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your Majesty hath yet a fortune extraordinary, and differing from former examples in the same kind. For most part of unions and plantations of kingdoms have been founded in the effusion of blood : but your Majesty shall build in solo puro

et in area pura, that shall need no sacrifices expiatory for blood; and therefore no doubt under a higher and more assured blessing. Wherefore as I adventured when I was less known and less particularly bound to your Majesty than since by your undeserved favour I have been, to write somewhat touching the Union, which your Majesty was pleased graciously to accept, and which since I bave to my power seconded by my travails, not only in discourse but in action : so I am thereby encouraged to do the like touching this matter of plantation; hoping that your Majesty will through the weakness of my ability discern the strength of my affection, and the honest and fervent desire I have to see your Majesty's person, name, and times, blessed and exalted above those of your royal progenitors. And I was the rather invited this to do, by the remembrance, that when the Lord Chief Justice deceased, Popham, served in the place wherein I now serve, and afterwards in the attorney's place, he laboured greatly in the last project touching the plantation of Munster. Which nevertheless, as it seemeth, hath given more light by the errors thereof what to avoid, than by the direction of the same what to follow.

First therefore, I will speak somewhat of the excellency of the work, and then of the means to compass and effect it.

For the excellency of the work, I will divide it into four noble and worthy consequences that will follow thereupon.

The first of the four is Honour; whereof I have spoken enough already, were it not that the Harp of Ireland puts me in mind of that glorious emblem or allegory wherein the wisdom of antiquity did figure and shadow out works of this nature. For the poets feigned that Orpheus, by the virtue and sweetness of his harp, did call and assemble the beasts and birds, of their nature wild and savage, to stand about him, as in a theatre; forgetting their affections of fierceness, of lust, and of prey; and listening to the tunes and harmonies of the harp; and soon after called likewise the stones and the woods to remove, and stand in order about him : which fable was anciently interpreted of the reducing and plantation of kingdoms; when people of barbarous

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manners are brought to give over and discontinue their customs of revenge and blood and of dissolute life and of theft and rapine, and to give ear to the wisdom of laws and governments; whereupon immediately followeth the calling of stones for building and habitation, and of trees for the seats of houses, orchards, inclosures, and the like.

This work therefore, of all other most memorable and honourable, your Majesty hath now in hand ; specially if your Majesty join the harp of David, in casting out the evil spirit of superstition, with the harp of Orpheus, in casting out desolation and barbarism.

The second consequence of this enterprise, is the avoiding of an inconvenience, which commonly attendeth upon happy times, and is an evil effect of a good cause. The revolution of this present age seemeth to incline to peace almost generally in these parts, and your Majesty's most Christian and virtuous affections do promise the same more specially to these your kingdoms. An effect of peace in fruitful kingdoms (where the stock of people receiving no consumption nor diminution by war doth continually multiply and increase) must in the end be a surcharge or overflow of people more than the territories can well maintain ; which many times insinuating a general necessity and want of means into all estates, doth turn external peace into internal troubles and seditions. Now what an excellent diversion of this inconvenience is ministered by God's providence to your Majesty in this plantation of Ireland ? wherein so many families may receive sustentations and fortunes, and the discharge of them also out of England and Scotland may prevent many seeds of future perturbations. So that it is as if a man were troubled for the avoidance of water from the place where he hath built his house, and afterwards should advise with him. self to cast those waters and to turn them into fair pools or streams, for pleasure, provision, or use. So shall your Majesty in this work have a double commodity, in the avoidance of people here, and in making use of them there.

The third consequence is the great safety that is like to grow to your Majesty's estate in general by this act; in discomforting all hostile attempts of foreigners, which the weakness of that kingdom hath heretofore invited : wherein I shall not need to fetch reasons far off, either for the general or particular.

For the general, because nothing is more evident than that which

one of the Romans said of Peloponnesus: Testudo intra tegumen tuta est; the tortoise is safe within her shell : but if she put forth any part of her body, then it endangereth not only the part that is so put forth, but all the rest. And so we see in armour, if any part be left naked, it puts in hazard the whole person; and in the natural body of man, if there be any weak or affected part, it is enough to draw rheums or malign humours unto it, to the interruption of the health of the whole body.

And for the particular, the example is too fresh that the indisposition of that kingdom hath been a continual attractive of troubles and infestations upon this estate. And though your Majesty's greatness doth in some sort discharge this fear, yet with your increase of power it cannot be but envy is likewise increased.

The fourth and last consequence is the great profit and strength which is like to redound to your crown, by the working upon this unpolished part thereof: whereof your Majesty, being in the strength of your years, are like by the good pleasure of almighty God to receive more than the first fruits, and your posterity a growing and springing vein of riches and power. For this island being another Britain, as Britain was said to be another world, is endowed with so many dowries of nature, (considering the fruitfulness of the soil, the ports, the rivers, the fishings, the quarries, the woods and other materials, and specially the race and generation of men, valiant, hard, and active,) as it is not easy, no not upon the continent, to find such confluence of commodities, if the hand of man did join with the hand of nature. So then for the excellency of the work, in point of honour, policy, safety, and utility, here I cease.

For the means to effect this work, I know your Majesty shall not want the information of persons expert and industrious, which have served you there and know the region : nor the advice of a grave and prudent council of estate here, which know the pulses of the hearts of people, and the ways and passages of conducting great actions; besides that which is above all, which is that fountain of wisdom and universality which is in yourself. Yet notwithstanding in a thing of so public a nature it is not amiss for your Majesty to hear variety of opinion : for as Demosthenes saith well, the good fortune of a prince or state doth sometimes put a good motion into a fool's mouth. I do think therefore the means of accomplishing this work consisteth of two principal parts.

The first, the invitation and encouragement of undertakers; the second, the order and policy of the project itself. For as in all engines of the hand there is somewhat that giveth the motion and force, and the rest serveth to guide and govern the same : so it is in these enterprises or engines of estate. As for the former of these, there is no doubt, but next unto the providence and finger of God, which writeth these virtuous and excellent desires in the tables of your Majesty's heart, your authority and affection is primus motor in this cause. And therefore the more strongly and fully your Majesty shall declare yourself in it, the more shall you quicken and animate the whole proceeding. For this is an action, which as the worthiness of it doth bear it, so the nature of it requireth it to be carried in some height of reputation ; and fit in mine opinion for pulpits and parliaments and all places to ring and resound of it. For that which may seem vanity in some things, (I mean matter of fame,) is of great efficacy in this case.

But now let me descend to the inferior spheres, and speak what co-operation in the subjects or undertakers may be raised and kindled, and by what means.

Therefore to take plain grounds, which are the surest : All men are drawn into actions by three things,-pleasure, honour, and profit. But before I pursue these three motives, it is fit in this place to interlace a word or two of the quality of the undertakers. Wherein my opinion simply is, that if your Majesty shall make these portions of land which are to be planted, as rewards or as suits, or as fortunes for those that are in want, and are likest to seek after them, that they will not be able to go through with the charge of good and substantial plantations, but will deficere in opere medio ; and then this work will succeed, as Tacitus saith, acribus initiis, fine incurioso. So that this must rather be an adventure for such as are full, than a setting up of those that are low of means: for those men indeed are fit to perform these undertakings which were fit to purchase dry reversions after lives or years, or such as were fit to put out money upon long returns.

I do not say, but that I think the undertakers themselves will be glad to have some captains, or men of service, intermixed among them for their safety ; but I speak of the generality of undertakers, which I wish were men of cstate and plenty.


Now therefore it followeth well to speak of the aforesaid three motives. For it will appear the more how necessary it is to ailure by all means undertakers : since those men will be least fit which are like to be most in appetite of themselves; and those most fit which are like least to desire it.

First therefore for pleasure : in this region or tract of soil, there is no warm winters, nor orange-trees, nor strange beasts, or birds, or other points of curiosity or pleasure, as there are in the Indies and the like : so as there can be found no foundation made upon matter of pleasure, otherwise than that the very general desire of novelty and experiment in some stirring natures may work somewhat; and therefore it is the other two points, of honour and profit, whereupon we are wholly to rest.

For honour or countenance, if I shall mention to your Majesty whether in wisdom you shall think convenient, the better to express your affection to the enterprise and for a pledge thereof, to add the Earldom of Ulster to the Prince's titles, I shall but learn it out of the practice of King Edward I., who first used the like course, as a mean the better to restrain the country of Wales : and I take it the Prince of Spain hath the addi. tion of a province in the kingdom of Naples : and other precedents I think there are: and it is like to put more life and encouragement into the undertakers.

Also, considering the large territories which are to be planted, it is not unlike your Majesty will think of raising some nobility there; which if it be done merely upon new titles of dignity, having no manner of reference to the old ; and if it be done also without putting too many portions into one hand; and lastly if it be done without any great franchises or commands, I do not see any peril can ensue thereof: as on the other side it is like it may draw some persons of great estate and means into the action, to the great furtherance and supply of the charges thereof.

And lastly for knighthood to such persons as have not attained it; or otherwise knighthood with some new difference and precedence; it may no doubt work with many. And if any man think that these things which I propound are aliquid nimis for the proportion of this action, I confess plainly, that if your Majesty will have it really and effectually performed, my opinion is, you cannot bestow too much sunshine upon it. For lunce radiis non maturescit botrus. Thus much for honour.

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