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repulfe, he refexceeded his age this judgmenty exceeded his

by Pitts be a just one, the abbot was certainly to be blamed for rejecting a person who would have done great honour to his house : " He was (says that author) a handsome and comely youth, of a sharp wit and ready utterance ; circumpect in all his words and actions, polite in his behaviour, neat and elegant; full of zeal for the glory of God, and that according to some degree of knowledge ; so possessed of all the most valuable endowments of mind and body, that in him the gifts of Heaven exceeded nature ; his piety exceeded his education, and the ripeness of his judgment and his other qualifications exceeded his age (6)," Having met with this repulse, he resolved to try his fortune in another country, and accordingly went to Paris ; where, though in very poor circumstances, he applied himself to his studies with great alsiduity, and made a wonderful proficiency. But having still a strong inclination to a religious life, he left Paris, and removed to Provence, where he became a regular clerk in the monastery of St Rufus. He was not immediately allowed to take the habit, but passed some time by way of trial, in recommending himself to the monks by a strict attention to all their commands. This behaviour, together with the beauty of his person, and prudent conversation, rendered him so acceptable to those religious, that after some time they intreated him to take the habit of the canonical order (c). Here he distinguished himself so much by his learning and strict observance of the monastic discipline, that upon the death of the ab

bot, he was chosen superior of that house; and we are told that leland, ubi he rebuilt that convent. He did not long enjoy this abbacy: fupra. for the monks being tired of the government of a foreigner,

brought accusations against him before pope Eugenius III, who after having examined their complaint, and heard the defence of Nicholas, declared him innocent: his holiness,

· (6) “ Erat adolefcens corpore pul. De illuft. Angl. Script, ann. 1859. cher, facie venuftus, incessu compo- (c) Eft autem in illa ratione mofitus, ingenio acutus, lingua prompt- nasterium nobile clericorum regularius, eloquio facundus, fermone cau- um quod dicitur S. Rufi ; ad quem tus, judicio jam pene maturus, in ac- locum ille veniens, et subsistendi octionibus prudens, et dexter, moribus cafionem ibidem inveniens, quibus 'urbanus, comptus, elegans, zelo di- potuit obfequiis iifdem fratribus fe vinæ gloriæ, idque fecundum quan- commendare curavit. Et quoniam dam scientiam, plenus, omnibus de- erat corpore elegans, vultu jucundus, nique tum corporis, tum animi me prudens in verbis, ad injuncta impilioribus dotibus ita præditus, ut in ea ger, placuit omnibus, canonici ordidona dei naturam, pietas educatio- nis suscipere habitum, annis plurimis nem, judicii maturitas et aliæ perfec. ibidem refedit. Gul. Nurib. de Reb, tiones superarent ætatem." Pits, Angl. lib. ii. c. 6. .



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however, gave the monks leave to chuse another superior (d); but being sensible of the great merit of Nicholas, and thinking he might be serviceable to the church in a higher station, he created him cardinal-bishop of Alba, in 1146.

In 1148, Eugenius sent him legate to Denmark and Norway, where, by his fervent preaching and diligent instructions, he converted those barbarous nations to the Christian Gul Nubrig. faith ; and we are told, that he erected the church of Upsal ibado into an archiepiscopal see. When he returned to Rome, he lit. Sæc. was received by the pope and cardinals with great marks of Waldense, honour : and pope Anaftafius, who succeeded Eugenius, hap- an. 1154. pening to die at this time, Nicholas was unanimously chosen to the holy see, in November, 1154, and he took the name of Adrian. When the news of his promotion reached Eng- Gul.Nubrig. land, king Henry II. sent Robert abbot of St. Alban's, and ibid. three bishops, to Rome, to congratulate him on his election(e); upon which occafion Adrian granted very considerable privileges to the monastery of St. Alban's f). Next


(d) « Utrique ergo parti (says Gu- ing generations might esteem him an lielmus Nubrigienfis) pie et pruden- honour to the country which gave ter profpiciens, Scio, inquit, fratres, him birth. Matth. Paris, ubi fupra. ubi sedes fit Satanæ ; fcio quid in vo- (f) Abbot Robert being left at bis suscitet procellam iftam. Ite, eli- Beneventum with the pope, thought gite vobis patrem, cum quo pacem he had now a favourable opportunity habere poffitis, vel potius velitis : of endeavouring to recover some digifte enim non erit vobis ulterius one, nities and privileges of his abbey, ri. –The pope piously and prudently which had been invaded by the bishop consulting the good of both parties, of Lincoln. He had brought with said, I know, brethren, where Satan him several presents for his holiness, fixes his abode ; I know what has and amongst the rest three rich miraised the late 1torm amongst you: tres, and some sandals, the workgo, chuse a superior, with whom you manship of Christina prioress of may, or rather will, live in peace; Markgate: Adrian accepted of the as for this man, he shall be no longer mitres and sandals, on account of a burden to you.” Gul. Nubrig. ib. their excellent workmanship, but re.

(e) His holiness received the em- fused the other presents, saying, in a baffadors with great marks of respect: jocular manner, “I will not accept when they had executed their com- of your gifts, because, when I de. miffion, the three bishops returned fired to take the habit in your monahome, leaving abbot Robert behind itery, you rejected me," “ Sir (faid them. King Henry sent the pope a let the abbot), we could by no means ter by those embassadors,exprefling his receive you, it being repugnant to good wishes and how desirous he was, the will of God, whose providence that this prelate might answer the reserved you for greater things." expectations of his station, and that The pope replied, “ I thank you for he might act vigorously for the inter- this polite and obliging answer :" est of Christendom, and so govern and added, “Dearest abbot, ask boldthe churches of God, that all succed- ly whatever you desire, I Mall always

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year, king Henry having sollicited the pope's consent, that and Hour might undertake the conquest of Ireland, Adrian yery readil Tous bk complied, and sent him a bull for that purpose; the following rew ing is a translation thereof ; 66 Adrian, bifhop, servant of the iteraty." ; servants of God, to his most dear fon in Christ, the illuftris eren co ous king of England, sends greeting, and apoftolical benef. not to le diction. Your magnificence is very careful to spread your an, in tl glorious r.ame in the world, and to merit an immortal crown e attemp in heaven, whilst, as a good catholic prince, you form a dezerty und fign of extending the bounds of the church, of instructing teze their ignorant and barbarous people in the Christian faith, and of the pope. reforming the licentious and immoral ; and the more effectu- azt his f ally to put this design in execution, you desire the advice and zunicated aftstance of the holy fee. We are confident, that, by the fs of thi blessing of God, the success will answer the wisdom and allegi discretion of the undertaking. You have advertised us, dear Komans, fon, of your intended expedition into Ireland, to reduce that met him people to the obedience of the Christian faith ; and that you this inte are willing to pay for every house a yearly acknowledgment facilithe of one penny to St. Peter, promising to maintain the right of conducte those churches in the fullest manner. We therefore, being faced the willing to aslist you in this pious and laudable design, and petion of ti consenting to your petition, do grant you full liberty to make a manner. a descent upon that island, in order to enlarge the borders of a seca the church, to check the progress of immorality, and to pro- ka the Sici mote the spiritual happiness of the natives : and we command farther to the people of that country to receive and acknowledge you as hum the their sovereign lord; provided the rights of the churches be ashed lever inviolably preserved, and the Peter pence duly paid : for in. deed it is certain (and your highness acknowledges it) that all the inands, which are enlightened by Christ, the sun of righteousness, and have embraced the doctrines of Christiani. ty, are unquestionably St. Peter's right, and belong to the holy Roman church. If, therefore, you resolve to put your designs in execution, be careful to reform the manners of that people, and commit the government of the churches 19 able and virtuous perfons, that the Christian religion may

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be ready to serve St, Alban, who am ners, that he granted to the church myself his disciple.". Some days af- of St. Alban's the fingular privilege ter, abbot Robert being in private of being exempt from all episcopal conversation with the pope, made jurifdiction, excepting that of the fee grievous complaints concerning the of Rome, with many other valuable various oppreffions of the bishop of liberties and immunities. Mast. PaLincoln ; which fo moved his holi- ris, ubi fupra.


row and. As the effectually pro and leave a gde was so great,

Tow and Aourish, and the honour of God, and the preservation of fouls be effectually promoted; so shall you deserve an See Rymer's everlasting reward in heaven, and leave a glorious name to


com. i. p.15. ll posterity." His indulgence to this prince was so great, edit. 1727. that he even consented to absolve him from the oath he had taken, not to set aside any part of his father's will (g).

Adrian, in the beginning of his pontificate, boldly with stood the attempts of the Roman people to recover their an

cient liberty under the consuls, and obliged those magistrates , to abdicate their authority, and leave the government of the

city to the pope. In 1155, he drove the heretic Arnold of Bresse, and his followers, out of Rome. The same year he excommunicated William king of Sicily, who ravaged the territories of the church, and absolved that prince's subjects from their allegiance. About the same time, Frederic king of the Romans, having entered Italy with a powerful army, Adrian met him near Sutrium, and concluded a peace with him. . At this interview, Frederic consented to hold the pope's ftirrup whilst he mounted on horseback. After which, his holiness conducted that prince to Rome, and in St. Peter's church placed the imperial crown on his head, to the great mortification of the Roman people, who assembled in a tumultuous manner, and killed several of the Imperialists. The Platina de next year a reconciliation was brought about between the Vit. Pontif. pope and the Sicilian king, that prince taking an oath to do Hadrian IV. nothing farther to the prejudice of the church; and Adrian granting him the title of King of the two Sicilies. He built and fortified several castles, and left the papal dominions in a more flourishing condition than he found them. But not

(8) Geoffry Plantagenet, late earl to him, but for some time he refused of Anjou, had, by the empress Maud, to swear to a writing, the contents three fons, Henry, Geoffry, and Wil- of which he was unacquainted with. liam. This prince being sensible that However, being reproached with the his own dominions would of course scandal of letting his father lie undescend to his eldest son Henry, and buried, he at last tdok the oath with that the kingdom of England, and great reluctance, But after his acduchy of Normandy, would likewise cession to the throne, upon a comfall to him in right of his mother, plaint to pope Adrian, that the oath thought fit to devise the earldom of was forced upon him, he procured a Anjou to his second son Geoffry: dispensation from his holiness, aband to render this the more valid, he folving him from the obligation he exacted an oath of the bishops and had laid himself under; and in consenobility, not to suffer his corps to quence thereof, he disposessed his brobe buried, till his son Henry had ther Geoffry of the dominions of Answorn to fulfil every part of his will. jou, allowing him only a yearly penWhen Henry came to attend his fa- fion for his maintenance. Gul. Nuther's funeral, the oath was tendered brig, de Reb. Angl. lib. ii. cap. 7.


withstanding all his success, yet he was extremely sensible of the disquietudes attending so high a station, and complained thereof to his countryman John of Salisbury:h). He died September 1, 1159 (i), in the fourth year and tenth month of his pontificate, and was buried in St. Peter's church, near the tomb of his predecessor Eugenius. There are extant seve. ral letters, and some homilies written by pope Adrian.

(b) He assured him, “ that all the tendants, a fly got into his throat, former hard lips of his life were mere and the surgeons not being able to examusement to the misfortunes of the tract it, he was suffocated. “ As he popedom ; that he looked upon St, was drinking (says Fuller) he was Peter's chair to be the most uneasy choaked with a Ay, which, in the feat in the world, and that his crown large territory of St. Peter, had no seemed to be clapped burning on his place but his throat to get into : but head." Baronius Annal, tom. xii. since a fly stopped his breath, fear an. 1154.

shall stop my mouth, not to make (i) Matthew Paris tells us (Vit. uncharitable conclusions from such Abbat. S. Alban. p. 74.) he was poi- casualties.” Worthies of England, soned by the Romans, because he re- Hertfordshire, p. 20. It is remarkfused to consecrate a citizen's fon a able, however, that Platina and Lebishop, who was unworthy of that land are filent as to the manner of dignity.' Joannes Funcius says (Ba. his death, which, in all probability, leus, de Script. Brit. Centur. 2. they would not have been, had it n. 64. 'in Appendice) that Adrian been attended with such extraordinabeing one day walking with his at ry circumstances.

sto, tom.

ADRIAN (de Castello) bishop of Bath and Wells, in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. He was descended of an

in obscure farnily at Cornetto, a small town in Tuscany : he Aubery Hift. generale des foon distinguished himself by his learning and abilities, and Cardinaux, procured several employments at the court of Rome. In Paris 1645.

. 1448, he was appointed nuncio extraordinary to Scotland, p. 76. by pope Innocent VIII. to quiet the troubles in that king

dom; but, upon his arrival in England, being informed that his presence was not necessary in Scotland, the contests there having been ended by a battle, he applied himself to execute some other commissions with which he was charged, particularly to collect the pope's tribute, or Peter-pence, his holine's having appointed him his treasurer for that purpose. He continued some months in England, during which time he got so far into the good graces of Morton archbishop of Canterbury, that he recommended him to the king, who ap: pointed him his agent for English affairs at Rome ; and, as a recompence for his faithful services, he promoted him first

to the bishopric of Hereford, and afterwards to that of Bath Polyd. Virg. Hit. Anal.and Wells. He was enthroned at Wells by his proxy Polyedit. L Bat. dore Virgil, at that time the pope's fubcollector in England,

.., P. and afterwards appointed by Adrian archdeacon of Wells. 1736, 737.

Jib. xxvi

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