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extending their territorial limits at one another's expense, as to the fact that it has been regarded by the United States as justifying the latter's recent enforcement in Nicaragua, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and elsewhere, of precisely such measures of supervision and control as it is understood to forbid nonAmerican powers to adopt in American countries. Indeed, it has even been maintained that the United States was required so to act for the reason that nonAmerican powers were precluded from seeking the redress of grievances or the amelioration of conditions by such means. Still less has the Monroe Doctrine been assumed to affect the non-American relations of non-American powers, or to touch the relations of independent states generally. Such spheres can be penetrated only with other doctrines, on each of which should be bestowed an appropriate title. Although the poet tells us that the rose by any other name would smell as sweet, he does not assure us that any flower, if called a rose, would become one.

Before proceeding to the body of the work, it may be convenient to say something as to the mechanism of American diplomacy and the organs through which it has been conducted.

Prior to the adoption of the Constitution, the executive as well as the legislative power of the United States resided in the Congress. On December 29, 1775, the Continental Congress appointed a committee of five, called the Committee of Secret Correspondence. for the purpose of communicating with the friends of the colonies in other parts of the world. This committee was superseded, on April 17, 1777, by the Committee for Foreign Affairs. The committee plan proved to be altogether inefficient. Partly because of the irregular attendance of members upon Congress, it was difficult to get the members of the committee together. In order to remedy the defect, there was created, on January 10, 1781, the Department of Foreign Affairs, to be presided over by a Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The first person to fill this office was Robert R. Livingston, of New York, who was elected to it on August 10, 1781. He entered upon his duties October 20, 1781, and served till June 4, 1783. He was succeeded by John Jay, who assumed charge of the office on September 21, 1784. By the act of Congress of July 27, 1789, under the Constitution, the Department of Foreign Affairs was reorganized and expanded, while by the act of September 15, 1789, its name was changed to the Department of State and the title of the head became Secretary of State. Jay, although he had been appointed Chief Justice of the United States, remained in charge of foreign affairs, under his commission as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, till March 22, 1790, when Jefferson entered upon his duties as Secretary of State.

A list is given below of the Presidents and Secretaries of State. It will be observed that there are

. frequent gaps between the terms of service of the Secretaries of State. These gaps were filled by the ad interim designation of some one, perhaps a member of the cabinet, or the chief clerk of the Department of State, or later an assistant secretary, or the counselor, to perform the duties of the office.

The Presidents and their Secretaries of State follow in order of date:

PRESIDENTS

SECRETARIES OF STATE George Washington, April 30, Thomas Jefferson, commission1789, to March 3, 1797. ed Sept. 26, 1789; entered

on duties March 22, 1790;

served till Dec. 31, 1793. Edmund Randolph, Jan. 2,

1794, to Aug. 20, 1795. Timothy Pickering, Dec. 10,

1795,John Adams, March 4, 1797, to Timothy Pickering (continued) March 3, 1801.

to May 12, 1800. John Marshall, May 13,1800, to

March 4, 1801. Thomas Jefferson, March 4, James Madison, March 5, 1801,

1801, to March 3, 1809. to March 3, 1809. James Madison, March 4, 1809, Robert Smith, March 6, 1809,

4, to March 3, 1817.

to April 1, 1811. James Monroe, April 2, 1811,

to March 3, 1817. James Monroe, March 4, 1817, John Quincy Adams, commisto March 3, 1825.

sioned March 5, 1817; entered on duties Sept. 22, 1817; served to March 3,

1825. John Quincy Adams, March 4, Henry Clay, March 7, 1825, to

1825, to March 3, 1829. March 3, 1829. Andrew Jackson, March 4, Martin Van Buren, March 6, 1829, to March 3, 1837. 1829, to May 23, 1831.

Edward Livingston, May 24,

1831, to May 29, 1833. Louis McLane, May 29, 1833,

to June 30, 1834. John Forsyth, June 27, 1834,

PRESIDENTS

SECRETARIES OF STATE

Martin Van Buren, March 4, John Forsyth (continued) to

1837, to March 3, 1841. March 3, 1841. William Henry Harrison, Mch. Daniel Webster, March 5,

4, 1841, to April 4, 1841. 1841,John Tyler, April 6, 1841, to Daniel Webster (continued) to March 3, 1845.

May 8, 1843
Abel P. Upshur, July 24, 1843,

to Feb. 28, 1844.
John C. Calhoun, March 6,

1844, to March 10, 1845. James K. Polk, March 4, 1845, James Buchanan, commissionto March 3, 1849.

ed March 6, 1845; entered on duties March 10, 1845; served to March 7,

1849. Zachary Taylor, March 5, John M. Clayton, March 7, 1849, to July 9, 1850.

1849, Millard Fillmore, July 10, 1850, John M. Clayton (continued) to March 3, 1853.

to July 22, 1850. Daniel Webster, July 22, 1850,

to October 24, 1852. Edward Everett, Nov. 6, 1852,

to March 3, 1853. Franklin Pierce, March 4, 1853, William L. Marcy, March 7, to March 3, 1857.

1853, to March 6, 1857. James Buchanan, March 4, Lewis Cass, March 6, 1857, to 1857, to March 3, 1861. Dec. 14, 1860.

Jeremiah S. Black, Dec. 17,

1860, to March 6, 1861. Abraham Lincoln, March 4, William H. Seward, March 5, 1861, to April 15, 1865.

1861,Andrew Johnson, April 15, William H. Seward (continued)

1865, to March 3, 1869. to March 4, 1869. Ulysses S. Grant, March 4, Elihu B. Washburne, March 5, 1869, to March 3, 1877. 1869, to March 16, 1869.

Hamilton Fish, commissioned

March 11, 1869; entered on duties March 17, 1869;

served to March 12, 1877. Rutherford B. Hayes, March 5, William M. Evarts, March 12, 1877, to March 3, 1881. 1877, to March 7, 1881.

9

PRESIDENTS

SECRETARIES OF STATE

James A. Garfield, March 4, James G. Blaine, commissioned 1881, to Sept. 19, 1881. March 5, 1881; entered on

duties March 7, 1881,Chester A. Arthur, Sept. 20, James G. Blaine (continued) to 1881, to March 3, 1885. Dec. 19, 1881.

Frederick T. Frelinghuysen,

commissioned Dec. 12, 1881; entered on duties Dec. 19, 1881; served to

March 6, 1885. Grover Cleveland, March 4, Thomas F. Bayard, March 6,

1885, to March 3, 1889. 1885, to March 6, 1889. Benjamin Harrison, March 4, James G. Blaine, March 5, 1889, to March 3, 1893. 1889, to June 4, 1892.

John W. Foster, June 29, 1892,

to Feb. 23, 1893. Grover Cleveland, March 4, Walter Q. Gresham, March 6, 1893, to March 3, 1897. 1893, to May 28, 1895.

Richard Olney, June 8, 1895,

to March 5, 1897; William McKinley, March 4, John Sherman, March 5, 1897, 1897, to Sept. 14, 1901. to April 27, 1898.

William R. Day, April 26, 1898,

to Sept. 16, 1898.

John Hay, Sept. 20, 1898,Theodore Roosevelt, Sept. 14, John Hay (continued) to July 1901, to March 3, 1909.

I, 1905.
Elihu Root, July 7, 1905, to

Jan. 27, 1909.
Robert Bacon, Jan. 27, 1909,

to March 5, 1909. William H. Taft, March 4, Philander C. Knox, March 5,

1909, to March 3, 1913. 1909, to March 5, 1913. Woodrow Wilson, March 4, William Jennings Bryan, March 1913,

5, 1913, to June 9, 1915. Robert Lansing, June 24,1915,

(Mr. Lansing, who was promoted from the post of counselor, had an ad interim designation as Secretary of State from June 9 to June 23.)

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