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short, if perpetual expresses endless duration, some are to sleep to endless duration. The question perhaps may then be asked, How long does perpetual mean in the above texts? To this I answer, that in all of them it does not designate the same period of time. The longest period expressed by it, is not extended beyond the existence of this world. In the place where it is said some were to sleep a perpetual sleep, the Babylonians are referred to; they were asleep when their city was taken, and being killed while asleep, they no more awoke in this world, and hence their sleep is called perpetual. If perpetual is understood to mean endless, those persons are never to be raised from the dead. Such then as maintain a universal resurrection of all the dead, must give up the idea that olim, rendered perpetual, signifies a proper eternity.

3d. Let it be noticed, that in none of the above texts, is a reference made to the punishment of the wicked in a future state. But even admitting, that in a number of them it had been expressly declared, that the wicked, and the wicked in a future state of existence, should be punished with perpetual torments, this would prove nothing conclusive that these torments were to have no end. This must be obvious to every man who considers how often perpetual is applied to things which have ended, and to things also which we are sure are to end. From the common usage of this word, we ought to conclude that the torments of the wicked may come to an end also. This every fair reasoner will admit. But as nothing is said about future punishment in any of the. above texts, we need not trouble ourselves with any further remarks concerning them. I may just add, what difference can it make as to the meaning of the word olim, whether we render it everlasting or perpetual? Can the rendering alter the true sense of the writer?


2d. We find also that olim is rendered everlasting. The covenant that God made with Noah and every living creature, is called, "the everlasting covenant, Gen. ix. 16. Also, that which he made with Abraham and his seed, is called "an everlasting covenant," Gen. xvii. 7, 13, 19. It is called the same when confirmed to Israel, 1 Chron. xvi. 17. Psalm cv. 10. and also when made to David, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. And it is said of Israel, Isai. xxiv. 5. that they had "broken the everlasting covenant." In the following places, an everlasting covenant is spoken of, and seems to refer to the new covenant, Isai. lv. 3. and lxi. 8. Jer. xxxii. 40. Ezek. xvi. 60. and xxxvii. 28. But, however this may be decided, all will allow, that it must end when Christ delivers up the kingdom to God the father. The new dispensation, or age of the Messiah, is not called everlasting because it is endless in its duration, but because when it ends it is to be succeeded by no other. But further, we find the land of Canaan promised to Israel for an everlasting possession," Gen. xvii. 8. and xlviii. 4. The priesthood given to Aaron and his sons, was to be "an everlasting priesthood." But

an explanation of what is meant, it is added, "throughout your generations." See Exod. xl. 15. Numb. xxv. 13. Certain things under the Aaronical priesthood, and connected with that covenant, called everlasting, though temporary in its duration, were to be for an "everlasting statute," Levit. xxiv. 8, 16, 24. In Gen. xlix. 26. we read of the everlasting hills, and in Hab. iii. 6. of the everlasting mountains, and in Psalm xxiv. 7, 9. of the everlasting doors, probably referring to the doors of the temple.

Before adducing any more of the texts in which olim is rendered everlasting, I beg leave to make one or two remarks. It is easily perceived, by comparing these texts with those where olim is rendered

perpetual, that everlasting and perpetual express the same idea. Further, unless we can prove, that the land of Canaan, the statutes and ordinances of the Jewish dispensation, the hills and mountains, and the doors of the temple are to continue to endless duration, we ought not to say that the word everlasting expresses a proper eternity. We presume no one would contend that it does when applied to these things; but some perhaps would say, that it does ex- ! press the endless duration of the new covenant, mentioned in some of the above passages. But why should it any more mean this when applied to it, than when applied to the old covenant, which was called everlasting, yet has long ago vanished? Is it then asked, What does everlasting mean in the above texts? answer; it expresses a period of time, long, indefinite, and limited. Do we read of the priesthood of Aaron being everlasting? We find this, in as many words limited, for it is added, "throughout your gen erations." In a word, any long period of time, either past, or to come, is called everlasting. Yea, we shall see before we are done, that it sometimes expresses even a short period of time. Nor are the sacred writers under any apprehension that they were liable to be misunderstood. But to return.

We find further, olim rendered everlasting, and applied as follows. In Isai. xlv. 17. it is said-" But Ísrael shall be saved in the Lord with an everlasting salvation." This is explained by what follows: "ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end." See this text noticed before. Daniel, ix. 24. speaks of an "everlasting righteousness," and David, Psalm cxii. 6. says, "the righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." In Prov. x. 25. they are also said to be, "an everlasting foundation." David prays, Psalm cxxxix. 24. "lead me in the way ever lasting." And in Jer. xxxi. 3. God says, "I have

loved thee with an everlasting love." And in Isai. lx. 19, 20. it is twice said that "God is their everlasting light." And in Isai. xxxv. 10. they shall come to Zion with "everlasting joy." This is repeated, li. 11. and lxi. 7. In Isai. lyi. 5. God is said to give them an "everlasting name," and to have made to himself "an everlasting name," Isai. lxiii. 12. In Isai. Iv. 13. we read of an "everlasting sign," and by way of explanation it is added, "which shall not be cut off." And in Isai. liv. 8. we read of God's "everlasting kindness." Speaking of the Jews, God threatened that he would bring upon them "an everlasting reproach." Jer. xxiii. 40. And in Jer. xx. 11. it is added, "their everlasting confusion shall never be forgotten." By consulting the context of these two last texts it may be seen that God is not speaking of punishment to the Jews in a future state, but of his temporal judgments in the present world. Notwithstanding this, their punishment is called everlasting. This we have shown, in the Inquiry into Sheol, &c. which see. See also on 2 Thess. 2. below.

We come now to a part of this Inquiry where olim is rendered everlasting, and is applied to God himself. Such texts, then, demand the closest attention. I find it then said, Gen. xxi. 33. that Abraham "called upon the name of the Lord, the everlasting God." In Isai. xl. 28. he is again called the “everlasting God." And in Deut. xxxiii. 27. we read of his "everlasting arms." In Psalm xc. 2. it is said "even from everlasting to everlasting thou art God." And in Jer. x. 10. he is called "an everlasting king." In Psalm c. 5. it is said "his mercy is everlasting," and ciii. 17. it is added, "the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting." But by way of explanation it is said "his righteousness unto childrens' children." In xli. 13. it is said, "blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting." This is



repeated, Psalm cvi. 48. Again it is said Psalm xciii. 2. thou art from everlasting," but in the first part of the verse it was said as an equivalent expression "thy throne is established of old." In Isai. Ixiii. 16. it is said "thy name is from everlasting," Psalm cxlv. 13. David says, "thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom;" but observe it is added by way of explanation," and thy dominion endureth throughout all generations." In the margin our translators have put, "of all ages." And in Isai. xxvi. 4. it is said, "in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength," but in the margin they have put, "rock of ages."

These are all the passages, where olim is rendered everlasting and applied to God. There are two passages where it is so rendered and applied to the Messiah. The first is Mic. v. 2. "whose goings forth hath been from of old, from everlasting." See on this text professor Stuart's remarks, quoted, Sect. 1. Here, from of old and everlasting are used as synonimous expressions for the same thing. This is similar to Psalm xciii. 2. noticed above. The other text is Prov. viii. 23. "I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was." Here what is called everlasting in the first part is explained in the second to be, "from the beginning." Has everlasting or a proper eternity a beginning?

3d. We find olim rendered for evermore in the following places. Thus it is said Psalm xcii. 8. "but thou, Lord, art most high for evermore." And exili. 2. "blessed be the name of the Lord from this time forth and for evermore." And cxv. 18. "but we will bless the Lord from this time forth and for evermore." Again it is said, 2 Sam. xxii. 51. the Lord "showeth mercy to his anointed, unto David, and to his seed for evermore." This is repeated, Psalm xviii. 50. In 1 Chron. xvii. 14. God promised that Solomon's throne "should be established for ever


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