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roughly persuaded of the truth and fuperior goodness of his Koran, conceived it a duty to propagate his doctrine by conquest. Thus the fanatics of the last century

prov'd their doctrines orthodox By apoftolic blows and knocks"

And thus the Catholics of all times, except the modern, thought they were doing God and his Son good service, by forcing a belief of christianity by the means of tortures and death--hitherto religious opinions only have been thought worthy of such great exertions, but our good neighbours have made politics of equal impor


As a man is not fed by hearing of good dinners, but by what he puts into his own stomach, fo, it may be presumed, no one feels the enjoyment of liberty farther than that portion which comes to his own share. - The reverse of the po



sition is equally true—if a man's perfon and actions are free, he enjoys liberty even under a despot, but if his person or his actions are confined, he is a slave although a member of a Republic. Admitting the truth of this position ; if circumstances in private life take our liberty from us, what are we the better for living under a free goverment; or how are we hurt by despotisın if we may go, act, and speak as we please ?

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Should it be said, that the essence of a free government is to give liberty, and that the nature of despotism is to take it

away ; I can subscribe to this opinion no farther than it is true--and its truth only reaches to purposes and occasions which do not occur in daily life, while either form of government leaves the flavery unremedied with which we are daily environed. If we are engaged in a lawsuit, or called to answer for some offence, then we feel the advantage of a free


government with fixed laws, over a sentence pronounced by an arbitrary judge, appointed by an arbitrary master—but most men pass their days without going to law, and not one in fifty thousand becomes a victim to justice. bush ose z mpoo

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The real flavery we feel, and it is equal under all governments, is the restraint of society; under which we are, more compleatly shackled in all our actions, words, and even thoughts, than by the most imperious commands of the most absolute tyrant-for a despotic mandate does not descend to minute particulars; it puts on a chain, but leaves some limbs at liberty; while the tyranny of fociety draws a thousand slender threads over us from head to foot, by which we are more compleatly hampered than Gulliver in Lilliput.

I can scarce flatter myself to have proceeded thus far without incurring some

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censure, nor to finish my subject, without more. I certainly might, without trespass, have walked in a beaten path, which if I quit, it must be to my own peril—I tremble while I say—that the marriage-vow—the reciprocal duty between parents and children—the offices of friendship—the ceremonies of civility all these take from us more personal liberty than can be ballanced by any political liberty which the most perfect form of government can bestow.



think that more pleasure arises from such restraints than without them---be it so; but do not say they are consistent with liberty. If a father gives Up his own enjoyment to encrease that of a fon--if a son abridges his own pleasures because he will not violate his duty to a parent--if my friend has my money, and I want it myself--if my time, instead of being my own, is consumed in attentions to acquaintance and the ceremonies of company-all these circumstances may perhaps encrease our enjoy.nent, but they furely diminish our liberty. The more we feel an obligation to do an action, the more is the choice taken from us of doing it, or not, as we please; of course, the more is our liberty abridged. If nature, custom, or the rules of society require us to fulfil certain duties to our relations, friends, or acquaintance; our not having it in our power to act otherwise is certainly the definition of real slavery.

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Let not my intention be mistaken. I am not speaking against natural or social attachments; my opinion of them perfectly agrees with the rest of the worldI only attempt to prove, that our greatest restraints do not arise from despotism in any form of government, but from ourfelves. “ We complain of our taxes," says Dr. Franklyn, we tax ourselves more than we can be taxed by a Minister.” It is our private habits by which we are

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