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kingdom on the earth. The age of miracle is revival of religion is hopefully commenced in goze, and that of means has taken its place. Scotland. For a long time past, multitudes of
the faithful in that country have night and
day been pouring out their hearts to God in PASTOR ROUSSEL IN IRELAND.
that behalf. If their patience has been tried,
it would seem as if the answer had now beMANY of our readers have heard of M. gun to descend in “ showers of blessing." Roussel, of France-a man who has done While the manifestation is still confined to a great things, as well as suffered somewhat for small spot, the work there appears to be both the interests of truth in his native country. real and powerful. Let us trust, that these Is a man of intelligence, genius, and piety, are only the drops before the shower that is and with all a foreigner, and a Frenchman, to come down as rain upon the mown grass, his opinion on the subject of the Revival of refreshing, rejoicing and blessing all the Religion now going on in Ireland possesses an tribes of our Protestant Israel. It is matter extraordinary interest to those who, like our- for special remark, that Ireland, Scotlanı, selves, have been often taught and charmed by and Wales should, at the same time, be visited his inimitable writings. Had it been left in the same manner. England's time," the set with us to select an individual from the Con- time,” will, we trust, soon come ; and if last, tinent to examine and report on the subject, let us hope that there the blessing will be there is not in the French Empire one whom most abundant, forasmuch as the numbers we should have preferred. M. Roussel is and condition of the country require it. every way an unexceptionable, and a most Nothing short of this will meet the necessities reliable " commissioner.” He has no preju- of the case, more especially of the Metropolis. dice on the subject. His country has so It is, we think, of great moment that as many largely and so long been the abode of inti- English ministers as possible, of all denominadelity and atheism, that she possesses no tra
tions, should repair to Ireland, that they may ditional knowledge, or written history of
examine for themselves the true character of such things. He is, moreover, wholly unin- the revival. The greatest benefits might flow Hluenced by ecclesiastical connections, local from such a visit. If, in very deed, the circumstances, preconceived opinions, or pecu- Gospel is coming to the people of five counties liarities of creed and association. On all in the province of Ulster, “not in word only, these grounds superior importance attaches to but in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in his deliberately formed, and publicly recorded much assurance,” is it not greatly to be judgment.
desired that they should witness it with their This eminent man then, having read and own eyes and ears, and thus be enabled to heard much of the wonderful movement in compare the state of things which obtains at Ulster, at length determined to visit Ireland, home with this increased development of that he might inquire into the facts, and form
Divine influence? his own opinion. This he has done, and the Dr. Massie, we are happy to say, has been results are before the world. His report con- to Ulster, where he thoroughly scrutinized stitutes the first article in the present number
the work in the chief centres of manifestation ; of the CHRISTIAN WITNESS. It will there and having formed his own opinions, he is be seen that he pronounces absolutely and en- now reporting the things he heard and saw phatically in favour of the supernatural and to large assemblies both in the Metropolis Divine character of the movement. He has and elsewhere. We ourselves have listened to 10 doubt whatever that it is the effect of the him with an interest and a satisfaction which outpouring of the Spirit of God. The whole we should find it difficult to describe. The statement bears the peculiar impress of the address occupied about an hour and twenty French mind. Philosophy blends with fact minutes, and we believe most of the audience and enlightened observation. There are some would with us have been glad for a large statements, however, of an extenuating or extension of the time. The address was fresh, abating character, to which we should take and new-made up purely and exclusively of (xception ; but these are of no consequence as
the things Dr. Massie had seen and heard. foaching the general testimony. Suffice it to There was not, from beginning to end, a say, that, in the solemn judgment of Pastor sentence of the matter of his admirable Roussel, “ The finger of God is there !"
pamphlet on the subject, published some
the hands of every family in England. Dr. THE REVIVAL IN SCOTLAND.
Massie's temperamental tendencies do not lie
in the direction of enthusiasm ; his hard and From another page it will be seen, that the powerful intellect would rather lead to scep
ticism; but he strenuously contends for the Divine character of the revival.
Is it not desirable that, at least, one minister of our Body, from each of the great towns and cities, should visit Ulster ? cases, churches are quite able, and should be forward, to bear the expenses of their pastor's journey, and should do it. Where one church cannot, two or three might unite for that purpose. With respect to Home Missionaries, and zealous pastors of poor isolated churches, a score of these might easily be provided for by a few of our rich men combining for that purpose, or acting apart. That most excellent and incomparably useful layman, Mr. Drummond, of Stirling, has set a noble example by appropriating the large sum of £200 to aid Scottish ministers in crossing the Channel to visit the Irish field; and such was their readiness to avail themselves of his generosity that the whole sum was quickly applied for.
the Lord's people, more especially the recently converted, and what immediate replies are vouchsafed to their prayers.
The prayer meetings are universal through Wales, and God meets His people.”
This language is remarkable. We long for more light on the subject. Appearances are certainly full of hope. The foregoing statement indicates so much that is peculiar and powerful, that we are astonished more has not been heard concerning it. We cannot but rejoice that the Union is to be held under such circumstances, and do fervently hope that it will be honoured to help forward the great work already begun. We trust the English brethren will bring back with them not only a portion of “Welsh fire,” but of fire from heaven!
THE CONGREGATIONAL UNION. This important Body is to hold its autumnal meeting this year in Wales.
There is grace in this determination, and, perhaps, justice, since although professedly including Wales, no meeting of the Union has ever been held in that country. The distance will, no doubt, keep back English ministers, delegates, and visitors to a great extent, but still they will cheerfully submit to the inconvenience that Wales may receive this its first “benefit." The holding of the assembly there will bring forward large numbers of Welsh ministers and people, who have never been able to attend either in London or the provinces. This will, doubtless, materially contribute to interest the Welsh brethren in the organization, and lead many to unite who have hitherto kept aloof.
There is something quite opportune in the period selected for this visit to Wales, which, it would seem, is being visited by the same Divine power as is now so gloriously being manifested in Ireland and Scotland. In Wales the revival is represented by a minister labouring there as “manifesting itself among all orthodox Churches-the Established Church, Independents, Baptists, Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, Wesleyan Methodists, alike. It has produced great unity and brotherly love amongst them. It is wonderful to behold what a spirit of prayer has possessed
THE Peace, religiously viewed, is a matter of the deepest interest. It brings the entire population of Lombardy, amounting to nearly three millions, out of the house of Popish bondage, and introduces them to the glorious liberty, both civil and religious, of Sardinia. Henceforth they will enjoy all the blessings of a free press, a free pulpit, and an open Bible. Tuscany, Modena, and Parma, small Governments designated Duchies, have all burst their fetters; but there is ason to fear that these fetters will be replaced. Still, even should that unhappily be the case, a few months of full liberty will have been attended with consequences of the utmost importance to ultimate emancipation. The people have tasted its sweets, and they will not soon forget what they have experienced. The Papal States also, peopled by hereditary bondsmen, must continue to clank their chains, and wait for better times, which will finally put an end to their thraldom.
The great point is Lombardy. If it be remembered that, in point of population, that State is about equal to Scotland at the present hour, it will be seen that its deliverance is far from a light matter, and that the effect on the surrounding States, even if enthralled, cannot fail to be great and lasting. The Sardinian power is by this means nearly doubled, and now constitutes a very considerable kingdom. Lombardy, for a long time to come, will furnish by far the best field for Protestant Missions in Continental Europe.
CANADA. CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES. THERE are altogether, so far as known, 82 churches.
MEMBERSHIP. Seventy-five churches report on their roll, May 3rd, 3,435 members; of whom 1,368 are males, and 2,067 females. During the year, 38 have been removed by death, 131 have received regular dismission by letter, 9 have withdrawn without church action, and 40 have been removed by discipline. Total removals, 218.
The additions reported are, 191 by letters of transfer, and 355 by profession; in all 546. Twelve reports show a decrease of 55 in the aggregate; eleven reports show no change, the removals and additions being equal; while forty-four report an aggregate increase of 384. The net increase according to the returns is 329,
Seven new churches have been formed, including one reorganization.
“ Union Schools," and their attendance is not included. The 81 belonging to the churches reporting have 555 teachers, and 4,102 scholars.
CHURCH PROPERTY. The churches in the table report 60 houses of worship; with sitting accommodation for 15,880 persons; estimated as worth 151,336 dollars. There are six other churches owned by the denomination, some of which, however, are at present loaned, or let to other bodies. The sum of 58,500 dollars is insured upon the 60 chapels reported. Only 42 reply satisfactorily to the inquiry respecting the legal transfer and registration of these real estates.
There are likewise six ministers' houses owned by the churches, valued at 3,500 dollars. A large proportion of the returns evidently state the value only of the buildings, making no estimate of the real estate. Another year this indefiniteness should be remedied. The total value of property, as reported, is 154,836 dollars.
MINISTERS. Again we are permitted to report that death has made no breach upon our staff of ministerial labourers. But three have resigned their charges, with impaired health, and are seeking its renewal by temporary cessation from labour. A fourth has been entirely disabled by sickness throughout the year, though he retains his pastoral charge. One of these Srethren is about to leave our northern clime for the coast of Africa, in hope of thereby regaining physical vigour.
Three graduates of our Theological Institute-two of last year's classes, and one of the present — have entered spheres of pastoral ministry. Another graduate, who for a time laboured in New York State, has returned to this province, and gathered a new church.
Three ministers have entered the field from Great Britain, and are in pastoral charges.
Thirteen ministerial settlements have taken place during the year now expiring,
The following table, it is believed, includes all the Congregational ministers of Canada :Pastors, or stated supplies
55 Professors, Tutors, or otherwise, in Educational departments..
5 Agents of Missionary or other Religious
FINANCES. The returns show a sum-total of 38,971 dollars contributed for all purposes; made up of the following amounts, viz. :
Dollars. For Ministers' support...
38,971 This aggregate, compared with the present roll of church members, shows an average of about 11 dollars 30c. for every name enrolled. This, of course, is not the true average of each member's contributions, as many, not enrolled, are liberal supporters of religious institutions. But it is the nearest approximation that we can make. The average to each regular hearer is about 4 dollars.
Fifty-three returns report Home Missionary collections; and eleven have contributed to Foreign Missions. Thirty-eight report subscriptions or collections to the Theological Institute. Fourteen report considerable expenditures under the heading of "debts, building, and repairs.”
71 AVERAGE HEARERS. There are 133 regular stations connected with the 75 churches that have reported, with an aggregate average of 9,788 regular hearers, and 2,000 attendants on occasional services : together making 11,788. In addition to the above Sabbath congregations, there are 88 week-day services reported, with an aggregate average attendance of 1,739.
BRITISH EXPORT TRADE IN 1858.
A return has been issued by the Board of Trade of the declared value of British and Irish produce and manufactures exported from the United Kingdom during the past year. From this document the following list has been compiled, showing the order in which the various communities of the world rank as our customers. It indicates the extraordinary fluctuations which took place in our trade, not as regards extent but direction-Australia,
Eighty-six are reported; 5 of which are
in the market £13 4s.; but still another process of hardening this original farthing's worth of iron, renders it workable into 7,650 balance springs, which will realize, at the common price of 2s. 6d. each, £946 5s., the effect of labour alone. Thus it may be seen that the mere labour bestowed upon one farthing's worth of iron, gives it the value of £920 5s., or 4,552 dollars, which is 75,980 times its original value.
which was almost equal with India in 1857, having since fallen far below it, and Turkey and other Eastern States having continued steadily to improve, while in the general business of Europe there has been a falling off. The totals for the United States and South America likewise exhibit a great decrease, which, however, will most likely be recovered in the present year. Thirty-five per cent. of our aggregate shipments go to our own possessions, 12 per cent to the United States, 11 per cent. to Germany, and 7} per cent. to South America :
1858. British Possessions... £37,154,688 £40,224,994 United States .........
18,985,939 14,510,616 Germany
13,098,463 12,753,655 South America 10,989,332 8,634,636 Holland
6,384,394 5,456,423 France
6,213,358 4,861,558 Turkey..
3,107,401 4,256,406 Russia
3,098,819 3,096,278 All others.....
£122,066,107 116,614,331 From this it will be seen, that the main prop of British Trade is our British possessions,-a most material circumstance, as bearing on the stability of Britain's greatness. It is several millions more than that of all the great Continental Powers above set forth, united; and next to England's younger progeny is her eldest daughter, the United States.
WRECKS AND CASUALTIES IN 1858.
The return of wrecks and casualties which occurred on and near the coasts of the United Kingdom, from the 1st of January to the 31st of December, 1858, has been issued. The return shows an increase on the whole number of wrecks and strandings, viz., 869 against 866 in 1857, and 837 in 1856; but it is to be observed that the number of total losses under those heads exhibits a decrease, being 354 in 1858, against 384 in 1857, and 368 in 1856. The number of total losses by collision is 50 against 53 in 1857, and 51 in 1856, while the number of casualties, involving damage by the same cause, is 251 against 224 in 1857, and 265 in 1856. The number of lives saved during the year 1858 presents much cause for congratulation ; for out of 1,895 lives in actual peril from shipwreck, 340 only were lost, and 1,555 saved. Of these latter 206 were saved by life-boats, and 210 by the rocket and mortar apparatus. The remainder, with the exception of twenty-six lives (saved by meritorious individual exertion), were rescued by ships, steamers, small craft, and coastguard boats, and amount to 1,113. The lives lost in the three last years show a gradual, and in the last year especially, a satisfactory decrease, compared with the whole number of lives in peril.
IDOLATRY IN INDIA. The Rev. Baptist W. Noel, London, in his recent work on the Government of India, makes the following singular, and, doubtless, authentic statement :-" In the Madras Presidency there are now 8,292 idols and temples receiving from Government an annual payment of 450,000 dols. In the Bombay Presidency there are 26,589 idols and temples under State patronage, receiving grants to the amount of 150,000 dols.; to which must be added the allowance for temple lands-giving a total for the Bombay Presidency of 450,000 dols. In the whole of the Company's territories there is annually expended in the support of idolatry, by the servants of the Company, the large sum of 850,000 dols.!" In view of these facts, it is not surprising to learn that a prize of fifty guineas has been offered for the best Essay on the position which the Government of India ought to assume towards Christianity and Christian missions,
We are informed, that while the State of New York bas the least mortality of any State or country of its size in the world, the city of New York has the greatest of any city, large or small. The deaths in the State, exclusive of the city, in 1855, were 23,255, with a population of 2,836,400; while the deaths in New York city, in the same year, were 23,012, with a population of 629,000-an almost equal number of deaths, with one-fourth of the population. The Philadelphia Press gives the table of mortality in different countries :
New York, (exclusive of City) 8 in 1,000 United States
23 Denmark France
LABOUR TO MAKE A WATCH. Mr. Dent, in a lecture delivered before the London Royal Institute, made an allusion to the formation of a watch consisting of 992 pieces; and that forty-three trades, and probably 215 persons are employed in making one of those little machines. The iron, of which the balance spring is formed, is valued at something less than a farthing; this produces an ounce of steel worth 4.d., which is drawn into 8,250 yards of steel wire, and represents
MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. According to the New York Evangelist, the number of missionary arrivals in China annually, for the past eleven years, has been as follows:-In 1848, 17; 1849, 7; 1850, 10; 1851, 9; 1852, 7; 1853, 8; 1854, 15; 1855, 13; 1856, 10; 1857, 6; 1858, (nine months,) 5.
Total, 107. Of this number, fourteen have died, twenty-three have retired from the work, and at least ten are absent on account of poor health, or some other sufficient reason, leaving only sixty out of the 107 who at the present time are actually engaged in the missionary work in China.
LENGTH OF A MILE. The mile varies in length in different countries. For example:-the English mile is 1,760 yards; the Russian, 1,100; the Italian, 1,467; the Irish and Scotch, 2,200; the Polish, 4,400 ; the Spanish, 5,028; the German,
5,866; the Swedish and Danish, 7,233; and the Hungarian, 8,830. The French measure by the mean league, which is 3,666 yards.
PERIODICALS. Upwards of 650 periodicals, of various classes, are published in London only, according to a catalogue for 1859. Since the appearance of the catalogue for 1858, there have been no less than 150 new publications issued in London; and at least as many discontinued. The number of the different classes are as follows:–207 newspapers; 352 monthlies; 66 quarterlies ; 31 transactions of societies.
Memoir, Select Thoughts, and Sermons of the late E. Payson, D.D. Three Vols.
Nisbet and Co. It is almost too late in the day to offer tudes. The flexibility and taet of any criticism on the memoir of Edward Payson were remarkable. He could Payson, whose praise is in all the adapt himself alike to rich and poor, churches of Christ on both sides of the old and young. His singlemindedness, Atlantic. That work, indeed, is not too, was transcendant; and not loss without defects; it is confused, and extraordinary was his humility. His wanting in original observation. The element was emphatically one of devo- author has added nothing to its value; tion; his life a stream of fervent prayer. he very properly lays claim only to the His gift in prayer appears to have been honours of compilation. There is much his grand characteristic. It was an era omitted which the public had a right to in one's life to hear him. He seemed look for, and much that was required to so rich in grace, so near the throne, so make the work complete. It may be
full of God! defined a 6 bundle of extracts and let- The religion of Payson, as set forth ters,” with small regard to order or to in this memoir, demands special notice. chronological arrangement.
Still, in It is peculiar, and to the extent that it spite of the compiler's neglect or incom- is so, it differs from the portrait drawn petency, the book is one of extraordi- in the Holy Scriptures. His “expenary value. Payson was a man who rience,” as here delineated, is capricious would have defied the whole generation and fitful, made up of light and darkof blunderers to “burke” him. His ness, cloud and sunshine, pervaded by entire course of life and action was a a view of sadness and sorrow, somemass of vitality. His memoir is the times approaching desperation. It is history of his heart ! The emotional the religion of David Brainerd, and of everywhere overlays, or at least blends many others in his day, all over ; , with the intellectual. His sympathy thing of ups and downs and hidden imwith Christ was wonderful! And only pulses, ofttimes dreary, disconsolate, less wonderful was his people's sympa- and repulsive, wholly at variance with thy with him! Here, to a vast extent, the “experience,” all life, light, peace,
the spring of his ministerial joy and hope, of the New Testament. power. In other respects, he had among In both cases the cause was the samehis contemporaries, multitudes his
constitutional hypochondria, combined equals, many his superiors, but in this with a defective standard. This moody particular few ever approached him. temperament gave a colour to the whole Payson had clearly much in common
life of these most admirable men. We with our own Spencer, of whom a great make this statement by way of caveat, writer said, “His feeling was intellect; since, without this, their memoirs are his intellect was foeling.” The expres- calculated to distract, mislead, and dission is not very clear, but seems to im- courage, rather than to compose, guide, port that feeling and intellect were so and cheer, build up, and edily. mixed up as to form a unity of immense The “ Thoughts” are already well power in acting on the minds of multi- known to the public, and greatly prized.