« AnteriorContinuar »
* TEMPEST.] The Tempest, and The Midsummer Night's Dream are the noblest efforts of that sublime and amazing imagination peculiar to Shakspeare, which soars above the bounds of nature, without forsaking sense; or, more properly, carries nature along with him beyond her established limits. Fletcher seems particularly to have admired these two plays, and hath wrote two in imitation of them, The Sea Voyage, and The Faithful Shepherdess. But when he presumes to break a lance with Shakspeare, and write in emulation of him, as he does in The False One, which is the rival of Antony and Cleopatra, he is not so successful. After him, Sir John Suckling and Milton catched the brightest fire of their imagination from these two plays; which shines fantastically indeed in The Goblins, but much more nobly and serenely in The Mask at Ludlow Castle. WARBURTON.
No one has hitherto been lucky enough to discover the romance on which Shakspeare may be supposed to have founded this play, the beauties of which could not secure it from the criticism of 'Ben Jonson, whose malignity appears to have been more than equal to his wit.
In the introduction to Bartholomew Fair, he says:
“ If there be never a servant monster in the fair, who can help it, he says, nor a nest of antiques ? He is loth to make nature afraid in his plays, like those that beget Tales, Tempests, and such like drolleries." STEEVENS.
I was informed by the late Mr. Collins of Chichester, that Shakspeare's Tempest, for which no origin is yet assigned, was formed on a romance called Aurelio and Isabella, printed in Italian, Spanish, French, and English, in 1588. But though this information has not proved true on examination, an useful conclusion may be drawn from it, that Shakspeare's story is somewhere to be found in an Italian novel, at least that the story preceded Shakspeare. Mr. Collins had searched this subject with no less fidelity than judgment and industry, but his memory failing in his last calamitous indisposition, he probably gave me the name of one novel for another. I remember he added a circumstance which may lead to a discovery,—that the principal character of the romance, answering to Shakspeare's Prospero, was a chemical necromancer, who had bound a spirit like Ariel to obey his call, and perform his services. Taken at large, the magical part of the Tempest is founded on that sort of philosophy which was practised by John Dee and his associates, and has been called the Rosicrucian. The name Ariel came from the Talmudistick mysteries with which the learned Jews had infected this science.
T. WARTON. It was one of our author's last works. In 1598, he played a part in the original Every Man in his Humour. Two of the characters are Prospero and Stephano. Here Ben Jonson taught him the pronunciation of the latter word, which is always right in The Tempest : “ Is not this Stephano, my drunken butler ?"
And always wrong in his earlier play, The Merchant of Venice, which had been on the stage at least two or three years before its publication in 1600 :
“ My friend Stephano, signify I pray you,” &c. -So little did Mr. Capell know of his author, when he idly supposed his school literature might perhaps have been lost by the dissipation of youth, or the busy scene of public life! Farmer.
This play must have been written before 1614, when Jonson sneers at it in his Bartholomew Fair. In the latter plays of Shakspeare, he has less of pun and quibble than in his early ones. In The Merchant of Venice, he expressly declares against them. This perhaps might be one criterion to discover the dates of his plays. BLACKSTONE.
It was not printed till 1623, when it was published with the rest of our author's plays in folio. Mr. Malone is of opinion it was written about the
Aionso, king of Naples.
Other spirits attending on Prospero. SCENE, the sea, with a ship; afterwards an
* This enumeration of persons is taken from the folio 1623.
SCENE I. On a Ship at Sea.
Enter a Ship-master and a Boatswain.
Mast. Good: speak to the mariners: fall to't yarely,' or we run ourselves aground: bestir, bestir.
[Exit. Enter Mariners. Boats. Heigh, my hearts; cheerly, cheerly, my hearts ; yare, yare: take in the top-sail; Tend to the master's whistle.-Blow till thou burst thy wind, if room enough! Enter Alonso, SEBASTIAN, ANTONIO, FERDI
NAND, GONZALO, and others. Alon. Good Boatswain, have care. Where's the master? Play the men.?
Boats. I pray now, keep below.
Boats. Do you not hear him? You mar our labour; Keep your cabins: you do assist the storm.
1-fall to't yarely,] i. e. Readily, nimbly. Our author is frequ in his use of this word.
Play the men.] i. e. act with spirit, behave like men.
Gon. Nay, good, be patient.
Boats. When the sea is. Hence! What care these roarers for the name of king ? To cabin: silence: trouble us not.
Gon. Good; yet remember whom thou hast aboard.
Boats. None that I more love than myself. You are a counsellor; if you can command these elements to silence, and work the peace of the present, we will not hand a rope more; use your authority. If you cannot, give thanks you have lived so long, and make yourself ready in your cabin for the mischance of the hour, if it so hap.-Cheerly, good hearts-Out of our way, I say.
[Erit. Gon.4 I have great comfort from this fellow: methinks he hath no drowning mark upon him; his complexion is perfect gallows. Stand fast, good fate, to his hanging! make the rope of his destiny our cable, for our own doth little advantage! If he be not born to be hanged, our case is miserable.
[Exeunt. Re-enter Boatswain. Boats. Down with the topmast; yare; lower, lower; bring her to try with main-course. [A cry within.] A plague upon this howling! they are louder than the weather, or our office.
Re-enter SEBASTIAN, ANTONIO, and GONZALO. Yet again? what do you here? Shall we give o'er, and drown? Have you a mind to sink?
3 — of the present,] i. e. of the present instant.
* Gonzalo.j It may be observed of Gonzalo, that, being the only good man that appears with the king, he is the only man that preserves his cheerfulness in the wreck, and his hope on the island.
Johnson. 5- bring her to try with main-course.] This phrase occurs in Smith's Sea Grammar, 1627, 4to. under the article How to handle