air of originality rests on the volume,
which is fitted to fix the reader's attention on
lessons of the highest moment. The grand
idea of the distinctive character of the church
from the world is successfully elaborated.
The earthward spirit of the times, and the
special danger of the church from her readi-
ness to mingle with the world, are clearly
set forth. To keep free from this is the great
difficulty, as it ought to be the daily pursuit
both of individuals and fellowships. Making the
usual allowance for occasional difference of
judgment, we entertain a very high opinion of
the book.

My Evenings ; or, the Story of Ann Ellison's

Life. London: Knight and Son. THE Editor suggests that the history of Ann Ellison and her evenings may be instructive to both rich and poor, and we quite concur in the assumption. The pretty book is full of life, and such life as is lived by the millions, blending much enjoyment with much endurance. We have not, for a long time, met with a volume of its magnitude comprising so large an amount of fact and incident, stirring scenes, and touching lessons. Whether in the cottage or the mansion, it will be sure to find readers; and if we mistake not, all who begin will go through with it.

The Missing Link; or, Bible Women in the

Homes of the London Poor. By L. N. R.

London : Nisbet and Co. We are very glad to meet with another publication from the accomplished, although anonymous, author of the present work, which is a collection of truthful thoughts of acknowledged interest, which have been scattered through the pages of the “Book and its Mission." A summary of this, it seems, has been frequently asked for. They are here carefully classified, with a view to render the book still more instructive, captivating, and useful. We have here twenty-two chapters teeming with matter much fitted to enlist the sympathies of Christian philanthropy, The

The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser. In

Five Volumes. Vol. V. Edinburgh: Nichol.

London : Nisbet. We have now reached the close of this great undertaking, for such it is. Five volumes of such letter-press and getting-up imply an

book is a storehouse of facts intimately re- 1 lated to human nature, which all classes accustomed to read anything will read with pleasure and with profit.

volume, but it displays a mind of superior power, and highly cultivated. It is entitled to the perusal alike of Churchmen and Dissenters, since there is much in it calculated to instruct, correct, and benefit both.

The Camp and the Sanctuary. A Memoir of

Thomas Haskar, formerly of the 1st Dragoon Guards. By JAMES EVERETT. Lon

don: Hamilton and Co. THOMAS HASKAR is quite a hero of the humble class-a man of deep native sagacity, and of high moral courage. The facts of his adventures and perilous life are numerous, and many of them very exciting. It supplies abundant material for an animated and amusing narrative, and in the hands of Mr. Everett the public will take it for granted that they have lost nothing. That gifted writer has performed his part with his usual tact, grace, and ability. We have read the book with no ordinary pleasure. The Precious Things of God. By OCTAVIUS

WINSLOW, D.D. London: Nisbet and Co. This volume is characteristic, bespeaking that deep piety, tender spirit, and contemplative habit, which are more or less impressed on all the writings of Dr. Winslow. As a thinking man, he has eminently the gift of awakening thought in others. Where all is excellent, to determine the shades of difference or superiority may be difficult. Let it suffice to say, however, that if the present be not the best of his productions, it is at least equal to the bulk of them. Simple, evangelical, and deeply experimental, it is much calculated to promote the spirit of true devotion. Joseph. A Poem. By SHARON. London:

Ward and Co. THE present volume will be read with much interest by young people, and by the peasantry of the land. The verse is constructed on one of the favourite theories of versification with Robert Burns; the first line always presents two words the one rhyming with the other, as :

“To justice hand the prison band.” The volume is full of capital reading, and worth adding to the village library. , , Garner's Dialogues. London: Day. . This is the most racy, spicy publication that has come before us for a long time. Every page is a poniard, and the aggregate, 174, is an avalanche under which the hapless, presumptuous Vicar of Brent is overwhelmed to rise no more! A more cutting exposure of clerical bigotry does not exist in the English tongue. It is not surpassed by Macgowan and Isaac. It is worthy of the Rev. W. Thorn himself in his best moods. It is a storehouse of facts, points, and exposures, the perusal of which will leave behind it an impression which will not be soon effaced. Custom without Truth is Antiquated Error.

By .a . CHRISTIAN LAYMAN, London:

Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. We know not who is the author of the present

Day Dawn in Africa; or, Progress of the

Protestant Episcopal Missions at Cape
Palmas, West Africa. By Mrs. Anna M.

ScorT. This is another of the series of valuable publications concerning Africa with which the Christian public have been furnished, of late years. The narrative is very copious and comprehensive, embodying a multitude of facts concerning African society, customs, habits, and actions. While beautifully written, it is also richly illustrated, and is altogether not merely a readable but a captivating volume. Christian Duties and Cautions relating to the

Holy State of Matrimony. By WILLIAM

CoE, Jun. London: Hall, Virtue, and Co. This is in some respects a remarkable publication. The author is a solicitor, whose health has interdicted his entering on practice ; and therefore, in order to promote the welfare of his fellow-men, and the honour of the Master he knows and loves, he betook himself to the preparation of this copious volume of nearly five hundred pages, touching on a series of points, all of vital importance in the domestic constitution, and intimately connected with the best interests of society. Did space permit, we would extract scores of passages of rare worth; but it must suffice to say that the book, in point of matter, is well digested; in point of style, well written ; and pervaded by a thoroughly Christian spirit. Since the days of Baxter and his brethren we have seen nothing of its class to be compared with it.

The Pilot; or, the Galilean Lake. By T.

LOWE. London : R. Davies. This is a book for the many, which will be specially precious to the pious portion of the millions. It is full of life and light, truth and beauty, everywhere exhibiting racy thought and interesting fact, with the most felicitous selection of sentiment, both in prose and verse.

Peace Stories. By KATE PYER. London:

Thickbroom. This pretty volume may be viewed as an introduction to the literature of peace. It is a singularly sweet and loving book, and one calculated to promote love among the rising race. Were every British child and youth in the teens to give it a careful perusal, it would leave behind it impressions which would redound to the peace and harmony of the world. Edith Grey; or, Ten Years Ago. By CHAR

LOTTE BONOMI. London: Hall and Co. We particularly commend the present volume to young ladies, who will find it an invaluable antidote to the empoisoned rubbish which is now being supplied to them in appalling

quantities. The writer thoroughly understands | Mr. Storrow, delivered at the last Annual the abomination of Popery, and is deeply | Meeting of the London Missionary Society, alive to the importance of the maintenance of need not be told how thoroughly that gentleour Protestant principles.

man is conversant with the subject of which

he here treats. In fact, the speech exhausted Village Poems. By R. S. R. London :

the question, if not in its details, at least in · Partridge.

its principles. Now, this golden volume is We know not why the present volume is just the speech amplified into six noble 'so designated, for it is not less suited to towns chapters, expatiating on the people, the and cities than to villages and hamlets. It obstacles, the agencies, the results, the proscomprises a body of verse abounding in pects, and the duties. The book, like the excellent sentiment, and pervaded by sound Society which the author so ably and honourprinciples.

ably represents, is thoroughly catholic, and,

therefore, adapted for circulation in every Light in Life's Shadows ; or, Hymns for the Evangelical community throughout the land.

Sorrowing. London: J. Haddon.
This is a book of consolation, which the

The Pitcher and the Fountain. By the Rev. afflicted portion of God's people will find a J. GRAHAM, London : Thickbroom. valuable companion to the Bible. The selec This is an exceedingly valuable discourse on tion is excellent, and it is beautifully printed. one of the greatest themes of inspiration-the

promises. Their origin, character, and design Shall I follow Christ? By the Rev. J.

are ably and eloquently set forth, while the KENNEDY, M.A. London: Book Society.

appendix supplies a valuable selection of This most valuable sermon is the 186th May Scriptures, all bearing on the theme of the day lecture, delivered to young people at volume. Stepney Meeting by its present excellent pastor. The discourse is eminently fitted to

Tales of the Martyrs of the First Two subserve the interests of the present spiritual

Centuries. By the Rev. B. H. COWPER. movement going on in these realms. It over

London : Book Society. flows with Gospel, clearly stated, and vigor This most spirit-stirring book is alike suited ously enforced. We desire for it a circulation

to instruct the young and edify the old. It in hundreds of thousands !

appeals alike to the judgment and the heart, India and Christian Missions. By the Rev.

holding up the mirror of martyrdom to the

professing church in a manner well calculated E. STORROW. London: Snow.

to strengthen weak hands and encourage THOSE who remember the masterly speech of 1 heavy hearts.

Intelligence.

HOME RECORD. THE CHRISTIAN WITNESS FUND IN AID | sum of £258, with a special grant of £10, OF AGED OR AFFLICTED MINISTERS.---The makes a total distribution of £381 19s. 1d. Second Annual Meeting of the Trustees and

GRANTS FOR 1859. Managers of this Fund was held on Monday, the 9th of May last, in the Congregational

.....£10 | J. . Library. Mr. Joseph East, the treasurer, was in the chair. The balance-sheet for the past year was read, and has been subsequently audited, by auditors then appointed. The following grants to aged or infirm ministers were made, the initials of the grantees, and the amount given to each being appended, to be published in the CHRISTIAN WITNESS, in accordance with the requirement of the Trust Deed. On the motion of the Rev. James Parsons, seconded by Mr. James Spicer, the cordial thanks of the meeting were voted to the Rev. George Smith, for his gratuitous services as secretary to the Fund.

The payments on behalf of the Deferred Annuities, during the year, amounted to

5 W. . . £113 19s. 1d., which, added to the following

GEORGE SMITH, Hon. Sec.

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