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And takes her farewell of the glorious sun;
How well resembles it the prime of youth,

Trimm'd like a younker prancing to his love.
Edw. Dazzle mine eyes, or do I see three suns?

25 Rich. Three glorious suns, each one a perfect sun;

Not separated with the racking clouds,
But sever'd in a pale clear-shining sky.
See, see! they join, embrace, and seem to kiss,
As if they vow'd some league inviolable:

30 Now are they but one lamp, one light, one sun.

In this the heaven figures some event. 23, 24. How well . . . love) omitted Q. 26-32. Three . . . suns, each

sun; Not ... with the ... clouds, But . inviolable : Now figures some event] 12-18. Three .

Suns, not

by a ... cloud, but inuiolate : Now ... heauens doth figure some euent Q. Warton's note to Faerie Queene picks one, and that upon the sight thereof, the figure to pieces in the most approved he tooke such courage, that he fiercely and dry-as-dustiest way.

set on his enemyes, and them shortly 22. takes her farewell]" Aurora takes discomfited : for which cause, men imfor a time her farewell of the sun, when agined that he gaue the sunne in his she dismisses him to his diurnal course" full brightnesse for his Cognisance or (Johnson).

Badge" (Grafton, i. 672). Boswell 23. the prime of youth] Compare" In Stone says : “According to Chron. prime of youthly yeares(Faerie Rich. II.-Henry VI.(Camden Society), Queene, i. ii. 35).

the three suns were seen about 10 24. younker) Again in Henry IV. m. A.M., on 2nd February, 1461; and the iii. 92. Spenser (or rather E. K.'s battle of Mortimer's Cross was fought gloss) has the word “ disdainefull on the following day." History is not younkers"in The Shepheard's Calender, adhered to in this scene : there is no Februarie (1579).

room for the battle of Mortimer's Cross, 25. Dazzle mine eyes) are my eyes and Edward was at Gloucester when dazed or dimmed. Compare Golding's he heard of his father's death. There Ovid, v. 87: “Atys lay with dim and is much confusion of events. dazeling eyes." And Spenser, Faerie 27. racking clouds) clouds packing Queene, 11. xi. 40:

and scudding before the wind. Com“ His wonder far exceeded reasons pare Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Part II. reach,

iv. iii. (Dyce, 65, a): “ draw My That he began to doubt his dazeled chariot swifter than the racking clouds." sight."

Steevens quotes from The Raigne of Peele has it twice in Arraignment of King Edward III. (1569) :Paris. See also Locrine, i. i. This

“ like inconstant clouds line is copied in Soliman and Perseda, That, rack'd upon the carriage of II. i. 244 : Dasell mine eyes, or ist the winds, Lucinas chaine ?"

Encrease," etc. 25. three suns) The chroniclers place The noun is commoner and occurs in this portent before Mortimer's Cross. the Sonnets and elsewhere, but the verb After the death of his father, “the Duke only here. of Yorke called Erle of Marche .. 30. inviolable) Better sense and worse met with his enemies in a fayre plaine, metre than "inviolate " (Q). See neere to Mortimers crosse, not farre again King John, v. ii. 7, Richard III. from Herford East, on Candlemasse 11. i. 27. Peele (543, b) uses " keep it day in the mornyng, at which tyme inviolate" (of an oath). Marlowe has th Sunne (as some write) appered to “Truce inviolable"(Tamburlaine, Part the Erle of Marche like three Sunnes, II. i. 1). and sodainely joyned all together in 32. figures) reveals, discloses. Com.

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Edw. 'Tis wondrous strange, the like yet never heard of.

I think it cites us, brother, to the field,
That we, the sons of brave Plantagenet,

Each one already blazing by our meeds,
Should notwithstanding join our lights together,
And over-shine the earth, as this the world.
Whate'er it bodes, henceforward will I bear

Upon my target three fair-shining suns.
Rich. Nay, bear three daughters : by your leave I speak it,
You love the breeder better than the male.

Enter a Messenger.
But what art thou, whose heavy looks foretell

Some dreadful story hanging on thy tongue ?
Mess. Ah, one that was a woeful looker-on

45 Whenas the noble Duke of York was slain,

Your princely father and my loving lord !
Edw. O, speak no more, for I have heard too much.
Rich. Say how he died, for I will hear it all.
Mess. Environed he was with many foes,

And stood against them, as the hope of Troy
Against the Greeks that would have enter'd Troy.

But Hercules himself must yield to odds; 33. 'Tis . . . heard of ] omitted Q. 34-36. I think it ... Plantagenet, Each blazing meeds] 18-20. Edw. I think it Plantagenet, Alreadie, each one shining by his meed Q. 37-40. Should ... will I bear

suns] 21-23. May ioine in one and over peere the world, As this the earth, and therefore hence forward Ile beare .

• . • suns Q. 41, 42. Rich. Nay male) omitted Q. 42. Enter .

.) omitted Q; Enter one blowing Ff. 43, tongue ??) 24 (Edw.) But what art thou ? that lookest so heauilie ? Q. 45, 46. Mess. Ah, one : : : slain] 25, 26. Mes. Oh one ... slaine Q. 47. Your lord] omitted Q. 48. O, speak .

much] 27. O speake can heare no more Q.

49. Say

· for ... all] 28. Tell on thy tale, for all Q.

50-59. Environed ... Who crown'd ... despite] 29-34. When pare 2 Henry IV. 111. i, 81, and 40, 41. suns ... daughters] See Love's Richard III. 1. ii. 194.

Labour's Lost, v. ii. 168-171 (in this 34. cites] urges, incites. See Part edition, note). II. III. ii. 281.

50. Environed ...] See above, 1. i. 36. meeds] merits. Johnson in- 242: “ The trembling lamb environed cautiously suggested “deeds.”

with wolves." “ Environed about” 40. target] targe, shield.

was more usual. 40. shining] This word occurs three 51. the hope of Troy] Hector, as at times in ten lines in Q. One is elimin- IV. viii. 25 below. See note at 1 Henry ated here by " blazing” (36). But VI. 11. iii. 19. Hector and Hercules “over-shine," instead of "over-peer were Shakespeare's favourite heroes. (of Q), somewhat defeats the amelior. These lines are not in the Quarto. ation, but Shakespeare had a great 53. Hercules . . . odds] An old Latin liking for forming verbs with the prefix proverb in Aulus Gellius: “Ne Her"over.” In this sense not again in cules quidem contra duos.” Lodge Shakespeare.

quotes it in Euphues Golden Legacie

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And many strokes, though with a little axe,
Hew down and fell the hardest-timber'd oak.
By many hands your father was subdu'd ;
But only slaughter'd by the ireful arm
Of unrelenting Clifford and the queen,
Who crown'd the gracious duke in high despite ;
Laugh'd in his face; and, when with grief he wept,
The ruthless queen gave him to dry his cheeks
A napkin steeped in the harmless blood
Of sweet young Rutland, by rough Clifford slain :
And after many scorns, many foul taunts,
They took his head, and on the gates of York
They set the same ; and there it doth remain,
The saddest spectacle that e'er I view'd.


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as the noble Duke was put to flight, And then pursude by Clifford and the Queene, And manie souldiers moe, who all at once Let drive at him and forst the Duke to yield : And then they set him on a molehill there, And crownd ... despite Q. 60-63. Laugh'd ... blood Of . slain :) 35-397. Who then with teares began to waile his fall. The ruthlesse Queene perceiuing he did weepe, Gaue him a handkercher to wipe his eies, Dipt in the bloude of . . . slaine : Q. 64-67. And after ... I'view'd] 391-44. who weeping tooke it up, Then through his brest they thrust their bloudy swordes, Who like a lambe fell at the butcher's feete. Then on the gates of Yorke they set his head, And there it doth remaine the piteous spectacle That ere mine eies beheld Q. (Hazlitt, Shakespeare's Library, p. 96), Sylvester has "unrelenting eys” in 1590. And Greene, Art of Conny Catch. Du Bartas, Seventh Day of the First ing (Grosart, x. 60), 1591: “But might Week, p. 152, 1591. Earlier in Peele ? overcomes right, and therefore Ne Her- 59. Who crown'd] For the line in Q: cules contra duos." See also Greene's “ And then they set him on a molehill George a Greene (Dyce, 1874, p. 259). here," see below, 11. V. 14: “Here, on This line is in ė at v. ii. 33. See this molehill will I set me down." The note.

molehill is removed farther from 1. iv. 54, 55. many strokes . fell the 67. ... oak] An old proverb. See Lyly's 65. head ... York] See at 1. iv. Euphues (Arber, p. 91), 1579: “Soft 179, 180. dropps of raine perce the hardest marble, 66. They set the same] A note in the many strokes overthrow the tallest Irving Shakespeare (by Mr. F. A.

And in Whitney's Emblems, To Marshall) points out the use of this the Reader (ed. Greene, p. 13), 1586: circumlocution several times in Mar. "Manie droppes perce the stone, & lowe; in Greene's Alphonsus (twentywith manie blowes the oke is over- one times); and (earliest) in Peele's throwen." It is in the Spanish Tra- Sir Clyomon (four times). It is exgedy, taken from Watson. See note at tremely common in Shakespeare's ii. ii. 50 below.

earliest work (see Schmidt), and was a 55. hardest - timber'd] Compare sign of the time, not an evidence of clean - timbered," Love's Labour's authorship. It occurs nine times in Lost, v. ii. 629, and see note in this this trilogy and Richard III. See edition.

next note for Spenser's use. 57. ireful] See note to 1 Henry VI. 167. The saddest . . . that e're] A IV. vi. 16. And its Introduction. Only Spenserian line. See Introduction to in Shakespeare's early work.

Part I. “Piteous spectacle" of Q is a 58. unrelenting] See 1 Henry VI. favourite expression with Spenser. He v. iv. 59. Also in Titus Andronicus. has it in Faerie Queene, i. ix. 37; 11.


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Edw. Sweet Duke of York ! our prop to lean upon,

Now thou art gone, we have no staff, no stay.
O Clifford, boisterous Clifford ! thou hast slain 70
The flower of Europe for his chivalry;
And treacherously hast thou vanquish'd him,
For hand to hand he would have vanquish'd thee.
Now my soul's palace is become a prison :
Ah, would she break from hence, that this my body 75

68, 69. Sweet ... gone : : . stay] 45, 46. Sweet . . . gone there is no hope for us Q. 70-73. O Clifford . . . vanquish'd thee) omitted Q. 74-78. Now prison .. more joy) 47-49. Now . prison. Oh would she breake from compasse of my breast, For never shall I haue more ioie Q.

xii. 45; iv. iii. 21, etc. And in Astro- Eng. Dict. It occurs in The Contenphel, st. 34 (1586-7):

tion, iv. X. 50. See Spanish Tragedy, “And when that piteous spectacle 1. iii. 63 : they vewed

“I saw him, hand to hand, The same with bitter teares they In single fight with their 'Lord all bedewed."

Generall." See below, 11, v. 73.

Frequent in Berners' Froissart. 68, 69. Sweet . . . stay] Compare 73, 74, 77, 78. vanquish'd him .. Tamburlaine, Part I. 1. i. (Dyce, 8, a) : vanquish'd thee . . . joy again “ The hope of Persia and the very more joy] Here we have some very legs

limp iteration introduced that is not in Whereon our state doth lean as on the Quarto - showing the futility of a staff.”

hard and fast theories. The latter Furnival (Introduction to Facsimile) lines of this speech are much in Peele's points out that these two lines are manner. He probably considered himfound in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris, self, and indeed was something of an 11. iii. (Dyce, 243, b) ;; (reading Guise adept at pathos (see David and Bethfor York, and the last half line slightly sabe), and may have been allotted a altered). Of the two I believe Marlowe finishing touch or two. is the later.

74. soul's palace . . . prison] Peele 70. boisterous) The strong sense of has this metaphor twice: Edward I. savage,” appropriate here, is ob- Sc. xxv. (411, a, Dyce, 1874):solete. Compare Hawes' Pastime of “ First, in this painful prison of my Pleasure (rept. p. 48) :

soul, “Vylayne courage

A world of dreadful sins holp there That is boystrous and rude of to fight”; governance."

and in Battle of Alcazar, Act v. (439, And Spenser, Faerie Queene, 1. viii. 10: a) : “His boystrous club” (“his dreadful “Whose weapons have made pasclub a few lines earlier).

sage for my soul 71. The flower ... chivalry] Com- That breaks from out the prison of pare Grafton, Edward the Thirde (i. 332): “Edward . . . accompted the This is directly from Tamburlaine, Flower of all Chyualrye, throughout Part II. iv. ii. (63, b) :all the worlde, and also some writers

“ draw your sword, name him the black prince.” And in Making a passage for this troubled Hawes' Pastime of Pleasure, p. 116

soul (1509), rept. But it is more interesting Which beats against this prison to to find it in Contention, iv. X., and omitted from Part II.

But earlier in Lyly's Campaspe (1584), 73. hand to hand] Occurs again 1 1. ii. : “the bodie is the prison of the Henry IV. 1. iii. 99; and below, 11. v. soule . . . to make my bodie immortal, 56. In single combat. Earlier in New I put it to prison."

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Might in the ground be closed up in rest !
For never henceforth shall I joy again,

Never, O never, shall I see more joy!
Rich. I cannot weep, for all my body's moisture

Scarce serves to quench my furnace-burning heart; 80
Nor can my tongue unload my heart's great burthen ;
For self-same wind that I should speak withal
Is kindling coals that fires all my breast,
And burns me up with flames that tears would quench.
To weep is to make less the depth of grief :

Tears then for babes ; blows and revenge for me!
Richard, I bear thy name; I'll venge thy death,

Or die renowned by attempting it.
Edw. His name that valiant duke hath left with thee;
His dukedom and his chair with me is left.

90 Rich. Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird,

Show thy descent by gazing 'gainst the sun :
For chair and dukedom, throne and kingdom say;
Either that is thine, or else thou wert not his.

I'll venge

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79, 80. I cannot ... body's . . . heart] 50, 51. I cannot .. breasts hart Q. 81-88. Nor can Richard.

renowned it] 52-55. I cannot ioie till this white rose be dide, Euen in the hart bloud of the house of Lancaster. Richard .

and Ile reuenge.

my selfe in seeking of reuenge Q. 89, 90. His ... thee; His left] 56, 57. His ... thee, His chaire and Dukedome that remains for me Q.

91-94. Nay, if thou

. . say; Either. not his) 58-61. Nay, if thou ... saie : For either .. not his ? Q. 76. closed up in rest] Shakespeare

91, 92. eagle's bird gazing never uses “close up" (verb), except of 'gainst the sun) A very old fancy, aristhe eyes, elsewhere.

ing no doubt from the eagle's power79-87. I cannot weep . . venge thy ful sight. Marshall says Aristotle (lib. death] Neatly put in Locrine, 11. i. 20) is cited as an authority. Pliny 60, 61;

says (xxix. 6, p. 367, Holland's trans.): “ He loves not most that doth lament " that Ægle (which I said heretofore, the most,

to prove and trie her yong birds, useth But he that seeks to venge the to force them for to look directly upon injury."

the sunne)... Haliartos, i. the sea. The two omitted lines here are found Ægle or Orfray” (margin). He refers almost repeated in Contention and in this passage to bk. x. ch. 3. Hallithence to % Henry VI. II. ii. 64-66. well says “Chaucer alludes to this in See my note. More continuity evidence. the Assemblie of Foules"

(his quota 91. princely eagle] Marlowe calls it tion is insufficient). He also quotes “princely fowl ... of Jove" (Tambur. from Spenser's Hymn of Heavenly laine, Part II. 1. i. (Dyce, 45, a)); and at Beauty, st. An early instance iv. iii. (66, b), “drawn with princely (1591) is in Sylvester's Du Bartas, eagles."

p. 112, The Fifth Day of the First 91. bird] young of any fowl. See Week:above, 1. iv. 36, and 1 Henry IV. v. i.

" this Damsell . 60, and Titus Andronicus, ii. iii. 154. Two tender Eaglets in a Golding speaks of a nest of “eight espies, byrdes " in Ovid's Metamorphoses, xii. Which 'gainst the sun sate trying 15. And in iv. 524 "bird" means child


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of their eyes." ("this harlots burd”).



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