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to the property of a tradesman. Certainly Whitelocke's submission was complete enough : involving a full and unreserved admission that he had done wrong and would not do so again. And though a submission wbich is the condition of release from custody may be to a certain extent treated as a formality, and does not necessarily imply a change of opinion, yet it must be remembered that Whitelocke submitted before sentence had been passed. In the presence of Coke and Tanfield, who were summoned to the hearing as assessors, I should have thought him an unlikely man to abandon his defence if he could find good footing for it in the common law. The lost book contained among other things his own account of his submission," with note which was his own and which was Sir Francis Bacon's addition :” a distinction which might perhaps have given us some light as to the real state of his private opinion : though I do not myself see by what omission the effect of the declaration could be materially altered.

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A TWELVEMONTH had now passed since the Council was set to work in earnest to find means of raising the income of the Crown, without help from Parliament, to an equality with its expenditure: a thing which the author of the dialogue on the Great Contract (supposed to be Sir Julius Caesar) had represented as practicable. It is now time to enquire what success they had had; for upon the issue of the experiment the policy of the coming years would mainly depend. And the answer shall be given by Sir Julius Cæsar himself. A draft in his own hand of a report upon the proceedings of the Commissioners, gives so full and clear and yet so concise an account of the whole case that I shall give it entire.



In June last, presently after the death of the Lord Treasurer Salisbury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer acquainted his sacred Majesty with the estate of his revenue and receipt : which was that his yearly ordinary expenses exceeded his yearly ordinary revenues by 160,0001. or thereabouts; and that his present debt was 500,0001. or near thereabouts.

That between that Midsummer and Michaelmas following there was necessarily to be provided for the maintenance of the ordinary expenses60,0001.

No way else presently left for to do it but the sale of the mills, parsonages, and other lands left out of the entail or annexation.

That the same was to be done forthwith.
Which done, yet the debt remained 500,0001. and would increase by
the quarterly inequality of the ordinary, besides the extraordinary: which
would lead to a plain ruin if it were not prevented.

1 “And now I trust you are satisfied that the King is not in such extreme need of the Commons' help to relieve his present wants, but that he can by his own means, and without taking any desperate course, relieve himself.” Parl. Deb. 1610, App., p. 170.

? Lansd. MSS. 165 fo. 223. This is the docket of the paper, in Sir J. C.'s hand.

shewed to prevent it.
1. Spending less.
2. Improvement of the present revenue.
3. New means of gain by projects, etc.

4. Parliament. The 1st in his own power. The 2nd by converting some remote forests, parks, chases, wastes, and

commons to the best profit. The 3rd dangerous before Parliament. The 4th very uncertain.

All which was showed to his M. by the said Chancellor in writing, and concluded with the same words, which is yet forthcoming to be seen.

Presently upon this his M. called unto him the Lords of his Privy Counsel, and signified the premises unto them in the presence of the late Prince, expressing his pleasure unto the Lords that howsoever the consideration thereof did specially appertain to the Lords Commissioners for the Treasury, yet the redress of these wants concerned them also, and he expected from them all their best furtherance therein, as often as the Commissioners should require the same.

And then in the Lords' presence his M. spake to the Prince to take an hearing amongst the Lords of the Chancellor's declaration of all the parti. cular heads of the Revenue and expenses, and try how he could justify that state of expenses and debts which he had presented unto his M.

Whereupon the late Prince appointed a day for it, and then came and sate with the Lords at Whitehall, and heard the Chancellor at large touching the said expenses, revenue, and debts, according to his M. pleasure and commandment.

After which the King was pleased to command the Lord Chancellor and the Lords Commissioners to enter into a due examination of the said estate, and to advise wherein his M. might abridge his expenses, or improve his revenue, or increase the same by new projects, and to acquaint him with their proceedings at his return from his progress.

In July the said Lords met perpetually together with the greatest assiduity and diligence that ever was observed in men of their places : who (after the sale of some small part of the aforesaid lands for the provision of 20,0001., and despatch both of commissions and instructions to all parts of the land for the Lady Elizabeth's Aid, and sending letters and directions for the advancing of the loans) did wholly intend the business of bettering the King's revenue.

Of which labours the effect was, that the King with time in some natures might abate his expenses by yearly 59,0001. and in some natures improve his revenue by yearly 85,7001. and by new projects to add to the present revenue an yearly increase of (dash in MS.).

And because therein they would omit nothing that either the wisdom of counsellors to so great a King, or the care of honest servants to so gracious


a master and sovereign, might either think of or provide for, they before their departure from their daily meetings in counsel did substitute divers gentlemen of special good rank and sort, videl. the King's learned Counsel and other officers of special trust, to assist Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer in considering of divers projects which required a further examination, and to make report to them of their proceedings and opinions thereof at their return to London.

The sub-commissioners met in August last and spent much time together with great diligence, and in September returned their certificate to the Lords aforesaid ;' who presently both in the end of that month and in October following conferred their notes together and couched in writing (by the extreme pains especially of the Lord Privy Seal, who spared no labour in writing and methodical disposing thereof) the whole substance of that which they had concluded touching all three heads either of abating of charges, improving of the present revenue, or adding of new unto it; and rejecting of many idle and dangerous projects, which might prove either against the law, or inconvenient to the State, or justly distasteful to the people, or any way dishonourable to his M. The particularities whereof are methodically set down by the said Lord Privy Seal and at large made known to his M. by the said Lord by word of mouth in the presence and with the consent of the rest of the Lords Commissioners.

And because his M. may plainly perceive that the labours of the Lords Commissioners have not been fruitless in themselves, though by accidents of extraordinary occasions and expenses since that time they have smally holpen the extremities of his M. wants, it may please his M. to look into these abatements, improvements, and additions ensuing, viz:

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Works at 30,0001. this last year-19,4241., saved 10,576
Irish Commissioners 7001. all abated

Irish Customs this last year 15001., now improved 4,500
Recusants 70001. before, now improved

1,000 Mint 10001. before, now improved

2,000 Assarts-improved ..

3,000 Defective titles-improved

4,000 Alienations-improved

2,000 Coferer-abated.

6,000 Messengers--abated


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Abatements yearly.

Improvements yearly. 1. By my La. Eliz. depar

1. In the return of the late ture


Prince's revenue, if no 2. In pensions, if the K.

part thereof be other. grant no more nor re

wise disposed

50,0001. 4,0001. 2. In the Irish Customs 5,7004. This I presume was the paper printed in the last chapter, p. 314.

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3. In the Court of Wards

and Liveries . . 20,0001. 4. In Customs upon the

Strangers 3d .. 3,0001. 5. In Recusants' forfeitures 1,0001. 6. In the Mint profits 2,0001. [7 and 8 erased in MS.] 9. In the Alienation office 2,0001. 10. In Issues Royal 1,0001.

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3. In the household . 6,0001. 4. In the Treasury of the

chamber, if the packets
be less frequent .

2,0001. 5. In the jewel house, if

the K. will. . 5,0001. 6. In the works, if build. ings stay

18,0001. 7. Irish Commissioners 7001. 8. In the Wardrobe, if

ready money may be

furnished hereafter. 5,0001. 9. In the Navy, after the

transportation of my
L. Eliz. past

8,0001. 10. Judges in Westminster

Hall 2 abated . . . 1001. 11. In prisons, if fewer pri

soners be committed 2001.

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Additions by Projects likely to

Projects not likely to prove well. 1. Feefarming of the King's lands. 2. Bargaining for the King's te

prove well.

1. Assarts and purprestures 3,0001.
2. Defective titles . . 4,0001.
3. Incroachments.
4. Wastes and Commons.
5. Coppices and underwoods to be

6. Remainders of Intails not spent

to be sold. 7. Surrounded grounds. 8. Old houses and castles. 9. Impost of foreign starch and

prohibition of making any

here. (10 erased in MS.) 11. Busses and fishing, 12. Baronets. 13. Intails spent. 14, Remote forests, parks, and

chases. 15. Forbidding of transportation of

cloths drest or undied. Allum. Waterworks.

nures and wards. 3. Altering the book of rates to

the highest value. 4. The K. to be sole merchant of

tobacco, salt, pepper, etc. 5. Selling of offices, great and

small. 6. Fines to dispense with Sheriffs. 7. Reservation upon the ecclesi

siastical seal of some profit to

the King. 8. Alehouses and Inns to be li.

censed only by the King under

his great seal of England. 9. Patents of legitimation, natural

ization and ennoblizing. 10. Copper small monies of one

penny and under-viz: half

pennies and farthings. 11. Clerk of the Markets exactions. 12. A reservation upon Usury. 13. The enrollment and forfeitures

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