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shall have an eye to the diet of this great of this kingdom do still keep up the taste of city, and will recommend the best and most their ancestors; and it is to this that we in a wholesome food to them, if I receive these great measure owethe unparalleled victories proper and respectful notices from the sel- that have been gained in this reign : for I Iers, that it may not be said hereafter my would desire my reader to consider, what readers were better taught than fed. work our countrymen would have made at
Blenheim and Ramillies, if they had been fed
with fricacies and ragouts. No. 148.] Tuesday, March 21, 1709,
For this reason we at present see the
florid complexion, the strong limb, and the ---Gustus elementa per omnia quærunt,
hale constitution, are to be found chiefly
wild gentry, who have been educated among From my own Apartment, March 20.1 the woods and mountains. Whereas many HAVING intimated in my last paper, that great families are insensibly fallen off from I design to take under my inspection the diet | the athletic constitution of their progeniof this great city, I shall begin with a very | tors, and are dwindled away into a pale, earnest and serious exhortation to all my sickly, spindle-legged generation of valetuwell-disposed readers, that they would re- dinarians. turn to the food of their forefathers, and re- I may perhaps be thought extravagant in concile themselves to beef and mutton. my notion ; but I must confess, I am apt to This was that diet which bred the hardy impute the dishonours that sometimes haprace of mortals who won the fields of Cressy pen in great families to the inflaming kind of and Agincourt. I need not go up so high as | diet which is so much in fashion. Many the history of Guy Earl of Warwick, who dishes can excite desire without giving is well known to have eaten up a dun cow strength, and heat the body without nourof his own killing. The renowned King ishing it; as physicians observe, that the Arthur is generally looked upon as the first poorest and most dispirited blood is most who ever sat down to a whole roasted ox, subject to fevers, I look upon a French (which was certainly the best way to pre- ragout to be as pernicious to the stomach as serve the gravy ;) and it is further added, a glass of spirits; and when I have seen a that he and his knights sat about it at his young lady swallow all the instigations of round table, and usually consumed it to high soups, seasoned sauces, and forced the very bones, before they would enter upon meats, I have wondered at the despair or any debate of moment. The Black Prince tedious sighing of her lovers.. was a professed lover of the brisket; not to | The rules among these false delicates, mention the history of the surloin, or the in- are to be as contradictory as they can be to stitution of the order of beef-eaters, which nature, are all so many evident and undeniable Without expecting the return of hunger, marks of the great respect which our war- they eat for an appetite, and prepare dishes like predecessors have paid to this excellent not to allay, but to excite it. food. The tables of the ancient gentry of. They admit of nothing at their tables in this nation were covered thrice a day with its natural form, or without some disguise. hot roast-beef; and I am credibly informed, They are to eat every thing before it by an antiquary, who has searched the reg- comes in season, and to leave it off as soon isters in which the bills of fare of the court as it is good to be eaten, are recorded, that, instead of tea and bread. They are not to approve any thing that is and butter, which have prevailed of late agreeable to ordinary palates, and nothing years, the maids of honour in Queen Eliza- is to gratify their senses, but what would beth's time, were allowed three rumps of offend those of their inferiors. beef for their breakfast. Mutton has like I remember I was last summer invited to wise been in great repute among our valiant a friend's house, who is a great admirer of countrymen, but was formerly observed to the French cookery, and (as the phrase is). be the food rather of men of nice and deli- eats well. At our sitting down, I found the cate appetites, than those of strong and ro- table covered with a great variety of unbust constitutions. For which reason, even known dishes. I was mightily at a loss to to this day, we use the word sheep-biter as a learn what they were, and therefore did not term of reproach, as we do a beef eater in a know where to help myself. That which respectful and honourable sense. As for stood before me I took to be a roasted porthe flesh of lamb, veal, chicken, and other cupine; however, I did not care for asking animals under age, they were the invention questions; and have since been informed, of sickly and degenerete palates, according that it was only a larded turkey. I afterto that wholesome remark of Daniel the his- wards passed my eye over several hashes, torian, who takes notice, that in all taxes which I do not know the names of to this upon provisions, during the reigns of several day; and hearing that they were delicacies, of our kings, there is nothing mentioned be- did not think fit to meddle with them. sides, the flesh of such fowl and cattle as Among other dainties, I saw something were arrived at their full growth, and were like a pheasant, and therefore desired to be mature for slaughter. The common people helped to a wing of it; but to my great sur
prise, my friend told me it was a rabbit, | reason, persons of studious and contemplawhich is a sort of meat I never cared for. tive natures, often entertain themselves with At last I discovered, with some joy, a pig at the history of past ages, or raise schemes the lower end of the table, and begged a and conjectures upon futurity. For my own gentleman that was near it to cut me a piece part, I love to range through that half of of it. Upon which the gentleman of the eternity which is still to come, rather than house said, with great civility, I am sure you look on that which is already run out; be will like the pig, for it was whipped to death. cause I know I have a real share and inI must confess, I heard him with horror, and terest in the one, whereas all that was could not eat of an animal that died such a transacted in the other can only be matter tragical death. I was now in great hunger of curiosity to me. and confusion, when, methought, I smelled | Upon this account, I have been always the agreeable savour of roast-beef, but could very much delighted with meditating on the not tell from which dish it arose, though I soul's immortality, and in reading the several did not question but it lay disguised in one of notions which the wisest of men, both anthem. Upon turning my head, I saw a no-cient and modern, have entertained on that ble surloin on the side-table, smoking in the subject. What the opinions of the greatest most delicious manner. I had recourse to philosophers have been, I have several times it more than once; and could not see, with- hinted at, and shall give an account of them out some indignation, that substantial En- \ from time to time, as occasion requires. It glish dish banished in so ignominious a man- may likewise be worth while to consider, ner, to make way for French kickshaws. what men of the most exalted genius, and
The desert was brought up at last, which, elavated imagination, have thought of this in truth, was as extraordinary as any thing matter. Among these, Homer stands up as that had come before it. The whole, when a prodigy of mankind, that looks down upon ranged in its proper order, looked like a the rest of human creatures as a species bé very beautiful winter-piece. There were neath him. Since he is the most ancien' several pyramids of candied sweetmeats, heathen author, we may guess from his re that hungʻlike icicles, with fruits scattered lation, what were the common opinions in up and down, and hid in an artificial kind of his time concerning the state of the sou frost. At the same time, there were great after death. quantities of cream beaten up into a snow, Ulysses, he tells us, made a voyage to the and near them little plates of sugar-plumbs, regions of the dead, in order to consult Tidisposed like so many heaps of hail-stones, resias how he should return to his own with a multitude of congelations in jellies of country, and recommend himself to the favarious colours. I was indeed so pleased vour of the gods. The poet scarce introwith the several objects which lay before duces a single person, who doth not suggest me, that I did not care for displacing any of some useful precept to his seader, and dethem, and was half angry with the rest of the signs his description of the dead for the company, that, for the sake of a piece of le- | amendment of the living. mon-peel, or a sugar-plumb, would spoil sol Ulysses, after having made a very plenpleasing a picture. Indeed, I could not but teous sacrifice, sat him down by the Pool of smile to see several of them cooling their Holy Blood, which attracted a prodigious mouths with lumps of ice, which they had assembly of ghosts of all ages and conditions, just before been burning with salts and that hovered about the hero, and feasted peppers.
upon the streams of his oblation. The first As soon as this show was over I took my he knew was the shade of Elpenor, who, to leave, that I might finish my dinner at my show the activity of spirit above that of own house : for as I in every thing love what body, is represented as arrived there long is simple and natural, particularly so in my before Ulysses, notwithstanding the winds food, two plain dishes, with two or three and seas had contributed all their force to good-natured, cheerful, ingenuous friends, hasten his voyage thither. This Elpenor would make me more pleased and vain, than (to inspire the reader with a detestation of all that pomp and luxury can bestow. For drunkenness, and at the same time with a it is my maxim, " That he keeps the greatest religious care of doing proper honours to the table, who has the most valuable company dead) describes himself as having broken at it,"
his neck in a debauch of wine; and begs Ulysses, that, for the repose of his soul, he would build a monument over him, and per
form funeral rites to his memory, Ulysses, No. 152.] Thursday, March 30, 1710.
with great sorrow of heart, promises to fulDii, quibus Imperium est animarum, umbræque silentes, fil his request, and is immediately diverted Et Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte silentia late, to an object much more moving than the Sit mihi fas audita loqui, sit numine vestro Pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas.-Virg.
former. The ghost of his own mother, An
ticlea, whom he still thought living,' appears From my own Apartment, March 29. | to him among the multitudes of shades that A MAN who confines his speculations to surrounded him, and sits down at a small the time present, has but a very narrow pro- distance from him by the Lake of Blood, vince to employ his thoughts in. For this without speaking to him, or knowing who
he was. Ulysses was exceedingly troubled count of her birth and family.” This scene at the sight, and could not forbear weeping of extraordinary women seems to have been as he looked upon her: but being all along designed by the poet as a lecture of morality set forth as a pattern of consummate wisdom, to the whole sex, and to put them in mind hemakes his affection give way to prudence, of what they must expect, notwithstanding and therefore, upon his seeing Tiresias, does the greatest perfections, and highest honours not reveal himself to his mother till he had they can arrive at. consulted that great prophet, who was the The circle of beauties at length disappearoccasion of this his descent into the empire ed, and was succeeded by the shades of seof the dead. Tiresias having cautioned him veral Grecian heroes who had been engaged to keep himself and his companions free from with Ulysses in the siege of Troy. "The the guilt of sacrilege, and to pay his devo- first that approached was Agamemnon, the tions to all the gods, promises him a safe re- generalissimo of that great expedition, who, turn to his kingdom and family, and a happy at the appearance of his old friend, wept old age in the enjoyment of them.
very bitterly, and, without saying any thing The poet having thus with great art kept to him, endeavoured to grasp him by the the curiosity of his reader in suspense, re- hand. Ulysses, who was much moved at presents his wise man, after the dispatch of¡ the sight, poured out a flood of tears, and his business with Tiresias, as yielding him- asked him the occasion of his death, which self up to the calls of natural affection, and Agamemnon related to him in all its tragical making himself known to his mother. Her circumstances; how he was murdered at a eyes were no sooner opened, but she cries banquet by the contrivance of his own wife, out in tears, “O, my son!” and inquires into in confederacy with her adulterer: from the occasions that brought him thither, and whence he takes occasion to reproach the the fortune that attended him.
whole sex, after a manner which would be Ulysses on the other hand desires to know inexcusable in a man who had not been so what the sickness was that had sent her into great a sufferer by them, “My wife (says those regions, and the condition in which she he) has disgraced all the women that shåll had left his father, his son, and more partic-ever be born into the world, even those who ularly his wife. She tells him, they were all hereafter shall be innocent. Take care how three inconsolable for his absence. And you grow too fond of your wife. Never tell as for myself, (says she,) that was the sick- her all you know. If you reveal some things ness of which I died. My impatience for to her, be sure you keep others concealed your return, my anxiety for your welfare, from her. You, indeed, have nothing to fear and my fondness for my dear Ulysses, were from your Penelope, she will not use you as the only distempers that preyed upon my my wife has treated me; however, take care life, and separated my soul from my body." how you trust a woman.” The poet, in this Ulysses was melted with these expressions and other instances, according to the system of tenderness, and thrice endeavoured to of many heathen as well as Christian philocatch the apparition in his arms, that he sophers, shows, how anger, revenge, and might hold his mother to his bosom, and other habits which the soul had contracted weep over her.
in the body, subsist and grow in it under its This gives the poet occasion to describe state of separation. the notion the heathens at that time had of I am extremely pleased with the companan unbodied soul, in the excuse which the ions which the poet in the next description mother makes for seeming to withdraw her- assigns to Achilles. “Achilles (says the self from her son's embraces, “The soul hero) came up to me with Patroclús and (says she) is composed neither of bones, Antilochus." By which we may see that it flesh, nor sinews, but leaves behind her all was Homer's opinion, and probably that of those inčumbrances of mortality to be con- the age he lived in, that the friendships which sumed on the funeral pile. As soon as she are made among the living, will likewise has thus cast her burden, she makes her es- continue among the dead. Achilles incape, and flies away from it like a dream." quires after the welfare of his son, and of
When this melancholy conversation is at his father, with a fierceness of the same chaan end, the poet draws up to view as charm- racter that Homer has every where exing a vision as could enter into man's imagi- pressed in the actions of his life. The pasnation. He describes the next who appear- sage relating to his son is so extremely beaued to Ulysses, to have been the shades of the tiful, that I must not omit it. Ulysses, after finest women that had ever lived upon the having described him as wise in council, and earth, and who had either been the daugh- active in war, and mentioned the foes whom ters of kings, the mistresses of gods, or mo- he had slain in battle, adds an observation thers of heroes; such as Antiope, Alcmena, that he himself had made of his behaviour Leda, Ariadne, Iphimedia, Eriphyle, and whilst he lay in the wooden horse. “Most several others of whom he gives a catalogue, of the generals (says he) that were with us, with a short history of their adventures. either wept or trembled: as for your son, I The beautiful assembly of apparitions were neither saw him wipe a tear from his cheeks, all gathered together about the blood : or change his countenance. On the contra“Each of them (says Ulysses, as a gentle ry, he would often lay his hand upon his satire upon female vanity) giving me an ac- sword, or grasp his spear, as impatient to employ them against the Trojans." He ful imagination, that had nothing to direct it then informs his father of the great honour besides the light of nature, and the opinions and rewards which he had purchased before of a dark and ignorant age. Troy, and of his return from it without a wound. The shade of Achilles (says the poet) was so pleased with the account he re- No. 153.7 the account he re- No. 153.] Saturday, April 1, 1710.
Sat ceived of his son, that he inquired no further, but stalked away with more than ordinary Bombalio, Clangor, Stridor, Taratantara, Murmur majesty over the green meadow that lay be
Farn. Rhet. fore them.
From my own Apartment, March 31 This last circumstance of a deceased fa- ! I HAVE heard of a very valuable picture, ther's rejoicing in the behaviour of his son, is wherein all the painters of the age in which very finely contrived by Homer, as an in- it was drawn, are represented sitting togethcentive to virtue, and made use of by none er in a circle, and joining in a concert of that I know besides himself.
music. Each of them plays upon such a The description of Ajax, which follows, particular instrument as is the most suitable and his refusing to speak to Ulysses, who to his character, and expresses that style had won the armour of Achilles from him, and manner of painting which is peculiar to and by that means occasioned his death, is him. The famous cupalo-painter of those admired by every one that reads it. When times, to show the grandeur and boldness of Ulysses relates the sullenness of his deport- his figures, hath a horn in his mouth, which ment, and considers the greatness of the hero, he seems to wind with great strength and he expresses himself with generous and no force. On the contrary, an eminent artist, ble sentiments. “O that I had never gain who wrought up his pictures with the greated a prize which cost the life of so brave a est accuracy, and gave them all those deliman as Ajax! who, for the beauty of his cate touches which are apt to please the person, and greatness of his actions, was in- nicest eyes, is represented as tuning a theferior to none but the divine Achilles.” orbo. The same kind of humours runs The same noble condescension, which never through the whole piece. dwells but in truly great minds, and such as I have often from this hint imagined to Homer would represent that of Ulysses to myself, that different talents in discourse have been, discovers itself likewise in the might be shadowed out after the same manspeech which he made to the ghost of Ajax ner by different kinds of music; and that the on that occasion. · “Oh, Ajax! (says he,) several conversable parts of mankind in this will you keep your resentments even after great city might be cast into proper characdeath? What destruction hath this fatal ters and divisions, as they resemble several armour brought upon the Greeks, by rob- instruments that are in use among the masbing them of you, who were their bulwark ters of harmony. Of these, therefore, in and defence ? Achilles is not more bitterly their order; and first of the drum, lamented among us than you. Impute not Your drums are the blusterers in converthen your death to any one but Jupiter, who, sation, that with a loud laugh, unnatural out of his anger to the Greeks, took you mirth, and a torrent of noise, domineer in away from among them. Let me intreat public assemblies, overbear men of sense, you to approach me; restrain the fierceness stun their companions, and fill the place they of your wrath, and the greatness of your are in with a rattling sound, that hath seldom soul, and hear what I have to say to you.” | any wit, humour, or good breeding in it. Ajax, without making any reply, turned his The drum, notwithstanding, by this boister back upon him, and retired into a crowd of ous vivacity, is very proper to impose upon ghosts,
the ignorant; and in conversation with ladies, Ulysses, after all these visions, took a view who are not of the finest taste, often passes of those impious wretches who lay in tor- for a man of mirth and wit, and for wondertures for the crimes they had committed ful pleasant company. I need not observe, upon the earth, whom he describes under that the emptiness of the drum very much all the varieties of pain, as so many marks contributes to its noise. of divine vengeance, to deter others from The lute is a character directly opposite following their example. He then tells us, to the drum, that sounds very finely by itthat, notwithstanding he had a great curios- self, or in a very small concert. Its notes ity to see the heroes that lived in the ages are exquisitely sweet, and very low, easily before him, the ghosts began to gather about drowned in a multitude of instruments, and liim in such prodigious multitudes, and with even lost among a few, unless you give a Such confusion of voices, that his heart trem- particular attention to it. A lute is seldom bled as he saw himself amidst so great a heard in a company of more than five, scene of horrors. He adds, that he was whereas a drum will show itself to advanafraid lest some hidious spectre should ap- tage in an assembly of five hundred. The pear to him, that might terrify him to dis-lutanists, therefore, are men of a fine genius, traction; and therefore withdrew in time. uncommon reflection, great affability, and
I question not but my reader will be esteemed chiefly by persons of a good taste, pleased with this description of a future who are the only proper judges of so destate, represented by such a noble and fruit- | lightful and soft a melody,
The trumpet is an instrument that has in not signify an halfpenny to its instruction, or it no compass of music, or variety of sound, its welfare. Some have observed, that the but is, notwithstanding, very agreeable, so northern parts of this island are more parti.. long as it keeps within its pitch. It has not cularly fruitful in bagpipes. above four or five notes, which are, how- There are so very few persons who are ever, very pleasing, and capable of exquisite masters in every kind of conversation, and turns and modulations. The gentlemen who can talk on all subjects, that I do not know fall under this denomination, are your men whether we should make a distinct species of the most fashionable education and refi- of them: nevertheless, that my scheme ned breeding, who have learned a certain may not be defective, for the sake of those smoothness of discourse, and sprightliness of few who are endowed with such extraordi.. air, from the polite company they have kept; | nary talents, I shall allow them to be harpsibut at the same time have shallow parts, chords, a kind of music which every one weak judgments, and a short reach of un- knows is a concert by itself, derstanding; a play-house, a drawing-room, ! As for your passing-bells, who look upon a ball, a visiting-day, or a ring at Hyde-mirth as criminal, and talk of nothing but park, are the few notes they are masters of, what is melancholy in itself, and mortifying which they touch upon in all conversations. to human nature, I shall not mention them. The trumpet, however, is a necessary in I shall likewise pass over in silence all the strument about a court, and a proper enli- rabble of mankind, that crowd our streets, vener of a concert, though of no great har coffee-houses, feasts, and public tables. I mony by itself.
cannot call their discourse conversation, but Violins are the lively, forward, importu rather something that is practised in imitanate wits, that distinguish themselves by | tion of it. For which reason, if I would dethe flourishes of imagination, sharpness of scribe them by any musical instrument, it repartee, glances of satire, and bear away should be by those modern inventions of the the upper part in every concert. I cannot bladder and string, tongs and key, marrowhowever, but observe, that when a man is bone and cleaver. not disposed to hear music, there is not a My reader will doubtless observe, that I more disagreeable sound in harmony than have only touched here upon male instruthat of a violin.
ments, having reserved my female concert There is another musical instrument, to another occasion. If he has a mind to which is more frequent in this nation than know where these several characters are to any other; I mean your bass-viol, which be met with, I could direct him to a whole grunībles in the bottom of the concert, and club of drums; not to mention another of with a surly masculine sound strengthens the bagpipes, which I have before given some harmony, and tempers the sweetness of the account of in my description of our nightly several instruments that play along with it. meetings in Sheer-Lane. The lutes may The bass-viol is an instrument of a quite often be met with in couples upon the banks different nature to the trumpet, and may of a crystal stream, or in the retreats of signify men of rough sense, and unpolished shady woods, and flowery meadows; which parts, who do not love to hear themselves for different reasons are likewise the great talk, but sometimes break out with an agree resort of your hunting horns. Bass-viols are able bluntness, unexpected wit, and surly frequently to be found over a glass of stale pleasantries, to the no small diversion of beer, and a pipe of tobacco; whereas those their friends and companions. In short, I who set up for violins, seldom fail to make look upon every sensible true born Briton to their appearance at Will's once every evebe naturally a bass-viol.
ning. You may meet with a trumpet any As for your rural wits, who talk with where on the other side of Charing-cross. great eloquence and alacrity of foxes, hounds, That we may draw something for our adhorses, quick set-hedges, and six-bar gates, vantage in life out of the foregoing discourse, double ditches, and broken necks, I am in I must intreat my reader to make a narrow doubt, whether I should give them a place search into his life and conversation, and in the conversable world. However, if they upon his leaving any company, to examine will content themselves with being raised to himself seriously, whether he has behaved the dignity of hunting-horns, I shall desire himself in it like a drum or a trumpet, a vifor the future that they may be known by olin or a bass-viol; and accordingly, endeathat name,
vour to mend his music for the future. For I must not here omit the bagpipe species, my own part, I must confess, I was a drum that will entertain you from morning to night for many years; nay, and a very noisy one, with the repetition of a few notes, which are till having polished myself a little in good played over and over, with the perpetual company, I threw as much of the trumpet humming of a drone running underneath into my conversation as was possible for a them. These are your dull, heavy, tedious man of an impetuous temper; by which story-tellers, the load and burthen of con- mixture of different musics, I look upon myversations, that set up for men of impor- self, during the course of many years, to tance, by knowing secret history, and giving have resembled a tabor and pipe. I have an account of transactions, that, whether since very much endeavoured at the sweetthey ever passed in the world or not, doth ness of the lute; but, in spite of all my reso