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calf, but a head only. According to some authors, the fear of falling a sacrifice to the resentment of the people by giving a "refusal, made Aaron comply with their desire; and they ali lege also, that he hoped to elude their request, by demanding of the women to contribute their ear-rings, imagining they would rather choose to remain without a visible deity,

than be deprived of their personal ornaments; but he found Corn. à La- that minds intoxicated with superstition and idolatry, will pide com. in facrifice every thing to this paflion. About the beginning of pag. 605.

**. the seventeenth century, one Monceau or Moncæius pub

lished an apology for Aaron, which was condemned by the inquisition of Rome: in this it is supposed that Aaron intended to represent the same image which Mofes did fome time after, viz. a Cherubim, and that the Israelites fell down and worshipped it contrary to his intention. A doctor of the Sorbonne, canon of Amiens, completely refuted this suppofition in 1609. Some have afserted, that this calf was only made of gilded wood, but the scriptures seem not to favour fuch an opinion, for it is expressly said in the thirty-second chapter of Exodus, that it was a molten calf, and though we are afterwards told that Mofes burnt and reduced it to

powder, yet it does not thence follow that this idol was form.ed of combustible matter; the words may signify that Mofes melted down the gold again, and divided it into very small

particles, which being thrown into the water became imper·ceptible, like such as are said to be found in the Tagus and Pactolus (a). Some authors are of opinion, that Aäron only

ra) We are told, *** that the « tränated," fo that we are to took * powder of the golden calf which on the story of the gilded beards as ,“ Möses ordered to be burnt and matter of fact; as alfo another of the “ mixed with the water to be drunk same stamp in the abovementioned

" by the Israelites, ifuck to the heards chapter, viz. « that upon Hur's reit of such as bad worshipped it, so s fusing to make gods for the Ir

és that they appeared gilts which « raelites, they spit upon him with
.“ was a distinguising mark upon “ so much violence that they stified
those who had been guilty of this “ him." The story of the gilded
6 idolatry.” This is recited in the beard's is not the only fiction which
'thirty-second chapter of Exodus, in the Rabbies have endeavoured to pass.
a French bible printed ar 'Paris in upon the world: they tell us also that
1495, by command of Charles VIII. the water impregnated with the par-
which was afterwards printed with ticles of the golden calf, which Moses
emendations. In the preface we are obliged them to drink, had almost the

given to understand that the French fame effect as the waters of jealousy, • trandafor.“ had given 'nothing but raifing tumors and ulcers upon the " " 'the genuine truth, and omitted guilty, and doing no hurt to the in* only, what was improper to be nocent te

* Yeremiah de Pours; divine melodie, pag. 829.
Sce Salian, vol. II. p. 165. Bacharti Hierozoic. par. I. lib. ii. cap. 34.

ordered Ordered the workmen to cast the golden calf, but did not concern himfelf with it; and that Moses did not command thie Ifraelites to drink the gold dust, but having thrown it into the brook, which was the only place where they could drink, this gave occasion to say that he obliged them to swallow the idol they had worshipped, This affair of the See Rivetti golden calf happened in the third month after the Israelites on Exod.

xxxii, tpm.de came out of Egypt. In the first month of the following p. 1184 year, Aaron was appointed high priest by God, which office he executed during the time that the children of Ifrael continued in the wilderness. He died in the fortieth year after their departure from Egypt, upon Mount Hor, being then a hundred and twenty-three years old, A. M. 2552.

golden cul of Egyptopointed higher the childefortieth yea

AARSENS (Francis) lord of Someldyck and Spyck, was one of the greatest ministers for negotiation the United Provinces could ever boast of. Cornelius Aarsens his father was register to the states, and being acquainted with Mr. du Plessis Mornay at the court of William prince of Orange, he prevailed upon him to take his fon under him, with whom he continued some years. John Olden Barnevelt, who presided Du Maurier's over the affairs of Holland and all the United Provinces, fent memoiro, R* him afterwards agent into France, where he learned to negotiate 377 under those profound politicians, Henry IV. Villeroy, Rosny, Silleri, Jeannin, &c. and he acquitted himself so well as to obe tain their approbation. Soon after he was invested with the character of ambassador, being the first who was recognized as such by the French court, at which time Henry IV. declared that he should take precedence next to the Venetian minifter. He resided in France fifteen years, during which time "he received great marks of esteem from the king, who created him a knight and baron, and for this reason he was received amongst the nobles of the province of Holland. How- Ibidla ever, he became at length so odious to the French court; that they defired to have him recalled. He was afterwards deputed to Venice, and to several German and Italian princes, upon occasion of the troubles in Bohemia : this was in 16203 and it is to be observed (lays Mr. Wicquefort) “ that the Wicquefort's “ French king ordered the duke of Angouleme, the count

treat. on am “ of Methune, and Abbé des Prealix, his three ambassadors, tom. I. p. < not to receive visits from Mr. Aarsens, who came from 6580 “ the states of the United Provinces to negotiate with some 46 German and Italian princes, upon the same affairs of s6 Bohemia, for which the ambassadors of France had been “ depated." The order fent for this purpose, signified that it B2

* was

46. was not intended as any indignity to the states, with whom
*:« the king was desirous to live always in friendship, but.

“ entirely upon account of Mr. Aarsens, for his having acted
« in a manner inconsistent with the interest and dignity of his

e$ majesty.” (a) Mr. Aarsens was the first of three extraordinary Wicquefort, ambassadors sent to England in 1620, and the second in 1645. vol. I. p.650 In this last embafly his collegués were the lord of Breder agd 7506 E rode first ambassador, and Heemsvliet as third ; they were to

treat about the marriage of prince William, fon to the prince

- of Orange. He was also ambassador extraordinary at the Du Maurier, French court in 1624; and cardinal Richlieu having just taken p. 386. the administration into his hands, and knowing he was an

able man, made use of him to serve his own purposes.

Aarsens died in a very advanced age, and his son, who survived him, was reputed the wealthiest man in Holland.

He has left very accurate and judicious memoirs of all those embassies in which he was employed; and it must be observed, that the various instructions given him by the states, and all the credential letters he carried in his later embassies, were drawn by himself; whence we may conclude, says Mr.

Wicquefort, that he was the ablest person in all that country, Vol. II. p. not only for conducting of negotiations, but for instructing 4356 ambassadors what to negotiate upon. Memoirs,

Du Maurier, in his memoirs, says, “ that he was of a pag. 376. " spirit the most dangerous which ever arose in the United

Provinces, and the more to be dreaded, as he concealed all " the malevolence and artifice of foreign courts, under the " appearance of Dutch bluntness and fimplicity; that he was $6 vehement and persualive, could advance arguments in fa66 vour of the worst causes, had an intriguing genius, and “ had kept a secret correspondence with fome great men in

« France, whose conduct was not only suspected, but highly mm. Os offensive to the king, and that having bribed the French

.« ambassador's secretary at the Hague, he thereby discovered " the most secret designs of the French court." By this ac. count we may see that Aarsens was a man of great abilities, and had an excellent turn for political negotiations: but whilst Du Maurier inveighs so warmly against this statesman, he lets us into a circumstance, which may teach us not to give too much

'' (a) This passage in Wicquefort may“ matory libel, written, signed, and

be illustrated by the following in Du « published by Francis Aarsens ; to Maurier. « In the year 1618 (says “ the great scandal and dishonour of he) “ the king commanded Mr. De “ the members of his majesty's coun. 6. Boiflife, to complain in his name “ cil: for which no satisfaction could .“ to the states general, of a defa- “ then be obtained."

credit to his invectives, for he informs us that there was an irreconcileable enmity betwixt his father and Aarsens.

gation at high favour d in this city for the electoriter of the

ABBADIE (James) an eminent protestant divine, born at Hay, in Berne, in the year 1658, as Niceron affirms in his history of illustrious men, though some say he was born in 1654. He studied at Saumur, at Paris, and at Sedan, at which last place he took the degree of doctor in divinity. Thence he went to Holland, and afterwards to Berlin at the defire of count d'Efpense, where he was made minister of the French church lately established by the elector of Brandenbourg. He resided in this city for many years, and was always in high favour with the elector. The French congregation at Berlin was at first but thin, but upon the revocation of the edict of Nantes, great numbers retired to Brandenbourg, where they were received with the greatest humanity, so that Dr. Abbadie had in a little time a great charge, of which he took all possible care, and by his interest at court did many services to his distressed countrymen. The elector dying in 1688, Abbadie accepted of marshal Schomberg's proposal to go with him first to Holland, and then to England with the prince of Orange. In the autumn of 1689, he went with the marshal to Ireland, where he continued till after the battle of Boyne in July 1690, in which his great patron was killed; this occafioned his return to London, where he was appointed minister of the French church in the Savoy. Some time after he was promoted to the deanry of Killaloe, in Ireland, which he enjoyed for many years. Having made a tour to Holland in order to publish one of his books, soon after his return, he was taken ill in London, and died at Mary-le-bon, on the 23d. of September, 1727. He was strongly attached to the cause of king William, as appears by his elaborate defence of the revolution, and his history of the assassination plot. He had great natural abilities, which he improved by true and useful learning. He was a most zealous defender of the primitive doctrine of the protestants, as appears by his writings, and that strong nervous eloquence, for which he was so remarkable, enabled him to enforce the doctrines of his profession from the pulpit with great spirit and energy (a).

AB(a) The account of his writings in - on several texts of scripture, 8vo. the order they were published, is as 2. Panegyrique de Monseigneur follows :

l’Electeur de Brandebourg; Rotter1, Sermons sur divers textes de dam, 1684. A panegyrick on the l'Ecriture ; Leiden, 1680: Sermons elector of Brandenbourg.

Ba

3. Traité

! . ABBOT (George) Archbishop of Canterbury, was born October 29. 1$62, at Guilford, in Surrey (a). He received the rudiments of his education at the place of his nativity, under the care of Mr. Francis Taylour, Master of the freefchool at Guilford, founded by Edward VI.' From thence

. 3. Traité de la verité de le Reli- 1694; Haye, 1695. A panegyrick gion Chretienne; Rotterdam, 1684. on Mary queen of England. A treatise of the truth of the Christian 8, Histoire de la conspiration derreligion. This has gone through seven niere d'Angleterre, avec le detail des éditions. The Abbe Houteville speaks diverses entreprises contre le roi et la of it in these terms: The most nation, qui ont precedé ce dernier * shining of these treatises for defence attentat ; London, 1696. An ac! of the Christian religion, which count of the late confpiracy in Eng

were published by the protestants, land. This piece was wrote by order ? is that written by Mr. Abbadie. Of king William JII, and the mate3. "The favourable reception it met rials were furnished by the earl. of

with, the praises it received, almost Portland, and air William Trumball,
without example, immediately af- fecretary of state.
ter its publication, the universal 9. La verité de la religion reformée;

approbation it still meets with, Rotterdam, 17:8. The truth of the * renders it 'unneceffary for me to join reformed religion. Dr. Henry Lam* my commendations, which would bert, Bishop of Dromore, translated .add so little to the merit of so great this piece into English, for the in

an author. He has united in this struction of the Roman Catholicks in ? book, all our controversies with the his diocèfe.

infidels. In the first part, he coin. io. La triomphe de la providence bats the atheists; the deists in the et de la religion, ou l'ouverture des fecond; and the socinians in the sept sceaux par le fils de Dieu; Am.

third : philosophy and theology sterdam, 1723. The triumph of pro, · enter happily into his manner of vidence and religion, or the opening

compofing, which is in the true the seven feals by the fon of God, " method, tively, pure, and elegant, &c. Mr. Voltaire speak's contemp

especially in the first books *. tuvudy of this performance in his

4. Reflexions fur la presence reelle list of writers in the age of Lewis du corps de Jerus Christ dans l'Eu- XIV. He was celebrated, says that 'charistic, comprises en diverses lettres; author, for his treatife upon the Hague, 1685. Reflexions on the christian religion, but he afterwards real prefence in the facrament. discredited that work by his • Open

5. L'Art de fe connoitre foi-meme, sing of the feven feals." ou la recherche des rources de la Besides what we have mentioned, morale'; Rotterdam, 1692. The art he published several fingle fermons, of knowing one's felf, or an enquiry and some other little pieces, which into the sources of morality.

met with general approbation. 6. Defense de la nation Britan- a) His father Maurice Abbot was pique ; où les droits de Dieu, de na. 'a clothworker, and fertled at Guil. ture, et de la focieté sont clairement ford, where he married Alice Marth; stablis au sujet de la revolution he suffered a great deal for his sted, d'Angleterre, contre l'auteur de l'avis faftness in the protestant religion, thro' important aux refugies. A desence, the means of Dr. Story, who was a of the revolution in England. great persecutor of such persons in the

7. Panegyrique de Marie rcipe reign of queen Mary, d'Angleterre, decedée le Decembre 28,

phie Difcaurs biforiguc et critique fur metode des prmcipoux auteurs, 9. p. 187.

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