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ANTONELLI.

six months than all the brigands of Sonnino In our sceptical country we enter the semi in twenty years. nary in the hope of being ordained a priest: Antonelli never expected such a thing. The The great difficulty of the coming fact being, that in the capital of the Roman settlement of Italy, when the war shall Church, the Levites who show any intelligence

have been triumphantly closed by the become magistrates, prefects, counsellors of

Allies, will be the Roman States. Nothstate, ministers. The clergymen are generally made out of the shrivelled fruit. Antonelli

ing will meet the necessities of the case distinguished himself so much that he es but the separation of the spiritual from caped, God helping him, the ordination to the the temporal power. The Pope, of priesthood. He has never said a mass; he

course, and the Universal Priesthood never confessed any body ; I would not swear that he has ever confessed himself. He ob

will resist this furiously and to the uttained the friendship of Gregory XVI., a more

termost, but if the time be come, men useful commodity than all the Christian will be found of a will so resolute, and of virtues put together. He became prelate, ma a purpose so fixed, as to set at nought gistrate, prefect, Secretary of the Home De

their clamour, and deride their menaces. partment, and minister of finance. Will any body deny that he chose the right road? A

Prophecy demands this as the first step minister of finance, however little he may un

to the final destruction of the “ Man of derstand his business, can save more money in ' Sin."

A PROTESTANT.

Ecclesiastical Affairs.
HISTORY OF UNITARIANISM.

The history of Unitarianism, the North | States. It even obtained a footing in British Review has well remarked, is the south of France, and had for a instructive, whatever may be the merits while a stronghold amongst the moun. of its creed. Under varicus names, it tains of Switzerland,—where, indeed, it has appeared in the church at intervalslingers still in the city and precincts of since the days of Arius, in the third Geneva. It was introduced into Engcentury; but it has never taken root. land in the time of James I., but never Often upon the eve of triumph its con throve. It established itself once more quests have slipped away, and it has amongst the decaying embers of found itself desolate and unfriended. Puritanism, in the beginning of the Arianism seemed ready to grasp the last century; but could neither fan whole Eastern Church, when it sud them into life, nor even derive from denly collapsed and disappeared. It them sufficient warmth to preserve its was the growth of a speculative age, own vitality. The Arian form under weak in mental power, though keen in which it first appeared soon expired, the prosecution of subtleties, and nice and was succeeded, as the century distinctions, so that it was trampled closed, by a creed which it would be down and utterly extinguished under unjust to designate as Socinian, because the rude heel of the Gothic invaders. it far outstripped, in the boldness of its The age of the schoolmen would seem dogmas, the doctrinal statements either to have been favourable to its re-appear of the elder or younger Socinus. Inance; but the dread of heresy, or rather deed, the creed of Priestley, the great of the horrible tortures for which the leader of the party, was that of an heretic must prepare himself, prevented Eclectic philosopher, not of a Christian its return. It broke out vigorously at student. Perhaps he accepted as relithe Reformation, when thought was gious truth nothing but what is consuddenly disenthralled from the spell of tained in Scripture; but he maintained ages, and neither the methods of a true his right to sit in dispassionate judg. philosophy, nor the laws of a just ment on the sacred volume, and to criticism, were yet understood. It found reject whatever he disliked. In the leaders of great ability in Lælius Soci important state of orthodox religion, nus and his nephew Faustus, and in his party multiplied; and, secure in the Servetus, the disciple of the former. possession of above a hundred endow. Under these teachers or their disciples, ments of the old Presbyterian chapels, Unitarianism established itself for a Unitarianism still exists amongst us; time in Poland, and some neighbouring it even boasts of intelligence, wealth,

& high tone of private morals, and great alacrity in works of social improvement and secular philanthropy. Still, it must be added, it has no pretensions as a Christian church : in the field of spiritual enterprise Unitarianism can boast no triumphs.

If we cross the Atlantic, the difference is not considerable. Boston, the city of the Puritans, is adorned with Unitarian churches, in which eloquent preachers address large and fashionable congregations; but the religion taught evidently reaches the understanding rather than the heart. It suits the prosperous, the wealthy, and the speculative; but it allures no poverty; it cheers no contrite heart; it satisfies no hungering and thirsting after righteousness.

Unitarians affirm, as well they may, that they have allies in the bosom of the Church of England; that there are men who eat our bread, share our honours, and even sign our articles, who preach and print the most offensive of Socinian doctrines, in language as strong, or stronger, than that which they themselves employ. We cannot say that they seem at all proud of their new associates. Whatever may be the faults of Unitarians, they are, at least, remarkable for their integrity; and in the very speeches in which they compliment the new comers on their wisdom, they challenge them to show their consistency by at once giving up their preferments, and honestly renouncing their former creed.

We have spoken of the Socinian creed, but we are not sure that the expression is correct. Unitarianism acknowledges no leader, and has no articles of faith. Each of its congregations is independent of the rest, not only in church government, but in the doctrines it embraces or rejects. The Racovian catechism of Faustus Socinus has been long since laid aside. In the early part of the sixteenth century, Unitarianism rallied under its symbolic shade, and thus union was for a time effected. But it suits the genius of the system better to fight apart. Discipline and the strength which discipline gives, is foreign to its nature. Each congregation, each pastor, each defender of the Socinian faith, must be dealt with singly; for no one acknowledges the defeat of another to be his own discomfiture. There is no system presepting a broad front to be attacked. It is a war with individual writers, a contest with

VOL. XVI.

a whole army of sharpshooters. Every man occupies his own ground; and, if vanquished, is left to cover his own retreat. A few general principles are 'all that are held in common; and these are rather negations of the orthodox creed, than positive dogmatic statements. Against such opponents the man should be well armed who solicits an encounter. He should have the command of various weapons, and they must be such as a Christian warrior ought to be well skilled to use-logic, and criticism, and philology, and sound learning; some acquaintance with ecclesiastical history, and a mind well trained, in metaphysical and mental philosophy; for on to this ground will the Unitarian always remove the battle, when driven from his last position on Scriptural criticism or theology, properly so called.

Who, indeed, can regard the Unitarians with other feelings than those of the deepest sorrow, mingled with such esteem as private purity, benevolence, and an ever-forward zeal in promoting the temporal welfare of society, are calculated to excite? Who would not wish that, in the place of their cold philosophy, they could be led to substitute the faith of Jesus Christ, and draw living water with joy from the wells of salvation ? Nor are we without hope that a great change is near, and that these wanderers, finding no rest, may fly into the ark; that these weary sheep, after traversing so long a desert waste, may return to the Shepherd and Bishop of their souls. Certain it is, that Unitarianism wears a different character from that which it sustained in the days of Belsham and of Priestley. We dare not say that its tenets are less dangerous ; but its features, viewed from without, are less repulsive. It is no longer hard, contemptuous scoffing; it begins to feel and to acknowledge its want of power, of spirituality, of warmth, and love. Sermons are occasionally preached in its chapels which give touching utterance to these wants; and, from time to time, converts of the highest classthose who have been most eminent, we mean, for zeal and earnestness—are won over by the cheering doctrines of the Cross.

Entirely separated from the historical church, Unitarianism stands isolated and alone. Its negations may secure adherents, and temporarily excite controversy, but it can never rear or

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nourish a church. Having no past, and wanting all definite positive basis, it cannot have a future; every new age will be a new phase in its development, wholly obliterating that which has preceded. Where men only unite in denying ecclesiastical co-operation, growth, or even cordiality, are impossible. Besides, what is there in cold, intellectual Unitarianism to meet the demands of the heart, the deep consciousness of sin, the longing for communion with God? Or what to satisfy “the poor and needy," in those rationalistic trivialities with which it amuses the logical faculty?

Despite their numerical weakness, the Socinians of Great Britain (among them some able men) have, true to their traditions, displayed considerable literary activity in the diffusion of their opinions; promising students are liberally supported ; and, besides a regular theological school, an institution at Mancbester prepares labourers specially for home missionary work.

A calm review of Socinian theology will, we believe, convince the reader that it summed up and combined the various phases of the rationalistic movement preceding the Reformation. To forecast the future of the party, if such be vouchsafed to it, were not difficult. In the Biblical, or even logical sense of the term, Socinianism never formed, or could form, a church. It was a party or sect, which successive transformations are resolving into its constituent elements of negation,-a building constructed with untempered mortar, which is rapidly crumbling into its original and unshaken materials. The sect is

giving place to negative individualism. The possession of endowments, the salarying of preachers, the holding of annual meetings, the passing of resolutions, the delivery of speeches, nay, even the assembling in the common edifice, called the chapel, or meeting-house, constitutes not a church-not even à sect. The former bond has proved a rope of sand; the last remainders of a Biblical basis and historical connection with the church universal have long been discarded; and Socinianism, Unitarianism, * Liberal Christianity," or whatever other name may be devised to hide its nakedness, passes away, not from the operation of external causes, but by a process of self-destruction, all the more rapid where, as in the United States, its course is not stayed or hindered by conventionalism and the traditions of the past. It has disowned History, and History has in turn disowned it. The ponderous folios, the learned quartos, and the numberless pamphlets written in its defence, and which embody the life-labours of the apostles of negative Protestantism, lie covered with the dust of ages, which not the most zealous anti-Trinitarian of these days would care to see brushed away.

Another turn in the stream of time, another chapter in its history; but amidst the disputations, the turmoils, the hopes, the disappointments, and the deceptions of the past, can those who are not deaf, or ashamed, or afraid, again hear a saying of many centuries :

" But the word of the Lord endureth for ever.”

Essays.

SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. At a time when slavery is extending | and 370,792 inhabitants. Value of every hour in the United States, and land, 30 dollars per acre. Farms in Conwhen the slave trade is in a fair way of necticut contain 2,383,879 acres, and being resumed, it behoves the teachers worth 72,726,422 dollars. Connecticut, of mankind and the guides of opinion in 1850, had 547 miles of railroad, and in to ascend the watch tower and sound 1855, 20,000,000 dols. in railroads. Shipthe trumpet. No time is to be lost, and ping in Connecticut, 125,000 tons, with they who embark in the holy war should united sea board. Valuation in 1850 spare no arrows. That judgment may of property, real and personal, in Connecact upon truth, we shall set forth a few ticut, 155,707,980 dols , owned by 37,000 facts.

persons, and 4,600 square miles. In

1850, Connecticut had" (under 20 years PROGRESS AND CONDITION OF THE FREE

old) 157,146 persons; of these 83,697 STATES.

were at schools and colleges. She had Connecticut contains 4,674 square miles, over twenty years old, 213,662; of this

number there were only 6,306 wboy schools, academies, or colleges; of these could not read and write, and of these 115,023, 97,402 were white and free. 4,013 are foreigners. Thus, out of Over twenty years old, 64,787 whites, 213,662, 208,356 can read and write. and 16,985 of these were unable to read

Michigan was admitted into the Union and write, 37 of which only were born in 1837. In 1856, she had 397,654, all out of the state. Thus the free state of free persons, and 1,929,110 acres of im Michigan had 175,959 who could read proved land, valued at 51,872,446 dols. and write, while the slave state of Ar-land valued at 11.80 dollars per acre. kansas had only 47,852. Arkansas had In 1855 she had 699 miles of railroad, 420 volumes, while Michigan had costing 19,000,000 dollars. Value of 107,943 volumes, besides private libraries. real and personal property, 59,787,255 Wherever the free and the slave states dollars. Under twenty years, 211,969 are placed in juxtaposition, there the persons, of whom 112,332 were at slave state suffers in comparison. Take schools, academies, or colleges. In 1855, Virginia and Pennsylvania, Missouri Michigan had 132,234 scholars in her and Illinois or Iowa, Ohio and Kencommon schools. Out of 184,240 over tucky, &c. Chief Justice Marshall once twenty years, 8,281 only could not read said that the constitution was wide and or write. Of these, 3,009 were ignorant broad enough for any thing and every foreigners. She has 107,943 volumes in thing. Under this opinion, cannot such public libraries, besides private libraries. a public nuisance as slavery, which is

death to education, agriculture, and PROGRESS AND CONDITION OF THE

general improvement, be proved unconSLAVE STATES.

stitutional, and at once annihilated ? South Carolina contains 29,358 square With figures like these, how is it posmiles, and 668,507 inhabitants ; 283,523 sible that the slaveholders themselves were free, and 384,984 slaves. Value of do not at once emancipate, and thereby land, 5.08 dollars per acre; acres in promote their own comfort and interest ? farms, 16,217,700, valued at 82,431,684 dollars; 340 miles of railroad, and

THE PROSPECTS OF SLAVERY. 11,500,000 dollars invested therein;

We will now exhibit the results of the sbipping, 36,000 tons; valuation of real

census returns of the United States and personal property in 1850,

from 1800 to 1850, which form conclu. 288,257,094 dollars, including value of

sive evidence of the relative growth of the slaves, who, at 400 dollars each,

different sections of the Union :amounts to 163,993,600 dollars, leaving

1800. only 124,264,094 dollars of property Total population of Free States, 2,684,609 other than slaves. Thus, 670,000, with Total population of Slave States . 2,621,316 30,000 square miles of land, have Excess in Free States in 1800. 63,293 124,000,000 dollars. Under 20 years

1810. old, 365,026; whole number of schools,

Total population of Free States. 3,687,445 academies, and colleges, 40,373, out of

Total population of Slave States . 3,552,369 149,322 white children, or those under twenty years old. Over twenty years Excess in Free States in 1810 . 135,076 old, 129,350 free persons, of which

1820. 16,564 are unable to read the word Total population of Free States . 5,152,314 heaven; and of these 104 were born out

Total population of Slave States. 4,485,817 of the state.

Excess in Free States in 1820 . 666,494 Arkansas was admitted into the Union in 1836. In 1856, 209,807, of whom

1830.

Total population of Free States , 6,995,627 151,746 were free, and 58,161 slaves.

Total population of Slave States, 5,871,293 Land valued at 5.88 dollars per acre. Improved land, 781,531 acres, valued at Excess in Free States in 1830 , 1,124,334 15,265,248 dollars. Arkansas has not

1840. one cent paid for railroads. Total va Total population of Free States 9,730,135 luation of real and personal property, Total population of Slave States , 7,332,431 39,871,025 dollars, including value of

Excess in Free States in 1840 , 2,397,704 slaves, 23,264,400 dollars, leaving only 16,576,625 dollars as the entire worth of

1850. Arkansas, against 59,787,255 dollars in

Total population of Free States . 13,588,069 Michigan. Under twenty years old,

Total population of Slave States · 9,658,232 115,023, of which 11,050 were in Excess in Free States in 1850 · 3,929,837

When the slave population of 1850, 1 The above estimate of proportionate amounting to 3,198,298, is deducted increase in the non-slaveholding states, from the aggregate population of the if carried forward to 1,900, shows the slave states, it shows the following following startling results:results :

Total population of Free States . 62,815,476 Total number of freemen in the

Total population of Slave States . 36,080,030 Free States . . . . . . . 13,588 ,069 Total number of freemen in the

The slave population, at the same Slave States . . . . . . . 6,459,934

ratio of increase as heretofore, will then

amount to 11,875,052, making a grand Excess of freemen in non-slave

total of 98,595,512 inhabitants. holding States ...... 7,128,135

These mere figures dazzle the mind, According to the same ratio of in while the facts they embody startle and crease, there will be in the United States dismay. The TRANSATLANTIC REPUBLIC in 1860 :

will then be the most powerful commuTotal population of Free States . 18,539,834

nity this earth ever bore. The kingdoms Total population of Slave States . 12,555,701 and empires of Europe will dwindle

into insignificance before it. The Excess in Free States in 1860 . 5,984,133 period which is to realize the tremenof which 12,555,701 in the southern dous fact is not distant. Fifty brief states, 4,157,787 will be slaves; leaving years gone, and there it is! The very only 8,397,914 freemen in the slave thought, in one view, is glorious ; in holding states, against 18,539,834 in the | another, terrible! Who can bear to non-slaveholding or northern states. think of 12,000,000 OF MEN IN CHAINS ?

Correspondence.

THE CHINESE EMPIRE. It is of the utmost importance to keep has recently stirred all classes of society the subject of China continually before in the United States; and now the selfthe eye of the Christian church. It same energy is visible in the North of is still but very imperfectly understood, Ireland ; while, by the provisions of the and but slightly felt. It is from its treaties just made at Tientsin by the very magnitude, in a measure, incom Chinese government with Western prehensible; and it is only by incessant Powers, God has opened up the entire reading and inquiry that the slightest Chinese empire to Christianity. progress can be made. The causes The exclusive policy of China, which which, in former years, operated to shut so long has prevented foreign interout China from the knowledge and sym course with her people, is now laid pathy of the Christian world are rapidly aside, and the imperial decree has gone losing their potency, and current events forth declaring that henceforth and for are bringing this mighty empire within ever Christianity may be practised and the circle of international comities and propagated throughout the empire. This treaty stipulations. Distance, which imperial decree cancels all former edicts once placed China beyond the reach of against Christianity, forbids the perseChristendom, is now almost annihilated cution of Chinese converts to Chrisby the combined agencies of steam and tianity for their faith; and, as if to put electricity; reliable information con the crowning glory on the system it bad cerning the Chinese, so long desiderated, so wantonly contemned and outraged, is now largely supplied by competent the same high authority asserts that authors. Already there appear cheer Christianity is good, teaching men to do ing indications of the harvest the Gos to others as they would have others do pel is destined to reap in China, and to them, and that its tendency is to lead henceforth the home evangelism of our men to virtue. These provisions and churches should accelerate rather than declarations are incorporated in each of retard our efforts for the Chinese. The the four treaties lately concluded by present time seems eminently appro China with England, France, Russia, priate for the discussion of this subject. and the United States; and the public A religious revival of marvellous power policy of the Chinese government, sub

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