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statutes he could be admitted at such an age. He wrote ex• Panzirol. de positions on the laws, which he annexed to those of his fa- c. leg.: in:

terp. lib.ii. ther; but they were never in esteem. Panzirolus thus speaks c. xix. of them : Deterior interpres ineptas gloffas et longe a vero diftantes paternis addidit, quæ Cervotianæ vocatæ ut plurimum rejiciuntur. i. e. “A bad expounder, who added triling inac- 1b. curate comments to those of his father : they are called Cervotionæ, and are mostly rejected.”

ACCURSIUS (Francis) elder brother to the former, was so highly esteemed by the citizens of Bologna, that upon hearing he was to follow the king of England into France to read the law in that kingdom, they issued an order that he Thould not leave their city, upon pain of having his estate confiscated. He went to Toulouse however notwithstanding this threat, and thought to have outwitted them, by selling all his property to a friend; but this artifice proved ineffectual; his estate having been confiscated, which obliged him to return to Bologna, when it was restored to him. He had taught in Toulouse, and was one day very much puzzled to explain somewhat in regard to the interest of money: James of Ravanne, one of the ableft lawyers of his time, having gone incog. amongst the hearers, and passing for a scholar, had raised such objections as greatly staggered Accurfius. Some say that Accurfius, at his return to Bologna, was a law-professor there with Bartolus; and that having a dispute with him about the reading of a passage in the pandects, they sent to Pisa to consult the manuscript; but it seems very improbable that Accurfius was living when Bartolus was professor ; for, in this case, he must have been at least 120 years of age. The conjecture of Panzirolus is therefore not unlikely, that Pangirolus de the Accurfius, who was Bartolus's collegue, was son to an cl. leg. iaAccurfius who taught law in Reggio, his native country, terpr. C. about the year 1273; and likewise read lectures in Padua.

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ACCURSIUS (Mariangelus) a famous critic of the 16th century, born at Aquila, in the kingdom of Naples. His favourite study was searching into and comparing of old manuscripts, in order to correct many passages of the antient authors. The Diatribes, which he printed in folio at Rome, in 1524, on Ausonius, Solinus, and Ovid, shew his ability in this kind of learning. He had likewise bestowed great · pains and time on Claudian (a): this work however was ne

(a) Talis (says Accurfius) pon ales novisfime recognitis. Qui tantum legitur in codicibus Claudiani etiam abeft ut non esiam nunc verfibus

ver printed. Barthius, who has a high opinion of the wit and judgment of our author, expressed his concern that such a valuable work should remain in manufcript, and that the rest of his compofitions have not been republished. Accurfius wrote also Latin and Italian verses, and had great skill in music, as well as optics : he travelled into the northern parts of the world, and in his travels used to remark the most minute particulars. He was perfect master of the French, Spanish, and German languages : he was also a great antiquarian, having collected a vast number of antiques which were deposited in the capitol. He lived 33 years at the court of

the emperor Charles V. who was highly pleased with him, Nicholo and bestowed on him many marks of favour and esteem. In Toppi. Bib- his edition of Ammianus Marcellinus, there a.e five books lioth. Nap.

206. ” more than in any before printed. It was published at Ausburgh Hen. Vale. in 1533; and Accursiius affirms, that he had corrected five fii præf. in thousand errors in this historian. This fame year he publish Ammian: ed in that city the Epistles of Caffiodorus in twelve books, Marcellin.

hi with a Treatise on the soul; and to him we are indebted for sopra. the first edition of this author. Some Latin writers in his Leonardo Ni. time having affected to make use of the most obsolete words, codeno, Ad-he ridiculed them with great humour in a dialogue published dizioni alla

12. in 1531 (6), and he annexed to it a small treatise written by poletan. p. Volutius Metianus, an antient lawyer. He is said to have 370. wrote also a book on the invention of printing. He was acToppi. p.cused of plagiarism in regard to his Ausonius, it being alledged

that he had assumed to himself the labours of Fabricio Varano, bishop of Camerino : however he took an oath to the contrary, the form of which is somewhat remarkable. The original is in Latin, of which the following is a translation :

p. 206

Biblioth. Na

206.

fint claudi ac deformes, ut eos ex ve- who corrupted the Latin tongue, was tuftis exemplaribus, dum Germani- perhaps printed in the year 1531; am Sarmatiasque nuper peragramus, but we may naturally suppose, that feptingentis fere emendis inter equi- it was publickly known some years tandum eluerimus. i. e. “'Tis read before, fince Geoffry Tory quotes it talis, and not ales, in all the editions in his Champ Fleure, printed in 4to. of Claudian, even those which were in 1529. In like manner, continues last revised : but the verses are still so he, a thousand other forms of exlame and defective, that I corrected pression, which Hieronymus Avaciabove 700 errors by the old manu- nus, a native of Verona, gives us in scripts, as I rode on horseback thro' the beginning of his Annotations on Germany and Poland.” Accursii Din the works of the antient poet Lu. atrib. in Ausonium.

cretius, which I leave to the curious (6) M. Bayle mentions the follow. who are lovers of antiquity; and ing particulars concerning this work, which may be read at large, in a dia, as communicated to him by M. de la logue, entitled, Osci et Volsci dialoMonnoie : The dialogue of Marian- gus ludis Romanis actus, &c. gelus Accurfius, levelled against those

" I

* I swear before God and men, by the sacred ties of faith and justice, by the folemn obligation of an oath, or by any thing else that can be more binding than an oath, I affirm and declare as the most unfeigned truth, and I would have it so understood by others, that I never read, nor so much as saw the compositions of any person, whence I could borrow the least hint or affistance for my own writings; riay I even endeavoured, to the utmost of my power, if I found any thing published like what I had written, to expunge it out of my work : and, if I now foretwear myself, may the pope pronounce his curse against me, and may so evil a fate attend my productions, that whatever is valuable, or at least indifferent in them, may it be accounted abominable by the ignorant many, and despised by the learned; and, if I have any fame left, may the winds carry it away, and may it be thought entirely owing to the injudicious vulgar.” We should have had several more of the works of Accurfius published, had his son Carimir lived longer.

bas, of the fame constrated it with noies Greek

e and writid's notes. Cheri published in otes;

ACHERI (Luke D') a benedictine of the congregation of St. Maur, born at St. Quintin, in Picardy, in 1609. He made himself famous by printing several works which, till his time, had remained in manuscript in different libraries. The first piece he published was the epistle ascribed to St. Barnabas, which he printed in 1645. "Father Hugh Menard, a monk of the same congregation, designed to have published this epistle, and had illustrated it with notes; but death having prevented him, Acheri published it in Greek and Latin, with Menard's notes. Three years after he published the life and writings of Lanfrank, archbishop of Canterbury, and the chronicle of the abbey of Bec. In 1651 he printed an edition of the Life and writings of Guibert, abbot of Nogent, with some other pieces. Having afterwards collected several scarce and curious tracts, and being in hopes of procuring many more, he formed a design to compile as large a body as he could collect, and to publish them under the title of Spicilegium, A gleaning. The first volume appeared in 1655, and was afterwards followed by twelve more, the last of which was printed in 1677. Most of the pieces contained Journal des in this work were wrote firice the decay of the Roman empire Savansa Flebo prefaces and notes, which he annexed to many of these pieces, shew him to be a man of genius and abilities. He had also some share in the pieces inserted in the first volumes of The acts of the saints of the order of St. Bennet, the title whereof acquaints us that they were collected and published by him and father Mabillon. After a very retired life, till the age of 73, he died at Paris the 29th of April, 1685, in the abbey of St. German in the Fields, where he had been librarian.

28, 1678. in the west. He published also the Rule for the Anchorites, written by father Grimlaic, and some Ascetic pieces (a). The

prefaces

(a) He did not put his name to this collection: we have the title

YOL, I,

thereof in father Labbe's Bibliotheca
Bibliothecarum, which is as follows:

Afce

Asceticorum vulgo fpiritualium opur- amongit the works of the fathers; culorum, quæ inter patrum opera re- digested for the use of devout Chriperiuntur. Indiculus Christianæ pi- stians, by a Benedictine of the congreetatis cultoribus ab Asceta Benedicti- gation of St. Maur. Paris 4to. 1648. no congregationis Sancti Mauri di- Mr. Tellier says, that Acheri pubgeftus. i. e. “A catalogue of the lished also St. Austin's life this rame Ascetic, or spiritual tracts, found year at Paris.

1. ACHILLINI (Alexander) born at Bologna, doctor of philosophy in that university. He flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries, and by way of eminence was styled the Great Philosopher. He was a stedfast follower and accurate intere preter of Averroes upon Aristotle, but most admired for his acuteness and strength of arguing in private and public disputations (a). He made a surprizing quick progress in his studies, and was very early promoted to a professorship in the univerfity (b), in which he acquitted himself with fo much applause, that his name became famous throughout all Italy.' He continued at Bologna till the year 1506, when the university of Padua made choice of him to succeed Antonio Francatiano in the first chair of philosophy. His fame brought vast numbers of students to his lectures at Padua ; but it drew upon him the envy of his collegue, Peter Pomponalius, who could not endure the superior reputation of his rival, and therefore, by secret practices, endeav, ured to withdraw his scholars from him, and in the disputations, when he could not answer his arguments, he had recousse to raillery and jests; but all his efforts could not in the least Jeffen the reputation of Achillini.

(a) He particularly frequented those (8) According to Orlandi, Achil. public difputations called, The Ge- lini began to read lectures at Roneral Chapters, or Convocations a- logna in 1484, from whence it apmongst the Friars; and was so acute pears, he was then but twenty years a disputant, that where he did argue, old, since the same author tells us and was not known, there went cur- that he died in the 48th year of his rent as a proverb that saying, Either age, in 1912; fo that, according to the devil or Achillini. No:izie degli this account, he must have been born Scritt. Bologa. . .

in 3464. Notizie degli Scritt. Bologn.

Our

Our professor did not continue long at Padua; for the war,
wherein the republic of Venice was engaged against the league
of Cambray, putring a stop to the lectures of that univer-
fity, he withdrew to his native country, where he was re-
ceived with the same marks of honour and distinction a's be-
fore, and again appointed professor of philosophy in Bologna.
He spent the remainder of his life in this city, where he died,
and was interred with great pomp in the church of St. Martin
the Great, which belongs to the Carmelite friars.

The following verses are upon his tombstone, written by
John Vitalis :
Hofpes Achillinum tumulo qui quæris in isto,

Falleris, ille fuo junctus Ariitoteli
Elysium colit, et quas verum hic discere causas

Vix potuit, plenis nunc videt ille oculis
Tu modo, per campos dum nobilis umbra beatos

Errat, dic longum, perpetuumque vale. « Reader, in vain you here attempt to find Immortal Achillini in this tomb : Joined with his Aristotle now he dwells In sweet Elysium; and discovers fully All nature and its causes, which before, In this low sphere, he knew to less perfection. Then reader, whilst this mighty shade's employ'd In this blest manner, bid a long farewel. Jovius, who knew Achillini, and heard his lectures, says, 's that he was a man of such exceeding fimplicity, and so unacquainted with address and Aattery, that he was a laughingstock to the pert and saucy young scholars, although esteemed on account of his learning. He chiefly exposed himself to laughter when he walked, by his shambling gate, wearing a scarlet gown of an uncommon fashion, with close sleeves, and no folds behind, welted with otter's skin; and, having a constant smile upon his countenance, and his language being un- .. polished, he appeared to be a man either of a very simple or contemplative disposition. He wrote several pieces on philosophical subjects (c), which he published and dedicated to John Bentivogli.

ACHIL(c) The pieces which he published 5. De Elementis, lib. iii. are as follows:

6. De Subjecto Physionomia et 1, De Intelligentiis, five books. Chiromantiæ. 2. De Orbibus, lib. iv.

7. De Subjecto Medicinæ. 3. De Universalibus,

8. De prima Potestate Syllogifmi, 4. De Phyfico Audicu.

9. De Distinctionibus,

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