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mning pred for he course in the discrate Calvinihar

Continual presente af public exercises, and by promoting tema perance in the fociety. In November; 1610, he was made prebendary of Normanton in the church of Southwell, and in 1612, bis majesty appointed' him regius professor of divinity at Oxford, in which station he acquired the character of a profound divine, though a more moderate Calvinist than either of his two predeceffors in the divinity chair, Holland and Humphrey ; for he countenanced the sublapfarian terets con-' cerning' predeftination. In one of his fermons before the Athen. Oxo

1721. vol. 2 umýverity, where he was professor, he thus points out the oblique methods then practised by some persons, who fecretly favoured popery, to undermine the reformation. « There of were men, says he, who, under prétence of truth, and " preaching against the Puritans, struck at the heart and root op of that faith and religion now established amongst us; « which was the very practice of Pärson's and Campian's

counsel, when they came hither to seduce young students; “ who, afraid to be expelled if they should openly profefs 6.their conversion, were directed to fpeak freely against the " Puritans, as what would suffice; so these do not expect to “ be accounted Papists, because thcy speak only against Pu“ ritans; but because they are indeed Papists, they speak " nothing against them : or if they do, they beat about the or bulk, and that softlytoo, for fear of difquieting the birds (s that are in it." Dr. Laud, then present, was so much suspected to be one of those persons here hinted at, that the whole auditory applied these reflections to him; nay, Laud: himself wrote a letter to the bishop of Lincolti, complaining, o that he was fain to fit patiently at the rehearsal of this “ fermon, though abused almost an hour together, being " pointed at' as he sat'; yet would have taken no notice of “ it, but that the whole university applied it to him; and 66. His friends totd him he should sink in his credit, if he an« [wered-not Dr. Abbot in his own : neverthelefs, he would “ be patients and defired his lordship would vouchsafe him “ fome direction.” But as Laud made no answer, it is likely the bifhiop'advised him against it. The 'fame of Dr. Abbot's Rushworth, lectures became very great'; and those which he gave upon volel. poo the supreme power of Kings against Bellarmine and Suarez so much pleased his majesty, that when'the' fee of Salisbury became vácant, he named him to that bishoprick, and' he was confecrated by his own brother at Lambeth, Dea cember 33: 1615. When-he-came to Salisbury he found Fuller’sword the cathedral running to decay, through the negligence and 1

licence and thics of Enga covetoufness of the clergy belonging to it: however, he found rey, YOL. I.

bishop con to hited at that


long in Sur

means to draw five hundred pounds from the prebendaries, Featly's life which he applied to the reparation of this church; he then gave of bp. Abbot. himself up to the duties of his function with great diligence p. 49.

and asliduity, visiting his whole diocese in person, and preaching every Sunday, whilst health would permit, which was not long; for his sedentary life, and close application to study, brought upon him the gravel and stone, of which he died on the 2d of March, 1617, in the fifty-eighth year of his age; having not filled the see quite two years and three

months; and being one of the five bishops which Salisbury Fuller, ib. had in fix years. He was buried opposite to the bishop's feat.

in the cathedral. Dr. Fuller, speaking of the two brothers, Ibid.

says, “ that George was the more plausible preacher, Robert " the greatest scholar; George the abler statesman, Robert

the deeper. divine; gravity did frown in George, and smile

in Robert.” Robert had been twice married, and his second marriage gave some displeasure to the archbishop. He left one fon, and one daughter, Martha, who was married to Sir Nathaniel Brent, warden of Merton college in Oxford (a).

*(a) Dr. Abbot wrote the follow. tholic, being an apology against Dr. ing pieces:

Bishop's reproof of the defence of 1. The mirror of popish subtilties: the reformed catholic, 1611. discovering the thifis which a cavil. 7. Antilogia : adversus apologiam ling papist, in behalf of Paul Spence, Andreæ Eudæmon Johannis Jefuitæ, a prieit, hath gathered out of San- pro Henrico Garnetto Jesuito proders and Bellarmine, &c. concern- ditore, 1513 ing the facraments, &c. 1594.. 8. De gratia & perseverantia sancto

2. The exaltation of the king- rum, exercitationes habitæ in acadom and priesthood of Christ, a ser- demia Oxonienfi, 1618. . mon on the roth psalm.

9. In Ricardi Thomsoni, Angli3. Antichrifti demonstratio; con- Belgici Diatribam, de amiffione & in." tra fabulas pontificias, & ineptam terceflione justificationis & gratiæ, Belarmini, &c. dedicated to king animadverfio brevis, 1618. James, 1603.

10. De suprema poteftate regia, 4. Defence of the reformed catho. exercitationes habitæ in academia lic of Mr.W. Perkins, against the bar. Oxoniensi contra Rob. Bellarmine, tard counter catholic of Dr. William 1619. He also left behind him fe. Bishop, seminary priest.

veral manuscripts, which Dr. Corbet 5. The old way, a sermon, at made a present of to the Bodleian St. Mary's, Oxon, 1610.

library. 6. The true ancient Roman Ca

8. De or

ABELARD (Peter) one of the most celebrated doctors of the twelfth century, was born in the village of Palais, six miles from Nantz, in Britainy; being of an acute genius, he applied himself to logic with more success than any other study: he travelled to several places on purpofe to exercise himself in this science, disputing wherever he went, discharg

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ing his syllogisms on all sides, and seeking every opportunity to signalize himself in disputation. He finished his studies at Paris ; in this city he found that famous professor of philosophy William de Champeaux, with whom he was at first in high favour, but did not continue so long; for this professor being puzzled to answer all the subtle objections started by Abelard, grew at last out of humour, and began to hate him. The school soon ran into parties ; the senior pupils, out of envy to Abelard, joined with their master: this only heightened the presumption of our young philosopher, who now began to think himself compleatly qualified to instruct others, and for this purpose he erected an academy at Melun, where the French court then resided. Champeaux used every method in his power to hinder the establishment of this school; but as he had powerful enemies, his opposition promoted the success of his rival. The fame of this new logical Abelard. professor spread greatly, and eclipsed that of Champeaux ; epift. p. so and Abelard was so much elated, that he removed his school to Corbeil, that be might harass his enemy the closer in more frequent disputations ; but his excessive application to study brought upon him an illness, which obliged him to remove to his native air. After two years stay in Britany, he returned to Paris, where Champeaux, though he had religned his professorship, and was entered amongst the canons regular, yet continued to teach amongit them. Abelard disputed against him on the nature of universals with such strength of argument, that he obliged him to renounce his opinion, which was abstracted Spinozism unexplained. This brought the monk into such contempt, and gained his antagonist so much reputation, that the lectures of the former were wholly deserted, and the professor himself, in whose favour Champeaux had resigned, gave up the chair to Abelard, and became one of his hearers. But no sooner was he raised to this dignity, than he found himself more and more exposed to the darts of envy. The canon-regular got the professor, who had given up the chair to Abelard, to be discarded, under pretext of his having been guilty of some obscene practices, and one, who was a violent enemy to Abelard, succeeded. Abelard, upon this, left Paris, and went to Melun, to teach logic as formerly: he did not continue there long; for as soon as he heard that Champeaux was retired to a village with his whole community, he posted himself on mount St. Genevieve, and there erected his school like a battery against the professor, who taught at Paris. Champeaux finding his friend thus besieged in his school, brought back the C2


canons-regular to their convent; but this, instead of extric cating him, was the cause of his being deserted by all his pupils, and soon after this poor philosopher entered into a convent. Abelard and Champeaux were now the only antagonists, and the senior was far from having the advantage. Before the contest was finished, Abelard was obliged to go to see his mother, who, after the example of her husband, was about to retire to a cloyster.' At his return to Paris hę found his rival promoted to the bishoprick of Chalons; so that now having it in his power to give up his school without the imputation of Aying from the field, he resolved to apply himself wholly to the study of divinity, and for this purpose removed to Laon, where Anselm gave lectures on theology with great applause. Abelard, however, upon his hearing him, had no opinion of his capacity (a), and therefore, instead of attending his lectures, he resolved to read divinity to his fellow students, . He accordingly explained the prophecies of Ezekiel in such a satisfactory manner, that he foon had a crowded audience. This raised the jealousy of Anselm, to fuch a degree, that he ordered Abelard to leave off his lectures. Abelard upon this returned to Paris, where he explained Ezekiel in public with so much success, that in a short time he became as famous for his knowledge in divinity as philosophy, and his encouragement was so considerable, that he was enabled to live in great affluence. That he might enjoy all the sweets of life, he thought it necessary to have a mistress, and accordingly fixed his affections on Heloise, a canon's niece, preferably to a number of virgins and married women, into whose good graces he says he could easily have

(a) "I went to this old man without sense or meaning. His • (says he) who had acquired are. • discourse resembled a fire, which en• putation more from his long prac. “ lightens not the house, but fills

tice and experience, than from it with smoak; a tree abounding genius or memory. If any one "wholly in leaves, and appearing • consulted him upon a doubtful beautiful at a distance, but thofe • point, he was sure to come away (who came near and examined it ' more dubious and perplexed. He o narrowly, found it barren. Ac• appeared wonderful in the eyes of "cordingly, when I went up to pluck • such as were only auditors, but 6 of its fruit, I found it like the fig. "contemptible to those who put tree which our Lord cursed, or that ' questions to him. He had a sur« old oak to which Lucan compares 'prising fluency of words, but those " Pompey,' Abælardi opera, p. 7.

Still reem'd he to possess and fill his place;
But itood the shadow of what once he was.
So in the field with Ceres' bounties spread,
Up-rears some ancient oak his reverend head.
Rowe's Lucan, book I. ver, 256, &c.


"inlinůáted himself (b). The canon, whose name was Fulbert, had a great passion for money, and vehemently desired to have Heloise a woman of learning, Abelard foresaw he might make this disposition of the uncle subservient to his design. « Allow me "(said he to Fulbert) to board in your house, e and I will pay you whatever sum you demand in conlidera“ tion thereof." The simple uncle, thinking he should now furnish ħis niece with an áble preceptor, who instead of putting him to expence, would pay largely for his board, fell into the snáre, and requested Abelard to instruct her day and night, and to use compulsion in case the should prove negligent (c): The preceptor gave himself no concern to fulfil the expe&ations of Fulbert; he foon spoke the language of love to his fair disciple, and instead of explaining authors, ämused himself în kissing and toying with his lovely pupil. ** Under pretence of learning (says he) we devoted ourselves Abelard. " wholly to love, and our studies furnished us with that pri- epift. p. 11. « vacy and retirement which our passion desired. We would a open our book, but love became the only lesson, and more 65 kiffes were exchanged than sentences explained. , I put my

hånd oftener to her bofom than the book, and our eyes " were more employed in.gazing at each other, than look« ing at the volume.'. That we might be the less suspected, “ I sometimes beat her, not out of anger, but love, and “ the stripes were sweeter than the most fragrant ointments.” Having never tasted such joys before, they gave themselves up to them with the greatest transport; so that Abelard now performed the functions of his public office with great remisness, for he wrote nothing but amcrous verses. His pupils perceiving his lectures much altered for the worse, quickly guessed the causė; but the simple Fulbert was the last person who discovered Abelard's intrigue. He would not at first believe it; but his eyes being at

(6) Abelard had a good deal of va- reflection on the canon's fimplicity : nity. Being handsome, and in the ! I was greatly surprized (says he) bloom of life, having a genius for ( no less than if he had delivered up poetry, and abounding in money, he'a tender lamb to a famished wolf. flattered himself every woman he ad. And as he not only defired me to dressed would receive him favourably. teach her, but to use the most The following are his own words: compulsive means, if necessary, "Tanti quippe tunc nominis eram, " what was this but yielding her to 'et juventutis, et formæ gratia præ. • my wishes, and giving us an op' minebam ; ut quamcunque femi. Oportunity, whether we would or

narum nostro dignarer amore nul. not; since he gave me a power to la n vererer repulfam.' Abælardi " use threats, and even stripes, if opera, p 10.

. gentleness failed.' Ib. po 11. (6) Abelard makes the following C3


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