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and was so pleased with it, that he immediately appointed
Mr. Addison a commissioner of appeals, vacant by the pro-
motion of Mr. Locke, chosen one of the lords commissioners
for trade. The Campaign is addressed to the duke of Marl-
borough; it gives a short view of the military transactions in ..
1704, and contains a noble description of the two great
actions at Schellemberg and Blenheim. The poem will be
admired as long as the victory is remembered (k). In 1705,
he attended lord Halifax to Hanover, and the ensuing year
was appointed under-secretary to Sir Charles Hedges, les
cretary of state, in which office he acquitted himself so well,
that the earl of Sunderland, who succeeded Sir Charles in
December, continued Mr. Addison in his employment.

A tastefor operas beginning at this time to prevailin England, and many persons having solicited Mr. Addison to write one, he complied with their request, and composed his Rosamond. This however, whether from the defect of the music, for which our language is faid by some to be very improper, or from the prejudices in favour of the Italian taste, did not fucceed upon the stage ; but the poetry of it has, and always will be, juftly admired. About this time, Sir Richard Steele wrote his comedy of the Tender Husband, to which Mr. Addison wrote a prologue. Sir Richard surprized him with

Tirkel's preface.

Ibid.

sage, engaged in an uproar of na- time, and have all the natural hor.
ture, a confusion of elements, and a rors heightened by the image that
scene of divine vengeance. Add to was still fresh in the mind of every
all, that there lines compliment the reader :
general and his queen at the same

'Twas then great Marlboro's mighty foul was provid,
That in the shock of charging hosts unmov'd,
Amidit confufion, horror, and de'pair,
Examin'd all the dreadful scenes of war; .,
in peaceful thought the field of death furvey'd,
To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid,
Inspir'd repuls'd battalions to engage,
And taught the doubtful battle where to rage;
So when an angel, by divine command,
With rifing tempests thakes a guilty land,
Such as of late v'er pale Britannia pait,
Calm and lerene he drives the furious blast,
and pleas'd ch'Almighty's orders in perform,

Rides in the whirlwind, and directs the storm."
(k) Mr.Voltaire, in reciting the ho. nuiment than the palace of Blenheim,
nours conferred upon thcduke of Marl- is accounted by that lear ed andwa:-
borouqh after the battle of Blenheim, like people amongst the most honour-
mentions this piece in the following able recompences bestowed upon the
terins : “ The celebrated poen of Mr. weke of Marlborough.” Age of Lewis
Addison (says he) a more lasting mo. XIV, Eng, translation, vol. i. p. 337.

a de

a dedication of this play, and acquainted the public, that he
was indebted to him for some of the most excellenc strokes in
the performance.

The marquis of Wharton, being appointed lord lieutenant Tickel's
of Ireland in 1709, took Mr. Addison with him as his secre, preface.
tary. Her majesty also made him keeper of the records of
Ireland, and, as a farther mark of her favour, considerably
augmented the salary annexed to that place. Whilst he was
in this kingdom, the Tatler was first published, and he dif-
covered his friend Sir Richard Steele to be the author, by an
obfervation on Virgil, which he had communicated to him.
He afterwards aslisted considerably in carrying on this paper,
which the author acknowledges (). The Tatler being laid
down, the Spectator was set on foot, and Mr. Addison fur-
nished great part of the most admired papers ; those which he
wrote are distinguished by one of the letters of the muse,
C, L, I, O (m). The Spectator made its first appearance in
March, 1711, and was brought to a conclusion in September,
1712(n). He had likewise a considerable thare in the Guar:

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dian,

(9) “But I have (says the author of hope (says he) the apology I have
the Tatler) only one gentleman, who made, as to the licence allowable to
will be nameless, to thank for any a feigned character, may excuse any
frequent alistance to me, which, in- thing which has been said in there,
deed, it would have been barbarous in discourses of the Spectator and his
him to have denied to one, with whom works. But the imputation of the
he has lived in an intimacy from groffelt vanity would Till dwell upon
childhood, considering the great ease me, if I did not give some account
with which he is able to write, the by what means I was enabled to keep
most entertaining pieces of this na- up the spirit of so long and approved
fure. This good office he performed a performance. All the papers marked
with such force of genius,humour,wit, with a C, L I, or 0, were given me
and learning, that I fared like a dif- by a gentleman, of whose assistance I
treffed prince, who calls in a power. formerly boasted in the preface and
ful neighbour tò his aid; I was un. concluding leaf of the Tatler. I am,
done by my auxiliary. When I had indeed, much more proud of his long
once called him in, I could not sub. continued friendship, than I should
11t without dependence on him. The be of the fame of being thought the
fame hand writ the distinguishing author of any writings, which he
characters of men and women, under himself is capable of producing."
the names of Musical Instruments, Spectator, No. 555.
the Diftress of the News-writers, the (n) The author of the Differtation
Inventory of the Play-house, and ehe sur la Poesie Angloise, in the Journal
Description of the Tliermometer, Literaire, speaking of this work.
which I cannot but look upon as the “ The finest geniuses in England
greatestembellisaments of this work." (says he) have exerted in the Specta-
Preface to the 4th vol. of the Tatier. for all the force of their reflections,

(m) Sir Richard Steele thus ex. all the delicacy of style, and all the
presses himself in regard to Mr. Ad. fire of imagination that can be can-
dison's face in the Spectators. « [ceived. It is an admirable work;

and

dian, another paper in the fame taste, which entertained the town in 1713 and 1714. His celebrated Cato appeared in 1713. He formed the design of a tragedy upon this subject when he was very young, and write it when on his travels; he retouched it in England, without any intention of bringing it on the stage ; but his friends being persuaded it would serve the cause of liberty, he was prevailed on by their solicitations, and it was accordingly exhibited on the theatre with a prologue by Mr. Pope, and an epilogue by Dr. Garth. It was receive with the most uncommon applause, having run thirty-five nights without interruption; and all parties, however divided, agreed in giving this play the commendation it deserved (o). It was no less esteemed abroad, having been translated into French, Italian, and German ; and it was acted at Leghorn, and several other places, with vast applause. The Jesuits at St. Omers made a Latin version of it, and the students acted it with great magnificence. Her majesty queen Anne signified an inclination of having the play dedicated to her; but the author having proposed to dedicate it elsewhere, to avoid giving offence, published it without a dedication. He had formed a design of writing another tragedy upon the

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and it has preserved a great part of to Sir William Trumbal, April 30, its original graces and beauty in the 1713, writes in the following man. French translation. There is such a ner : “ Cato was not so much the prodigious variety in it, both with wonder of Rome in his days, as he regard to the style and the subjects is of Britain in ours; and though all which it treats of, that we juftly af- the foolish industry poffible has been firm, the French nation has nothing used to make it be thought a party to oppose to this work, that can be play, yet, what the author once said confidered equal to it." Tom. IX. of another, may, the most properly p. 159, 160.

in the world, be applied to himself (0) Mr. Pope, speaking of the re- on this occasion. ception this play met with, in a letter

Envy itself is dumb, in wonder loft,

And factions strive who shall applaud him moft. The numerous and violent claps of tween one of the acts, and presented The Whig party on one side of the the. him with fifty guireas, in acknowatre were echoed back by the Tories ledgement (as he expresied it) for deon the other ; while the author sweat- fending the cause of liberty ro well ed behind the scenes, with concern, to against a perpetual dictator. The find their applause proceeding more Whigs are unwilling to be distanced from the hand than the head. This this way, and therefore design a prewas the cafe too of the Prologue wri- sent to the same Cato very speedily ; ter, who was clapped into a staunch in the mean time they are getting Whig, at almost every two lines. I ready as good a sentence as the former believe you have heard, that after all on their fide : fo betwixt them, it is the applauses of the opposite faction, probable, that Cato (as Dr. Garth my lord Bolingbroke sent for Booth, expressed it) may have something to who played Caco, into the box, be live upon after he dies."

death

death of Socrates; but this he never carried into execution, 16:4. He intended also to have composed an English dictionary upon the plan of the Italian (Della Crusca); but, upon the death of the queen, being appointed secretary to the lords justices, he had not leisure to carry on such a work.

When the earl of Sunderland was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, Mr. Addison was again made secretary for the affairs of that kingdom, and, upon the earl's being removed from the lieutenancy, he was chosen one of the lords of trade, Mrs. Manley was much dissatisfied with Mr. Addison for leaving the muses, and giving himself up to business; but she, at the same time, pays him the highest compliments (D). In 1715, he began the Freeholder, a political paper, which was much admired, and proved of great use at that juncture. Ibid. He published also about this time, verses to Sir Godfrey Kneller upon the king's picture, and some to the princess of Wales with the tragedy of Cato. In April 1717, his majesty king George appointed our author one of his principal secretaries of state ; but the fatigue of his employment having brought upon him an asthmatic disorder, with which he had been before afflicted, he resigned his office, and retired from business. In his retirement, he applied himself to a religious work, which he had begun long before ; part of which, scarce finished, has been printed in his works. He intended also to have given an English paraphrase of some of David's Psalms; but a long and painful relapse cut short all his designs, and carried off this great man on the 17th of June, 1719, in the 54th year of his age. He died at Holland-house,

() I (says that lady, in her Ata- be an idle spectator, rather than a lantis) who cannot be properly named celebrater of those actions he fo well a judge of the Greek, yet find such knows how to define and adorn? enchantment in Maro's (a name un. Virgil himself, nor Virgil's greater der which she shadowed Mr. Addison) master, Homer, could not boast of strains, that feeling how I myself, a finer qualifications than Maro; Maforeigner, am ravished, must thence ro! who, alone of all the poets truly conclude his better judges, the Gre- inspired, could cease to be himself, cians, entranced by him. I could could degenerate his godlike Toul, and not behold him in Sergius's (lord prostitute that inborn genius, all Halifax) gallery without something those noble accomplishments of his of an ejaculation, an oblation due to for gold, could turn away his eyes Maro's shrine from all that can read from the delicious gardens of Par: him. O pity, that politicks and sordid nafsus, of which he was atready in interest should have carried him out possession, to tread the wandering of the road of Helicon, snatched him maze of business. Farewel Maro; from the embraces of the muses, to till you abandon your artificial pathrow him into an old withered arti- tron, fame 'muft abandon you." ficial statesman's arms! Why did he Memoirs of Europe towards the clore prefer gain to glory? Why chuse to of the 8th century, vol. II. p. 1532"

near

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Tickel's preface.

Heår Kénlington, leaving behind him onė daughter by the countéfs of Warwick, to whom he was married in 1716. After his decease, Mr. Tickel, by the author's instructions, published his works in fout volumes in 4to. In this edition, there are several pieces hitherto unmentioned, viz The Dissertation on Medals, which, though not published till after his death, yèt he had collected the materials, and begun to put them in order, at Vienna, in 1702 (9). A pamphlet, entitled the present State of the War, and the Neceflity of an Augmentation considered; the late Tryal and Conviction of Count Táriff ; the Whig Examiner came out on the 14th of September, 1916: there were five of these papers attributed to Mr. Addison, and they are the severest pieces he ever wrote, The Drummer, or the haunted House, a comedy not taken notice of in this edition, was published afterwards as Mr. Addison's, by Sir Richard Steele (r). He is said also to have

been

(9) Mr. Pope has addressed an e- the following lines of which we hope bifle to Mr. Addison on this piece; will not be disagreeable to our readers,

<< With Tharpen'd fight pale antiquaries pore,
Th'inscription value, but the ruft adore;
This the green varnish, that the green endears
The facred rust of twice two hundred years.
To gain Percennius one employs his schemes,
One grasps a Cecrops in extatic dreams.'
Poor Vadius, long with learned spleen devour'd,
Can taste no pleasure since his thield was fcour'd,
And Curio, rettiess by the fair one's side,
Sighs for an Otho, and neglects his bride.
Theirs is the vanity, the learning thine,
Touch'd by thy hand, ágain Rome's glories Thine;
Her gods and godlike heroes rise to view,
And all her faded garlands bloom anew;
Nor blush thofe studies thy regard engagé,
These pleas'd the fathers of poetic rage :
The verse and sculpture bore an equal part,

And art reflected images to art.”
(r) Sir Richard Steele was much at the time of the transaction con,
offended at Mr. Tickel for omitting cerning the acting on the stage and
this play in his edition of Mr. Addi- sale of the copy, I should, I think,
(on's works in 1721, and so much have seen Mr. Addison in every page
stsented it, that he quickly after pub- of it; for he was above all men in
lished a second edition of it, with an that talent called humour, and en-
epistle to Mr. Congreve. · In this e. joyed it in such perfection, that I
pistle, he affirms, that he recom- have often reflected, after a night
mended the play to the stage, and spent with him, apart from all the
carried it to the press ; and he like world, that I had had the pleasure of
wise mentions the price it was fold conversing with an intimate acquain-
al, fifty guineas.." But indeed, tance of Terence and Catullus, who
(continúes he) had ļ not known ite had all their wit and nature, height,

ered

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