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which none but he can feel. His sources of consolation, too, are greatest in the time of trial ; and he is best prepared for every event.--Life of Dr. Bunting.

larly called upon to come forward in any way; much less in the way of joining battalions of regular soldiers, or corps of volunteers.

3. If, however, the cause of religion is very likely to suffer any material injury from the refusal of a professor of religion to join our volunteer establishments, then, I think, he ought conscientiously and cheerfully to join them, in the common defence; although some circumstances attending those establishments may be so unpleasant to a pious mind, as to make him rather hold back than otherwise, till the necessity of his arming should be more apparent.

Servants, in particular, whose employers importune them to come forward, should not manifest any improper backwardness; lest the odium of disaffection should be cast on those who support a religious character.

When we do not rush into situations of spiritual danger rashly and unnecessarily, but are placed in them by Providence, we have a right to expect the peculiar blessing of God, to preserve us in those situations; and, if we continue to watch and pray, steadily resisting temptation, and keeping a single eye to God's glory, so that our zeal for our country's honour and happiness is not tainted and marred by any intermixture of improper motives and principles, the promise of preserving grace shall be “yea and amen” to us.

Will it be said that the defence of the country ought to be left to worldly and unregenerate men; and that men truly serious and religious should abstain from taking any part in the contest? Are they, in this sense, to “ stand still and see the salvation of God," if, indeed, God means to save us, or to see, with equal indolence and unconcern, if ruin is to be our lot, the destruction of the freedom and independence of their country, the removal of their religious privileges, the violation of their persons and properties, and, at last, to receive, when the good will and pleasure of some furious and licentious soldier shall think fit to inflict it, the fatal poniard that shall dismiss them from the stage of life? If this be Christian doctrine, or Christian practice, well may infidels triumph. No Deist surely ever invented a more atrocious libel against the Gospel of Him who is “the Lion of the Tribe of Judah,” as well as "the Prince of Peace.” If revealed religion takes away that right of self-defence which the God of Nature has conferred, and which natural religion has sanctioned ; if Christianity unmans mankind, and prohibits the fulfilment of the social duties ; if the love of our country is inconsistent, according to the Bible scheme, with the love of God; then the Christian cause is lost. But we have not so learned Christ.” Intidels, indeed, have often urged this very objection to our religion ; but by an appeal to the Oracles of our faith, and to the practice of the faithful, it has been shown that the objection is ill-founded.

No man has such strong and forcible motivesas the real Christian to abound in every good word and work, whether to his friends, his country, or his fellow-creatures in general. Acting from conscientious considerations, and taking into his enlarged estimate a view of the injury which threatens the cause of God, he has grounds of resistance on which none but he can stand, and inducements to fortitude

DIRECTIONS CONCERNING PRAYER

AND PRAYER MEETINGS. 1. LET us endeavour to have a constant sense of the attributes of the Almighty deeply impressed upon our minds, in order to prevent trilling and frivolous expressions from proceeding out of our mouths.

2. Let us remember that we, unworthy, sinful, depraved, and rebellious creatures, have authority to approach our Sovereign and Creator by one * new and living way” only, the Lord Jesus Christ.

3. Let us keep the lamp of Divine life burning with great brightness in our own souls; remembering that our prayers will languish and droop in exact proportion to the state of our own souls.

4. Let us never, or as seldom as possible, begin to pray in public, without having obtained a previous and secret interview with God. By this means, we are ready to enter into immediate converse with Him, without the passing of much introductory ceremony; which, however necessary to ourselves, may be unprofitable to others. This direction is, however, in a great measure, or totally, superseded by living in a continual spirit of prayer. O desi rable state! 0“ rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing," and "in everything give thanks!”

5. Let us never pray long, at one and the same time. In prayer meetings, this is sadly too frequent, but is very unpleasant and unedifying. Not one in a thousand is qualified to pray for twenty minutes, (though many do, and presume themselves able to continue a longer time,) without using many very irksome and tedious repetitions......

And if, in prayer meetings, there should not be a sufficient number of people to fill up the usual time with ten-minute prayers, let the same persons exercise two or three separate times, rather than continue long at one and the same time. But this direction must admit of particular cases of indulgence. If a person should, as Dr. Watts somewhere remarks, be led out of his general usage, by some uncommon communication or comprehension of Divine goodness, while in the office of prayer, it would be criminal indeed to desire to contract the then widened range of agonizing prayer or of ardent praise.

6. In like manner, let us never sing long at one time. Three or four verses, at the opening of a meeting, with a single striking verse, or two short ones, between every prayer, are quite sufficient. Variety is very pleasing; it engages the faculties of attention, and may thereby lend some degree of force to the wings of our affections.

7. Another direction has often appeared extremely necessary, viz., that every prayerleader should store in his memory a variety of verses of hymns, suitable to the circumstance of entering upon prayer; which should be given out extempore, without being compelled to have recourse to a book, and to make the

14. And, lastly, there is a custom introduced into some prayer meetings, of applying loud Amens, &c., to the confessions, prayers, or praises of another, when it is evident that some persons so doing do not attend to the expressions just delivered. Now, as this may hurt some weak minds, it should, if possible, be avoided, while we labour to "pray not only with the Spirit, but with the understanding also." But yet, let none conclude from hence that the practice of joining hearty Amens is altogether improper. No; hear Gouge “ On the Whole Armour of God," printed 1616, fully to the purpose :-“The ordinary way, and the best way, for people to manifest their consent, when a person is praying, is, with a distinct and audible voice, to say Amen. This was commanded, Deut. xxvii. 15, &c.; and, accordingly, it was practised, Neh. viii. 6. It is a sound well beseeming God's public worship, to make the place ring again, as we speak, with a joint Amen of the people. The Jews 'uttered this word with great ardency, and, therefore, used to double it, saying, Amen-Amen." Neh, viii. 6.

It is requested that this may be put into the hands of such as are accustomed to exercise in prayer meetings; and the Lord give His blessing with it!-Life of Dr. Bunting.

people wait till it be turned over, to find soinething proper for the occasion...... The singing for the middle, and not for the beginning, of the meeting, is here intended; and surely any one must discover that a verse or ttvo, so delivered, has generally a much happier effect.

8. It will be well for one who can read properly, to read, sometimes, a short, striking chapter, or part of one, or a chapter out of the " Christian Pattern," or

a section out of Mason's "Remains."

9. Let us never attempt affected or lofty expressions, to make ourselves thought of highly by man. God hateth this with a most perfect hatred. What! can we, shall we, dare we go into the presence of that incomprehensibly wise and powerful Being, the Almighty, with such sinister intentions; or think to captivate His ear with elegant sentences, and highdressed diction ? Let us shudder, lest He sweep us from His presence into eternal darkness, for our strange presumption. “God be merciful to me a sinner," is an example of simplicity worthy of imitation, and recommended to us by Christ Himself.

10. If we are not already delivered from all evil jealousies about precedency, about another praying before, or better, than ourselves, let us not cease to request a deliverance, at the Lord's hands, from such uncomfortable and unchristian surmisings. 'Tis good to take contentedly the lowest seat. "God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.”

11. Never hold prayer-meetings in the house of any persons of doubtful character, or of such as do not live peaceably with their neighbours.

12. Let us always endeavour to present ourselves in every public duty of religion, yea, and private also, in the spirit of faith and of full expectation: and, if our hearts be right in the sight of God, we shall never be wholly disappointed. When we have laboured in prayer, and have neither seen nor felt any fruit of our labour, let us not rest ourselves contented, as though the Lord's presence had been evidently amongst us. 'Tis an unpleasant symptom, when we are not pained at our own unprofitableness. I am informed of one person, (and I trust there are more,) who, when he has laboured in public, and has not discovered the happy effects of Divine power accompanying his labours, is often so troubled in spirit as not to be able to sleep the succeeding night; but rises, during the frequent intervals of interrupted rest, to wrestle with the Lord in prayer. "Would to God that every Christian man possessed the same earnest and laudable zeal! However, sure it is, that selfexamination and secret prayer are the certain handmaids to public usefulness and to private happiness.

13. Let us never use expressions in prayer, without a feeling sense of what we are saying, remembering that God assuredly discerns our hypocrisy and insincerity. Let us say, whatever we may or can, much or little, with fluency or with stammering; but let it be from the heart. Far better for us only to groan in secret, than to tell the Lord in public this tale or the other, when we are conscious it is not so in reality. Paul says,

"I will pray with the Spirit;' and the Spirit of the Lord is sincerity and truth,

VOL. XVI,

A SERIOUS ACCIDENT. On the Friday after he had reached Gottenburgh, he started in a small country conveyance, so low-built that its structure naturally suggested a notion of perfect security. “It is hardly bigger than a wheelbarrow; if it were upset you could scarcely be hurt," was the remark casually made; but ere night the words were proved erroneous. About midday the little vehicle was descending a steep hill, when, through the carelessness of the driver, it was violently overturned; the apron-strap gave way, the traveller was thrown out, striking successively his arm, his shoulder, and his head. On the brow there was a mere scratch, but the other blows had done serious mischief. The patient, unable to bear the motion of a carriage, was conveyed to the river, which lay at no great distance, and taken back along the Gotha Elf. The two-fold injury rendered a eure difficult. The shoulder was set immediately, but the need of keeping the limb perfectly quiescent till the fractured socket should have re-united, caused a delay before the radius or smaller bone of the fore-arm could be attended to. A re-setting was requisite; inflammation supervened; and eventually it was found that the bones in the fore-arm had lost their power of flexion and rotation.

As soon as the invalid was sufficiently recovered to bear a short journey, he was ordered to try the baths at Uddevalla. A six week's stay in that place was highly conducive to the re-invigoration of his frame, but the arm remained as rigid as ever.

It was needful to be moving on. There was no time left for Norway. The Russian capital must be reached before the setting in of winter.

Trollhätta's renowned waterfalls, and the island-studded Mälern lake, were viewed with interest; the leading friends of the Stockholm Bible Society were visited ; and the Gulf of Finland was safely crossed. At Abo there was

Y

a happy meeting with Dr. Paterson, who had been making the tour of Finland, and who now returned with his friends to St. Petersburgh, which was reached on September 11th.

The news of the Gottenburgh accident had excited much sympathy, and its remaining effects caused means to be taken for securing the first medical advice. The surgeon to His Imperial Majesty was interested in the case of his fellow-countryman, and a consultation of eminent practitioners was held. The skill of Sir James Wylie was in such repute, that he was proverbially described as able to take a man's head off and put it on again without killing him. The only remedy that would meet the present evil was an experiment of the sort on a smaller scale. The arm might be broken again, after which it could be advantageously re-set. But the operation was declined. To one who was just able anew to ply the pen, everything else was a minor consideration, and it was thought better to endure other inconveniences than risk the possible loss of the ground already gained. The dexterwrist, therefore, that had but half the rotatory power of its fellow, was a life-long remembrance of the bar which had effectually closed the door on Norway.-Memoir of Dr. Hender

“What part shall I read?” asked the youth. “Well,” replied the sire, “I have heard there are some fine passages in the book of Isaiah ; let us have one of them." The book was brought, the desired pages were found, the thirty-fourth chapter was commenced, and the reader, in a clear distinct voice, gave utterance to the prophet's eloquent satire on the vanity of idols and the folly of their worshippers. The hoary-headed Russian was amazed; the force of truth overmastered the strength of prejudice; rising from his seat he tore down from the walls those visible objects of worship before which he had been used to bow in adoration. The deed was noised abroad. The holy Synod judged it incumbent on them to take notice of the act, and sentenced the offender to a heavy punishment. Their verdict had, however, to be ratified by the Emperor, and whilst the document was being transmitted for the receiving of the Imperial signature, it passed through the hand of an official, who, remembering an Ukase of Peter the Great, concerning the treatment of such as destroyed sacred pictures, copied it, and slipped it among the papers which the Czar would have to examine. Peter's enactment provided that for the first offence of the sort, a man should be sent for eight days to a monastery ; that for the second offence he should be sent there for a fortnight, and be taught his catechism by a priest; but for a third offence,

nothing more!” he was to be given up as incorrigible! In this instance the subordination of the Synod to the Emperor proved available for good. Alexander observed the paper, and, glad to have so fair a pretext for leaning to mercy's side, he wrote beneath the sentence of that "holy” council a decree to the following effect :-"Let it be done according to (such and such) Ukase of our illustrious ancestor Peter the Great. So be it. Alexander.” Such leniency in such a cause had its twofold effect on the priests. It showed them, on the one hand, the need of action, and on the other the need of caution. They must gain their end, but they must move warily. Where they could not lay open siege they must_endeavour to undermine.--Memoir of Dr. Henderson.

son,

LABOURS AT CRONSTADT. DR. HENDERSON's work at Cronstadt was looked on by some with jealous eyes. “Forbid him," said they, " for he followeth not with us.' Complaint was made that these services discouraged the attendance of the mariners at church. It was an unfounded allegation. Had they been willing to attend service on shore, they would have been left to do so. But the greater part were accustomed to spend the day in idleness, and in the vices which idleness promotes; while, to every expostulation in reference to their neglect of worship, they had the ready answer,

“We're not fit to enter your fine churches; if we'd sermon on deck somewhere, we'd most of us come.' Disregarding the cause of the movement, the opposing party made their representation at Court. But the Emperor would not give ear. He knew the motive which had led to the benevolent undertaking; perhaps he knew also the motive which influenced its gainsayers; and the affair was not one in which he thought it needful to interfere.

What the enemy could not affect in one direction, he sought to accomplish in another. The Emperor was more assailable through the dignitaries of his own church than through the partisans of a foreign creed. There were some few Greek ecclesiastics, who, wrought upon by their own fears, and by the insinuations of the Jesuists, longed for the downfall of the Russian Bible Society. They were · watching for a handle against it, for they saw that it was doing a work which could not be suffered to proceed. They knew that it was likely to be with many as it was with an old man whose case had attracted recent notice. Having purchased a copy of the Bible in the Slavonic, but being unable to peruse it for himself, he requested his grandson to read him a portion on returning home from school.

PERILS OF BIBLE AGENCY. The customary system of espionage was brought into requisition for the purpose. Every attempt was made to entrap the agents of the Bible House into the utterance of some sentiment which might bring them within the power of political law. Dr. Henderson was more than once subjected to this ordeal; and had he not been on his guard might easily have committed himself. One scheme was very deeply laid. A stranger called to entreat as a great favour the loan of a rare and valuable book, which was said to be in his possession, but which was not to be met with in any of the book-shops in the city, nor even in the Public Imperial Library. Any amount of security should be laid down case of its being obligingly lent. Dr. Henderson named a very high sum, which he thought would suffice to close the treaty at once, if the man were not thoroughly in earnest. To his surprise it was instantly forthcoming, and the borrower went his way with the first volume. In a fortnight's time he returned to exchange it for the second, and on this visit he began to launch out against the government of the country, as affording but little encouragement to learning or to learned men. The foreigner was doubtless expected to chime in, and to contrast the despotic restrictions of the Russian press with the freedom allowed to writers in happier lands; but no response was made, save by a word or two on the general advantages of literature, and its onward movement in all countries. A third visit was paid to crave an extension of the loan, and when the further interval was accorded, a fresh attempt was made to elicit confidence. The corruption prevailing in public offices was pathetically decried, and stories of political oppression were breathed forth. It was hard to restrain the expression of sympathy, for the tale might be a true one. But it was necessary to do so, for the story was just as likely to be false. The listener responded only with interrogatories and exclamations. “Was it so ?” "Could he be sure?” &c. Coming back once more, to bring home the volume and redeem his pledge, the visitor adverted to the gross superstition of the people, their Mariolatry, and their saint worship. But artfully as he disguised his real object, and naturally as he appeared to introduce his topics of complaint, he was again baffled. Dr. Henderson was not one to speak evil of dignities at any time or in any place; and he was, moreover, well aware that whatever he might think or know of existent evils, one syllable uttered against the religion or the state-craft of the Empire might be reported, magnified, and followed by arrest and imprisonment.- Memoir of Dr. Henderson.

not one of them would ever come to hear me.” When asked how he could sanction the Popish ceremonies by kneeling at the tinkle of a bell before an altar which in heart he had forsworn, he made answer, “While I kneel there I take no note of the mummery that is going on around; I am wrestling with God for å blessing on the word that I am about to proclaim to the multitude.” There will be a difference of opinion as to the validity of his reasoning, the soundness of his policy, the propriety of his conduct. It was not a course in which he tinally persevered. But it is certain that his conscience did not then condemn him in the thing which he allowed; certain, also, that the end which he had in view was very fully attained. For the space of four years crowds thronged to listen to his piercing words, and numbers went home to weep and pray. But at length went forth the edict which was to drive the preacher beyond the Russian frontiers. Dr. Henderson longed to testify his sympathy with the persecuted man of God. Spies were abroad, and there was danger lest evil should ensue. The risk was weighed. Christian love turned the scale. The preacher's apartments were in a suite on an upper floor. In the ante-room sat a number of Germans, rich and poor, waiting for a last interview with the pastor so dear to their hearts. “What shall we do," asked one, " when he is gone? who will show us the way of life?" "Thank God,” replied another, " that ever we did see and hear him! Think what would have become of us if no one had made known to us a free salvation through the blood of the Lamb!” Thus they wept and talked, and mourned and sympathized, till each in turn was summoned to the inner room to receive parting words of benediction and counsel. It was not long before Dr. Henderson was admitted, and had the mournful satisfaction of assuring his friend that he should often bear him in remembrance at the throne of grace. The worthy preacher shortly took his departure, and after having reached Prussia openly embraced Protestantism, obtained a charge at Berlin, and was enabled to minister the Gospel with continued fervour, acceptance, and success.

Not in Petersburgh alone were the emissaries of evil at work. The Sarepta Missionaries were given to understand that they must make no attempt to teach the Calmucs, but must leave their Christian instruction wholly to the Greek ecclesiastics. The missionaries at Astrachan, Karass, and Nazran were either ordered away from their stations, or placed under such restrictions as made them see the fruitlessness of remaining at their post.Memoir of Dr. Henderson,

PERSECUTION OF GOSSNER. PASTOR GOSSNER, the successor of Lindel, and the author of the above-named Exposition, was virtually sent out of the country. Long had this zealous and awakening preacher, once the curate and pupil (as afterwards the biographer) of Martin Boos, been freed from the error-chains of Popery, though he had not as yet thrown off the outward badge of -servitude to Rome. When asked why he still adhered to a communion which he no longer approved, he was wont to reply, “Because I compassionate the destitute state of those in whose church I have been nurtured, and am anxious to preach to them the pure, simple, unadulterated Gospel of the grace of God, whereas if I were to own myself a Protestant,

Correspondence.

ASPECTS, SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS, OF GERMANY. While at the Thermal Springs at Wild- of the best known in the theological bad, I had the pleasure of making world, - a young man of great ability, a acquaintance with the brother of a fine scholar, and one of those clear, German professor, whose name is one powerful, reasoning minds, whose mas

tery we feel whenever we come into their presence--and one of those men that our eye fixes upon in an assembly of a thousand, and toward whom we are attracted by some hidden influence, as if they had always been our friends. a few minutes we were “old acquaintances,” and afterwards almost constant companions. He is a pastor in Bavaria one of three-over a church of three or four thousand, a firm Lutheran, but not sufficiently high-church to believe that church and sacraments alone can save, or that it is impossible to be saved without them,-an ardent admirer of Luther, (as indeed all Germans are, without regard to rank or religion,) an enthusiastic German, preferring his country before all others, familiar with every stage of her history, a worshipper of her genius, and an admiring student of her literature, and yet a man in whom almost every bope for himself and for his country had set, over whom had fallen a certain shadow of sadness and hopeless discouragement.

Nationally speaking, all Germans (with the exception of those who hold fat offices under Government) are discontented and discouraged. Not that they are discontented with their kind of government, but they sigh to think that there is no hope of their thirty or forty weak and petty states being consolidated into one or two prosperous and powerful kingdoms. This national weakness and disgrace he felt more deeply than most, but this was not the chief source of his discouragement.

He had looked upon the Augsburg Confession and the Bible as sufficient to convert the nation. With the enthusiasm of his fresh convictions, he had attempted to apply them for this pur pose, but found the people would none of them. The children were all obliged in school to commit to memory the doctrines of their church; but of their spirit they knew nothing, and could be made to know nothing. He believed that to partake of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper with an unbelieving heart was not only useless but sinful ; but yet already in four different parts of the kingdom, within the last fifteen years, (he is a man, perhaps, of the age of thirty-five,) he had tried to teach what faith in Christ is, without being aware of having had the slightest suc

« What does it avail,” said he, "to go over the ground again and again, telling them the way of salvation ?

They know as little about it at the end as at the beginning, and care less. Sometimes, in instructing my classes of children, they listen to me with apparent interest, and I think I have found the way to their hearts; but everything is lost as soon as they go home to their parents. The only time we can come in contact with the people personally is at a baptism or a death-bed, and then we see with dismay how little of all we have said has found its way to their understanding. Not one-tenth part of all my people believe the Bible at all. The truth is, my mission is superfluous. 1 am not wanted. They liate me worse than they do the others, because I disturb their quiet more by insisting upon telling them unpleasant truths. They do not stone me, but they shun me, and will not hear me. I receive from Government a salary of 400 florins. I receive from baptisms about 100 florins more, and perhaps another 100 from other sources.

To obtain subsistence for myself and family, I am obliged to give instruction to private classes in history, &c. five hours every day. Through this incessant labour, I have long been undermining my health, till at last [ have obtained a few weeks' absence, and have come here among the mountains in hopes of drinking in once more a little freshness and life from the clear air and the waters."

One can properly appreciate these words only by knowing the man. Cul. ture and high abilities always carry with them the demand for respect and influence, and the natural and necessary, expectation of it. We live in a land where these qualities not only bring the means of subsistence, but also this respect and influence, and hardly think that the two things are not necessarily connected; but we look upon far too many things as our necessary birthright.

I once mentioned to this friend the pleasant relation that exists in many, if not most, of our churches, between pastor and people; that the minister is not only esteemed and loved as pastor, but that the personal relation of friend

friend, and family to family, is very dear, and gives perhaps as great an influence to the pastor's private life as to his public; and I had remarked to him that I had been able to detect almost nothing of this in Germany. He says, "I can hardly conceive it possible. I am not aware of ever in my life

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