Imágenes de páginas

sequent to the formation of these treaties,

Eastern. demonstrates its good faith with regard Kiang-su, Kinangnan. 45,500 37,843,501 to their execution.


48,461 34,168,059 I know not how this intelligence im

Kiangsi. i .. 72,176 33,426,999

. 39,150 26,256,784 presses the minds of Christians in Eug

Fuh-kien (with Formosa) 53,480 14,777,410 land and in the United States, but I can assure you that, in this far-off land,

Central. it thrills our heart with unwonted joy,

Hupeh, Hou Kwang . . 70,450 27,370,098 and cheers us with the most delightful

Hunan, . . . 74,320 18,652,507 anticipations. We fancy the night of

Western. our apparently unrequited toil is waning, Shensi . . . . . . 67,400 10,207,256 and that our day of fruitful labour

Kansuh . . . . . .

. 86,608 15,193,125 dawns apace. Our faith descries the

Sz-Chuen . . . . . 166,800 21,435,678 termination of our “wilderness” suffer

Southern. ings, and from this mount of vision we Kwantung (with Huynan) 79,456 19,174,030 survey our promised land of battle and Kwang-si ... i . 78,250 7,313,895 conquest. "Is it strange that, under

Kwei-chau . . . . . 64,554 5,288,219 such circumstances, we seek to replenish

Yun-nan ..... 107,9695,561,320 our resources, to re-adjust our armour, Total ... 1,297,999 560,659,900 and rally our forces for the war? Is it surprising, as we look over our thinned With regard to the other divisions of ranks, and then glance at the countless the empire, we have no reliable data for hosts of the enemy, that we send back estimates of area and population. The to the home churches this our urgent following approximate estimates on the cry for help? Would that the appeal subject have been published :-Manmight be as successful as it is earnest churia, area in square miles, 700,000; and sincere! We proceed to notice the population, 7,000,000. Mongolia, area field before us.

in square miles, 1,400,000; population, At the outset, we beg to enter our 14,000,000. Ili, area in square miles, protest against the omission or merely 900,000; population, 9,000,000. Thibet, cursory perusal of the ensuing para area in square miles, 700,000; populagraphs by any of our readers. We are tion, 7,000,000. The preceding figures aware of the apparently invincible dry are the approximate estimates for the ness of statistics, and of our inability to four divisions of the Chinese Empire impart to mere description the freshness last named. It is highly probable, and power of reality ; but the facts we however, that the actual population is are about to present are so intimately greatly in excess of these estimates. connected with our subject that we con From these statistics we learn that the sider their careful study essential to its territory embraced within the Chinese thorough appreciation. It may excite Empire is considerably greater than our interest to bear in mind that each that of all modern Europe. It comunit in those statistics of population re prises about one-third of the continent presents an immortal being, whose eter of Asia, or nearly one-tenth of the habinal destiny is inseparably blended with table globe, and contains within its vast this subject; and that the facts pre area the largest amount of population sented refer to a country whose history, and wealth ever united into one governpopulation, climate, geographical posi ment in the history of the world. The tion, and internal resources combine to eighteen provinces alone contain a popumake it the grandest empire on which lation equal to the combined populations the sun ever shone. The Chinese Em of Europe, Africa, and the entire contipire,-comprising China Proper, Man nent of America, furnishing, in fact, churia, Mongolia, Ili, and Thibet, about one-third of the population of the contains an area of 5,000,000 square globe. The preceding statistics, we miles, and a population estimated at trust, will receive the appreciative study 400,000,000. Restricting our view to of the reader. Their purport may be China Proper, we have the following: compressed into one sentence: One

Area in Population

tenth of the habitable globe, one-third of Provinces.

sq. miles. in 1812, the human race. Pechele, or Chihli .58,949

The geographical position of China 27,990,874

is interesting and auspicious. About Shantung . . . . . 65,104 23,958,765

one-fifth of her territory lies within Shansi . . . . . . 55,268 14,004,200 Honan . . . . . . 65,104 23,037,171 | the tropics; all the rest is within the


Northern. no


north temporate zone. She guards all | extent of unbroken territory so highly the south-eastern seaboard of a conti- favoured in this respect. nent on which have transpired the most Such is China : when cleansed from stupendous events of human history. its idols, and filled with the knowledge Her coast is studded with the finest of the Lord, it will present one of the harbours of the world, while her ma most glorious compartments of the kingjestic rivers are second only to those of dom of God upon earth. How stupenthe American continent. Her climate dous the undertaking! True: but the must be regarded as highly salubrious. Lord of Glory is at the head of the This fact is established by meteorologi enterprise. What is required? Prayer cal statistics, by the unanimous testi without ceasing! Who will offer it? mony of the most competent writers on Men and women! Who will offer themthe subject, by the physique of the selves ?-Money in tens of thousands Chinese, and their average longevity. | sterling! Who will give it ? Come It would be difficult, we conceive, to and help us ! find elsewhere in the world an equal


The Lay Preachers' Corner.

The vivid sketches which follow are from the pen of a Correspondent of the London Record, and as a Churchman they reflect much credit on his candour as well as his intelligence.

PROFESSOR PARK. Among the Congregationalists I would name, for instance, Professor Park, of the Andover Seminary, Dr. Bushnell, of Hartford, and Dr. Cheever, of New York. Professor Park is a man of acknowledged abilities, and of very considerable learning. The seminary at Andover has, for many years, stood in antagonism to Princeton. Since the death of Professor Stuart, Dr. Park has been regarded as the representative of the Andover School of Theology. This school differs from that of Princeton, in that it modifies materially the Calvinistic theory. It makes much more of human agency-regards and treats the sinner as having much to do in the matter of his salvation, and dwells much less upon God's sovereignty and his electing grace. At times the controversy between the two schools has raged with not a little of violence, so that Dr. Park has acquired a good deal of reputation as a polemic. He preaches very frequently on occasions of ordinations, and dedications, and at such times he usually selects some topic which will enable him to set forth the peculiar views of his school. His discourses are argumentative, metaphysical, and didactive. They deal much more with the intellect than with the heart. His style is rather brilliant and forcible, and he is, in one sense, a popular preacher. Those who are fond of theological discussions and highly-wrought mental efforts, will seek opportunities of hearing him. It has for some time been feared that the Andover school was drifting towards Rationalism. How well grounded such fear is I cannot say, but it is certain that very much is made of intellect, the attainments of reason, and the dignity of human nature; and there

is danger that these things may be confounded · with that Gospel which alone is the power of

God unto salvation. Professor Park is now in the vigour of life, and may accomplish a great work amid the Unitarianism and Infidelity of New England, provided he will adhere to the simplicity of the Gospel.

DR. BUSHNELL. Dr. Bushnell, of Hartford, is a man of much vigour of intellect, and of great originality. But his orthodoxy has been called seriously in question, and several attempts have been made to subject him to discipline. By the old school Congregationalists be is regarded as utterly unsound upon most of the great doctrines of the Gospel. It is said that his views of human depravity are very loose, that he makes but little of the agency of the Holy Ghost, and that he denies the commonly received opinions of the inspiration of the Bible, particularly the Old Testament. He certainly, in some of his works, seems to make religion a mere matter of education. Many of his brethren regard his system of teaching as little, if anything, better than Unitarianism. They believe that it tends directly to that result. Were he in the Episcopal Church, he would be regarded as one of the loosest of broad churchmen. He certainly holds many things in common with that school of divines. Such men are a kind of connecting link between low orthodoxy on the one hand, and Unitarianism, Universalism, and Infidelity on the other. It is a great pity that men of Dr. Bushnell's talents and influence should occupy such an equivocal position.

DR. CHEEVER. Dr. Cheever, of New York, is a Congregationalist, yet he has but little in common with Professor Park or Dr. Bushnell. As a preacher of the Gospel he is much more direct and distinct. He sets forth man's lost condition, the sovereignty of God, salvation by grace, and justification by faith. He holds firmly to the full inspiration of the Scriptures, and deals with them as the Word of God and not of man. In all these particulars he is unequivocal and uncompromising. He is an

exceedingly bold preacher, and shuns not to | ingdon is distinguished for his talents and declare what he conceives to be the whole scholarly attainments, but more particularly counsel of God. His fearless course has in for the position he occupies with regard to volved him in many serious troubles. Some Unitarianism. For some years he has been years since, when settled in Salem, Massachu gradually leaving distinctive Unitarianism setts, he espoused, with great zeal, the tem and coming upon the ground of a true orthoperance cause. He denounced in unmeasured doxy. He is an earnest man, and longs for terms the manufacture of, the traffic in, and something which his system can never afford. the drinking of, spirituous liquors. He em His intimate friend and companion, Mr. ployed both the pulpit and his pen to set forth Coolidge, has just entered the ministry of the the heinousness of the sin. It so happened Episcopal Church. He was for many years a that many of his own people were obnoxious Unitarian minister in Boston. But his mind to his rebukes and reproofs, and became ex was enlightened from on high, and by degrees ceedingly exasperated with him. For some he was led on step by step to comprehend the thing which he wrote, he was prosecuted by Gospel plan of salvation. one of his members, and thrown into prison. It has been thought that Professor HuntBut neither prison nor fines could intimidate ingdon would follow Mr. Coolidge, but this is or deter him. He bowed to the law, but con uncertain. But he is no longer a Unitarian. tinued his denunciations. Since he has been His sympathies are all with a purer faith, and in New York, he has had much difficulty with he cannot well stand where he is. There are nis people on account of the slavery question. others in and around Boston who are dissatisHe deems it his duty to preach, speak, and fied with the cold and blighting influence of write against the sin of slavery. Some of his Unitarianism, and are seriously considering leading members became restive under his what they shall do. All such will probably course, and made an effort to get rid of him, sooner or later find their way to a true but it resulted in his getting rid of them. In orthodoxy. dealing with the subject of slavery, he takes the Bible as his supreme authority. No man

DR. TYNG. amongst us, perhaps, is so fainiliar with the Another remarkable preacher in this country, Scriptures that bear upon this question as he is the Rev. Dr. Tyng, rector of St. George's is. Dr. Cheever does nothing by halves. He Church, New York. Dr. Tyng is now about takes his position boldly, and stakes everything sixty years of age, and has been in the ministry upon the issue. In manner he is very pe over thirty-five years. His early training was culiar. A stranger at first would regard him under the apostolic and sainted Bishop Grisas one of the most awkward of men, and yet wold. While residing in his family, he beafter listening for a little time, one gets used came acquainted with the bishop's mode of to his outlandish gestures, and his most sin conducting social services - what are now gular intonations. Indeed, these very things styled prayer meetings—and learned how serve to heighten the effect of his sermons. much a faithful pastor could accomplish He deals in argument, logic, apt illustrations, among his people by such informal services. invective, sarcasm, ridicule, and humour. After taking orders, Dr. Tyng was settled in a However much one may differ from him, it is rural parish in Maryland for several years. impossible not to be deeply interested and im He has often remarked, that while there he pressed by his preaching. Besides great men learned to preach the Gospel. That as most tal power, and a burning earnestness, there is of the population of the parish were slaves, a classic finish to his sentences which renders and, consequently, very ignorant, he was them peculiarly attractive.

obliged to study the utmost simplicity of style Dr. Cheever is one of the best hated men in and aptness of illustration. In no other way this country, and yet those who know him could he make his preaching intelligible or will regard him as one of the most amiable profitable to them. and excellent of men.

Whatever the Doctor may have learned I ought, perhaps, in this connexion to speak while in Maryland, it is certain that his preachof one other man, who though not now in ing ever since has been distinguished for its active life, was formerly a great light among simplicity, its directness, and its happy and the orthodox Congregationalists. I refer to striking illustrations. Quite early in his Dr. Lyman Beecher, the father of the Rev. ministry, Dr. Tyng was called to a church in Henry Ward Beecher. Dr. Beecher is now Georgetown, District of Columbia. He here very old, and seldom attempts to perform any became acquainted with Bishop M'Ilvaine, public duty. But in his day he was one of who was the rector of the other church in the most brilliant and powerful preachers in Georgetown. This acquaintance ripened into this country. While in Boston he waged an an intimacy which has continued ever since. incessant war with Popery and Unitarianism. They were both young, ardent, talented, and His preaching then created a great sensation, thoroughly Evangelical, and sympathised very and I do not think it too much to say that deeply with each other. From Georgetown, Unitarianism has never recovered from the Dr. Tyng was called to St. Paul's Church, blows it received at his hands. But he was Philadelphia. This brought him at once into not merely a controversialist-great as he was a new and much larger field of operation, in that line-he was still greater as a preacher where his peculiar talents and wonderful of the Gospel. His ministry was greatly powers were rapidly developed. He found St. blest, and multitudes were brought to the Sa Paul's in a distracted and depressed condition; viour through his instrumentality

but, under his energetic ministrations, everyI will refer to only one other person in this thing revived, and his church was soon full to letter, the Rev. Dr. Huntingdon, Professor of overflowing. His plain and pointed style of Divinity in Harvard University, Dr. Hunt-1 preaching was a great novelty in that city,

and many flocked to hear him out of mere curiosity. Not a few were displeased with him-not a few opposed him ; but the Lord stood by him. It was while connected with St. Paul's, that he entered upon the Sundayschool work, which has so distinguished his ministry. After serving St. Paul's for some years, he took charge of the Epiphany, a new enterprise in the upper part of the city. This afforded him a much larger field for his ministry. After the death of Dr. Bedell, Rector of St. Andrew's, Dr. Tyng was by far the most prominent clergyman of the Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. In addition to his labours as the rector of the Epiphany, he was one of the editors of the Episcopal Recorder, at that time the organ of the Evangelical party in our country. As editor, he performed a vast amount of labour, and did great service to the cause of truth. When the vacancy in the · Episcopate occurred, by the resignation of

Bishop Onderdonk, Dr. Tyng was the candidate of the Low Church party. When the election took place, he failed to receive the nomination of the clergy, through the defection of two or three individuals, although the laity, by a large majority, were in favour of his election. Had he consented to remain a candidate for another ballot, he would, in all probability, have been elected; but the Lord had a higher service for him than that of wearing the mitre. Just at this juncture, the excellent Dr. Milner, of St. George's, New York, was called to his rest, and Dr. Tyng was unanimously chosen to succeed him.

On removing to New York, he found himself at once amidst the excitements and conflicts which arose in consequence of the trial and suspension of Bishop Onderdonk, of New York. He immediately took ground in favour of law and order, and against the disorganising and rebellious course of Trinity Church and the Onderdonk party. This awakened the most bitter and persecuting opposition. In the Conventions of the diocese, every attempt was made to brow-beat and crush him. But they little knew the spirit of the man. This very course aroused and called forth all his mighty energies. He met them in Convention, and with an eloquence and power seldom equalled, awed them into something like good behaviour. It was soon seen that such a man could not be intimidated or put down, and it was not long before the policy of the High Church party towards him was entirely changed. Soon after his removal to New York, the vestry of St. George's resolved to remove the church to the then upper part of the city. Lots were secured, and the church edifice, Sunday-school building, and rectory were commenced, and in due time completed. It was a great undertaking, and met with a most determined opposition. But under the power of the rector's will and judgment, the enterprise was carried to a most triumphant completion; and now St. George's stands forth as the largest, grandest, and best arranged establishment in our church in this country. The church is thronged every Sunday with from 2,000 to 3,000 persons; the Sunday schools number about 2,000; and everything indicates the highest degree of prosperity. Such is St. George's at this time ;-monument energy.

As a preacher, Dr. Tyng stands among the foremost in America. He speaks without notes ; has a wonderful memory, and an almost unlimited command of language and illustration. His views of Gospel truth are clear and distinct, and in the pulpit he is always solemn, earnest, and impressive. Unlike Mr. Beecher, he confines himself strictly to preaching the Gospel-never allowing himself to be diverted by outside influences from this one great object. His instructions are sought by multitudes who do not belong to his church, and his own people place them above all price. No man is more beloved than Dr. Tyng is by his own flock. The children and youth almost idolize him.

As a platform speaker Dr. Tyng is unrivalled. The less prepared, the more wonderful apparently he is. Some of his impromptu addresses reach the highest style of eloquence. They seem like inspiration. He is grand, severe, argumentative, and playful, as occasion may require. His form is slight-his presence commanding-his actions graceful, and his voice clear and penetrating. Everybody hears him, and everybody understands him. He is never so great as when his indignation is kindled. Then the lightnings flash, and the thunderbolts are hurled in every direction, and woe to the man who gets in his way. But he is never so happy as when, in gentle mood, he tells of Jesus, and His great salvation. As age draws on, he seems more and more inclined to withdraw from everything else, and devote himself to his own people. Among them he is perfectly known and understood, and with them he is happy.

ADVICE TO PREACHERS. 1. Understand your text.

2. Confirm your view by private reference to the original.

3. Strengthen your opinion by once more reading the whole context.

4. Avoid a display of learning-criticise in the study—teach in the pulpit.

5. Divide your subject—it helps the hearers.

6. Speak in short sentences--it helps the preacher.

7. Use plain words—they are good for all sorts and conditions of men.

8. Avoid parentheses — they trouble the speaker, they puzzle the hearer.

9. Speak in the first person singularit gives reality.

10. Avoid `the first person plural-kings speak thus, preachers should not.

11. Apply pointedly-all within the church walls are not of the church of Christ.

12. Rebuke boldly.
13. Warn lovingly.
14. Encourage heartily.
15. Preach frequently with your tongue.
16. Preach always by your life.
17. Honour the Holy Ghost.

18. Remember your Master. Seek His glory, not your own.

old John Owen says somewhere: “To preach the Word, and not to follow it with prayer constantly and frequently, is to believe its use, neglect its end, and cast away all the seed of the Gospel at random.” 1 Cor. i. 21.

As a pendant to the above we give the fol


lowing rules, set down, we believe, by a | idea, and then speak it right out, in the plainest, preacher from his own experience :

shortest, possible terms. 1. Resolve to be brief, as this is an age of 6. Avoid all high-flown language; quote telegraphs and stenography.

no Hebrew or Greek; aim to be simply a 2. Be pointed : never preach all around

preacher. your text without hitting it.

7. Be honest enough to own that you do 3. State your proposition plainly, but do avail yourself of help from any source. But not stop long to particularize.

in using helps, be sure you never make stilts 4. Avoid long introductions: but plunge of them, when your own legs are far better. into your sermon like a swimmer into cold 8. Expect the Father's blessing ; you are water.

His servant, and can do nothing without it, 5. Condense; make sure that you have an! 9. Stop when you are done,

Literary Notices.

Memoir of the Rev. E. Henderson, D.D., | the gifted and admirable woman who

Ph. D. Including his Labours in survives him.
Denmark, Iceland, Russia, &c., &c. But we must stop: our business is
By Thulia S. HENDERSON. Knight not to write a memoir, but call attention
and Son.

to that of his incomparable daughter,

who bas performed her task in a manner To the volume is prefixed a beautiful worthy of her sex, her relation, and her portrait of a beautiful character,-a genius. Miss Henderson,-although, striking image of that countenance from her extreme modesty, which which cheered and charmed every be prompts a strong preference for the holder. What Burke said of Fox may anonymous, it is not generally known,be far more correctly said of Dr. E. occupies a first place among the literary Henderson, -"he was made to be! ladies of England. None of ber comloved." Intelligence, integrity, bene peers have written so much, or written volence, Christian philanthropy, inward so well; and the theme is always worthy happiness, and much besides in affinity of the execution. With her, beyond all therewith, all beamed forth from his the sisterhood, the creations of fancy noble presence wherever he appeared. are rendered subservient to the dictates Simply to see him, even for the first of Inspiration. All her trees have been time, was to love, trust, and admire. It plants of Paradise. may be doubted if any man ever made The advantages of filial biography, friends more rapidly, or more surely which are, doubtless, great, are heavily retained the friends he had made. purchased. In order to a full-orbed Everything about him was indelibly character, much often requires to be stamped by thorough truthfulness. He said which a son or daughter may hesi. was an embodiment of reality. Water tate to utter. Seldom, however, has this ing, lacquering, and paint had no place been less the case than in the present in him, or in aught that appertained to instance. The life and labours of Dr. him. All was gold seven times purified. Henderson were from first to last marked Time and improved acquaintance only by a special unity. The object of all served to reveal fresh worth. Each his travels was to spread the Word of new development was but a discovery Life; the object of all his studies was of further excellence. We well remem to disclose its treasures. The travels, ber his visit to Scotland in 1810, where, however, abound in fact and incident, in boyhood, we hung upon his honied which are here set forth with the skill lips, as he captivated a great assembly of a practised pen, forming a narrative, by detailing the facts of his journies or a series of narratives, which will be througbout the north of Europe to pro read with unmingled pleasure. The mote Bible circulation. He was then Professorship, with its adjunct efforts, in early youth, and one of the most still more circumscribed the Doctor's interesting objects that the eye could sphere of action. The labours of whole light upon. We saw him no more till years are often narrated in a sentence. 1828, when it was our happy lot to Yet even here the diversity is considerspend a lengthened period under his able, as the industry was admirable. roof, and to mingle freely with that As the head of a family, as a leader in circle which was graced and guided by Israel, as a scholar, and as a tutor, he

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