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fully afterwards. What we wish to be noticed here, is, that people generally have connected the idea of endless misery with the word hell, but it is evident that it is a very false association. It is beyond all controversy, that the word hell is changed from its original signification to express this idea.
3d, It is also obvious from the above quotation, and from other authors which might be quoted, that Gehenna is the word which is supposed to express the idea of a place of endless misery. The correctness of this opinion we shall attempt to consider afterwards. At present it need only be observed, that if the opinion be correct, it is somewhat surprising that the English language had no word to express such a place of misery, but the word hell must assume a new sense to accommodate it with a name.
4th, I shall only add in regard to the statements, made in the above quotation, that they are not opinions, broached by a Universalist, which he found to be necessary, in support of his system. No: they are the statements of Dr. Campbell, who was not a Universalist. Nor are they his own individual singular opinions, but are now admitted as correct by learned orthodox critics and commentators. In Mr. E. J. Chapman's critical and explanatory notes, we find the following remarks on Acts ii. 27. "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell eis adou, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.' This is a quotation from Psalm xvi. 10. It is evident that the primary reference of the words was to David, and equally so, from St. Peter's application of them in Acts ii. 31. that they are referrible principally and finally to Jesus Christ. The question immediately arises-in what sense are they in this appplication to be understood? That Christ should not be left in hell, is not at all incredible. But the thing implied in the declaration, viz. that Christ, or Christ's soul, was once there, creates
the difficulty. The following remarks may be useful, especially to common readers:-There are two Greek words which are translated hell-Hades and Gehenna. But their precise signification is very different. Hades or Ades, is derived from a and eideo, and means of course, invisible. It is synonymous with the Hebrew Sheol. Hades denotes sometimes the grave, but more commonly the state of the dead, or the region and state of separate spirits after death; whether that state be a state of happiness or of misery. To the rich man, Luke xvi. 23. Hades was a state of misery. We cannot, however, infer that he was in misery merely because he was in Hades, for Lazarus was there also. But that the rich man was in misery, we infer solely from other circumstances; other expressions such as being in torments'-'I am tormented in this flame,' &c.-They were both in Hades, i. e. the state or region of departed spirits; but to the one Hades was joy unspeakable' to the other, 'everlasting burnings.' But neither Sheol nor Hades have, in themselves considered, any connexion with future punishment, as will be evident to any one who will examine, in the Hebrew Bible and in the Septuagint translation, the following passages, viz. Gen. xlii. 38. Isa. xiv. 9. and xxxviii. 10. See also, Rev. xx. 14. But Gehenna denotes properly the place of torment. It is derived from the Hebrew words Ge and Hinnom, i.e. the valley of Hinnom. See Josh. xv. 8. In this valley, otherwise called Tophet, the idolatrous Israelites caused their children to pass through the fire to Moloch. 2 Kings xxiii. 10. &c. From its having been the place of such horrid crimes and abominations and miseries, it came to pass, in process of time, that the word Gehenna was made to signify the future state of sin and punishment. If now the inquiry be, in what sense Christ went to hell, or in other words, what is meant by Acts ii. 27. the verse before us, the reply
is-all that is meant by it is, that he was for a season, not in Gehenna, the place of torment, but in Hades, the state of the dead, or region of departed spirits. And in that state neither his soul nor body was left, but he rose again and triumphed over the grave."
I have deemed it of some importance to avail myself of such concessions from these authors, to show, that neither Sheol of the Old Testament, nor Hades of the New, means a place of endless punishment. How the last quoted author could say, that Hades was to the rich man, "everlasting burnings," and in the very next sentence add, "but neither Sheol nor Hades have, in themselves considered, any connexion with future punishment," is to me altogether inexplicable. If neither Sheol nor Hades, has any connexion with future punishment, how could Hades be to the rich man, "everlasting burnings?" As to the correctness of the opinion that Hades is the " "region and state of separate spirits" and "everlasting burnings," see Sections 2d and 3d.
5th, If the doctrine of eternal misery was not revealed under the Old Testament dispensation, it follows, that it, as well as life and immortality, was brought to light by the Gospel. If it be allowed that this doctrine was not revealed under the Mosaic dispensation, it is very evident that persons could not be moved with fear, to avoid a punishment, concerning which they had no information. If it be said, that it was revealed, we wish to be informed in what part of the Old Testament this information is to be found.
It seems then to be a conceded point, that neither Sheol of the Old Testament, nor Hades of the New, so often translated hell, means, as is commonly believed, the place of eternal punishment for the wicked. From the concessions made in the foregoing quotations, most people would deem it proper for me to decline the labour which Dr. Campbell calls end
less, to illustrate by an enumeration of all the passages in both Testaments, that these words do not signify this place of punishment for the wicked. Unwilling however, to take this matter on trust, I have submitted to this endless labour, and shall proceed to bring forward all those passages.
The word Sheol in the Hebrew of the Old Testament, occurs, sixty-four times. It is rendered by our translators, three times pit, twenty-nine times grave, and thirty-two times hell.
1st, Let us attend to the texts in which it is translated pit. In Numb. xvi. 30, 33, it occurs twice. Speaking of Korah and his company, they are said to go down, "quick into the pit." What is said in these two verses, is explained by the earth opening her mouth and swallowing them up. Had Sheol been translated hell here, as in other places, according to the common acceptation of this word, Korah and his company went down alive, soul and body to the place of eternal misery. But this would be contrary to common belief, for it is allowed, that men's bodies do not go there until the resurrection. All that seems to be meant in this account is, that they were swallowed up alive, as whole cities have been by an earthquake, and that without any reference to their eternal condition. This, I presume, is the view most people take of this judgment of God upon those men. Job xvii. 16, is the only other text in which Sheol is rendered pit. It is said, speaking of men,-"they shall go down to the bars of the pit." What is meant, is explained in the very next words,-"when our rest together is in the dust." As it would be a mere waste of time to make any further remarks to show that Sheol translated pit in these texts, does not refer to a place of eternal misery, let us,
2dly, Bring to view all the texts in which this word is translated grave. The first three places then,
in which it occurs, are, Gen. xxxvii. 35.; xlii. 38. and xliv. 29. noticed already by Dr. Campbell in the above quotation. Had Sheol been translated hell in these texts, as it is in many others, Joseph would be represented as in hell, and that his father Jacob expected soon to follow him to the same place. In like manner, it would make Hezekiah say, "I shall go to the gates of hell." And to declare,"hell cannot praise thee." See Isai. xxxviii. 10, 18. I may just notice here, that, if those good men did not go to hell, it will be difficult to prove from the Old Testament, that Sheol or hell, was understood to mean a place of eternal misery for the wicked. But further, let Sheol be translated hell, instead of grave in the following texts, and we think all will allow, that the idea of a place of future misery, was not attached to this word by the Old Testament writers. Thus translated, it would make Job say, chap. xvii. 13,-" if I wait, hell is mine house." And to pray, chap. xiv. 13,-"O that thou wouldst hide me in hell." It would also make David say, Psalm lxxxiii. 3,-" My life draweth nigh unto hell." And to complain, Ps. vi. 5,-" in hell who shall give thee thanks."
To translate Sheol hell, would represent David as a monster in cruelty, in the following passages. Thus, speaking to his son Solomon, and just before his death, he says to him concerning Joab,-"let not his hoar head go down to hell in peace." And concerning Shimei, he adds,-" but his hoar head bring thou down to hell with blood." See 1 Kings, ii. 6, No fault is generally found with David, as to Joab, mentioned in verse 6th, for his crimes justly subjected him to death. But David's conduct in regard to Shimei, verse 9th, has been often blamed. The following quotation from the Missionary Magazine, vol. vii. p. 333, removes all difficulty from this passage, which has afforded sport to infidels. It is there