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THE GUARDIAN.

NO. 67.] Thursday, May 28, 1713. | life, and would not, as we say, be paid with Li

a song. In order to extricate my old friend, n e fortè pudori Si tibi musa lyræ solers, et cantor Apollo. Hor.

I immediately sent for the three directors of

the playhouse, and desired them that they It has been remarked, by curious observ-would, in their turn, do a good office for a ers that poets are generally long-lived, and man, who, in Shakspeare's phrase, had often run beyond the usual age of man, if not cut filled their mouths, I mean with pleasantry off by some accident or excess, as Anacreon, and popular conceits. They very generousin the midst of a very merry old age, was ly listened to my proposal, and agreed to act choked with a grape-stone. The same re- the Plotting Sisters, (a very taking play of dundancy of spirits, that produces the poeti- my old friend's composing) on the 15th of cal flame, keeps up the vital warmth, and the next month, for the benefit of the author. administers uncommon fuel to life. I ques- My kindness to the agreeable Mr. d'Urfey tion not but several instances will occur to will be imperfect, if, after having engaged my reader's memory, from Homer down to the players in his favour, I do not get the Mr. Dryden, I shall only take notice of town to come into it. I must therefore two who have excelled in lyrics, the one an heartily recommend to all the young ladies, ancient and the other a modern. The first my disciples, the case of my old friend, who gained an immortal reputation by celebra- | has often made their grandmothers merry, ting several jockeys in the Olympic games; and whose sonnets have perhaps lulled asleep the last has signalised himself on the same many a present toast, when she lay in her occasion, by the ode that begins with

cradle. To horse, brave boys, to Newmarket, to ! I have already prevailed upon my Lady horse. My reader will, by this time, know Lizard to be at the house in one of the front that the two poets I have mentioned, are boxes, and design, if I am in town, to lead Pindar and Mr, d’Urfey. The former of her in myself at the head of her daughters. these is long since laid in his urn, after hav- The gentleman I am speaking of has laid ing, many years together, endeared himself obligations on so many of his countrymen, to all Greece by his tuneful compositions, that I hope they will think this but a just reOur countryman is still living, and in a turn to the good service of a veteran poet. blooming old age, that still promises many I myself remember King Charles the musical productions ; for, if I am not mista- Second leaning on Tom d'Urfey's shoulder ken, our British swan will sing to the last. more than once, and humming over a song The best judges, who have perused his last | with him. It is certain that monarch was not song on the Moderate Man, do not discover a little supported by, Joy to great Cæsar, any decay in his parts, but think it deserves which gave the whigs such a blow as they a place among the works with which he were not able to recover that whole reign. obliged the world in his more early years My friend afterwards attacked popery with

I am led into this subject by a visit which the same success, having exposed Bellarmine I lately received from my good old friend and Porto-Carrero more than once in short and contemporary. As we both flourished satirical compositions, which have been in together in king Charles the Second's reign, every body's mouth. He has made use of we diverted ourselves with the remem- | Italian tunes and sonata's for promoting the brance of several particulars that passed in Protestant interest, and turned a considerathe world before the greatest part of my ble part of the pope's music against himself. readers were born, and could not but smile In short, he has obliged the court with poto think how insensibly we were grown into litical sonnets, the country with dialogues a couple of venerable, old gentlengan, Tom and pastorals, the city with descriptions of a observed to me, that after having written lord-mayor's feast, not to mention his little more odes than Horace, and about four times ode upon Stool-ball, with many others of as many comedies as Terence, he was re- the like nature. duced to great difficulties by the importuni- Should the very individuals he has celeties of a set of men, who, of late years, have brated make their appearance together, furnished him with the accommodations of they would be sufficient to fill the play

house. Pretty Peg of Windsor, Gillian of obscure a subject, I find there are two acCroydon, with Dolly and Molly, and Tom-counts of it more satisfactory than the rest. my and Johnny, with many others to be met In the republic of Venice, which has been with in the musical miscellanies, entitled always the mother of politics, there are near Pills to purge Melancholy, would make a the Doge's palace several large figures of good benefit night.

lions curiously wrought in marble, with As my friend, after the manner of the old mouths gaping in a most enormous manner. lyrics, accompanies his works with his own Those who have a mind to give the state voice, he has been the delight of the most any private intelligence of what passes in polite companies and conversations from the the city, put their hands into the mouth of beginning of King Charles the Second's reign one of these lions, and convey into it a paper to our present times. Many an honest gen- of such private informations as any way retleman has got a reputation in his country, gard the interest or safety of the commonby pretending to have been in company with wealth. By this means, all the secrets of Tom d'Urfey.

state come out of the lion's mouth. The I might here mention several other merits informer is concealed, it is the lion that tells in my friend ; as his enriching our language | every thing. In short, there is not a miswith a multitude of rhymes, and bringing management in office, or a murmur in conwords together that, without his good offices, versation, which the lion does not acquaint would never have been acquainted with one the government with. For this reason, say another, so long as it had been a tongue. the learned, a spy is very properly distin But I must not omit, that my old friend guished by the name of Lion. angles for a trout the best of any man in I must confess this etymology is plausible England. May flies come in late this sea- enough, and I did for some time acquiesce son, or I myself should, before now, have had in it, till about a year or two ago I met with a trout of his hooking.

a little manuscript which sets this whole After what I have said, and much more matter in a clear light. In the reign of that I might say, on this subject, I question Queen Elizabeth, says my author, the renot but the world will think that my old nowned Walsingham had many spies in his friend ought not to pass the remainder of his service, from whom the government receivlife in a cage like a singing bird, but enjoy ed great advantage. The most eminent all that Pindaric liberty which is suitable to among them was the statesman's barber, a man of his genius. He has made the whose surname was Lion. This fellow had world merry, and I hope they will make an admirable knack of fishing out the sehim easy so long as he stays among us. crets of his customers, as they were under This I will take upon me to say, they can- his hands. He would rub and lather a man's not do a kindness to a more diverting com- head, until he had got out every thing that panion, or a more cheerful, honest, and good- was in it. He had a certain snap in his finnatured man.

gers and volubility in his tongue, that would engage a man to talk with him whether he

would or no. By this means he became an No. 71.] Tuesday, June 2.

inexhaustible fund of private intelligence, and

so signalized himself in the capacity of a Quale portentum neque militaris

spy, that, from his time, a master-spy goes Daunia in latis alit esculetis,

under the name of a Lion.
Nec Jubæ tellus generat, leonum
Arida nutrix. Hor.

Walsingham had a most excellent pene

tration, and never attempted to turn any I QUESTION not but my country customers man into a lion whom he did not see highly will be surprised to here me complain that qualified for it, when he was in his human this town is, of late years, very much infest-condition. Indeed the speculative men of ed with lions; and will, perhaps, look upon those times say of him, that he would now it as a strange piece of news, when I assure and then play them off and expose them a them that there are many of these beasts of little unmercifully ; but that, in my opinion, prey who walk our streets, in broad day- seems only good policy, for otherwise they light, beating about from coffee-house to might set up for men again, when they coffee-house, and seeking whom they may thought fit, and desert his service. But, devour.

| however, though in that very corrupt age To unriddle this paradox, I must acquaint he made use of these animals, he had a my rural reader, that we polite men of the great estecm for true men, and always extown give the name of a lion to any one erted the highest generosity in offering them that is a great man's spy. And whereas I more, without asking terms of them, and docannot discharge my office of Guardian with ing more for them out of mere respect for out setting a mark on such a noxious animal, their talents, though against him, than they and cautioning my wards against him, I de- could expect from any other minister whom sign this whole paper as an Essay upon the they had served never so conspicuously. political Lion,

This made Raleigh (who professed himself It has cost me a great deal of time to dis- his opponent) say one day to a friend, “Pox cover the reason of this appellation, but af- take this Walsingham, he baffles every body, tar many disquisitions and conjectures on so he will not so much as let a man hate him

in private." True it is, that by the wander-, He appears more than ordinary attentive to ings, roarings, and lurking of his lions, he what he reads, while he listens to those who knew the way to every man breathing, who are about him. He takes up the Postman, had not a contempt for the world itself: he and snuffs the candle that he may hear the had lions rampant whom he used for the better by it. I have seen a lion pore upon a service of the church, and couchant who single paragraph in an old Gazette for two were to lie down for the queen. They were hours together, if his neighbours have been so much at command, that the couchant talking all that while, would act as rampant, and the rampant as Having given a full description of this couchant, without being the least out of monster, for the benefit of such innocent percountenance, and all this within four and sons as may fall into his walks, I shall apply twenty hours. Walsingham had the plea- a word or two to the lion himself, whom I santest life in the world, for, by the force of would desire to consider that he is a creature his power and intelligence, he saw men as hated both by God and man, and regarded they really were, and not as the world thought with the utmost contempt even by such as of them : all this was principally brought make use of him. Hangmen and execuabout by feeding his lions well, or keeping tioners are necessary in a state, and so may them hungry, according to their different the animal I have been here mentioning; constitutions.

but how despicable is the wretch that takes Having given this short, but necessary ac- on him so vile an employment? there is count of this statesman and his barber, who, scarce a being that would not suffer by a like the tailor in Shakspeare's Pyramus and comparison with him, except that being only Thisbe, was a man made, as other men are, who acts the same kind of part, and is both notwithstanding he was a nominal lion, I shall the tempter and accuser of mankind. proceed to the description of this strange species of creatures. Ever since the wise

N. B. Mr. Ironside has, within five weeks Walsingham was secretary in this nation,

last past, muzzled three lions, gorged five, our statesmen are said to have encouraged

and killed one, On Monday next the skin the breed among us, as very well knowing

of the dead one will be hung up, in terrorem, that a lion in our British arms is one of the

at Button's coffee-house, over against Tom's, supporters of the crown, and that it is im

in Covent-Garden. possible for a government, in which there are such a variety of factions and intrigues, to subsist without this necessary animal. No. 96.] Wednesday, July 1.

A lion, or master-spy, has several jack-1 calls under him, who are his retailers of in- Cuncti adsint, meritæque expectent præmia palmse telligence, and bring him in materials for his report; his chief haunt is a coffee-house, and THERE is no maxim in politics more inas his voice is exceeding strong, it aggravates disputable, than that a nation should have the sound of every thing it repeats.

many honours in reserve for those who do As the lion generally thirsts after blood, national services. This raises emulation, and is of a fierce and cruel nature, there are cherishes public merit, and inspires every no secrets which he hunts after with more one with an ambition which promotes the delight, than those that cut off heads, hang, good of his country. The less expensive draw, and quarter, or end in the ruin of the these honours are to the public, the more person who becomes his prey. If he gets still do they turn to its advantage. the wind of any word or action that may do The Romans abounded with these little a man good, it is not for his purpose; he honourary rewards, that, without conferring quits the chase, and falls into a more agree- wealth or richies, gave only place and disable scent.

tinction to the person who received them, He discovers a wonderful sagacity in seek- An oaken garland to be worn on festivals ing after his prey. He couches and frisks and public ceremonies, was the glorious reabout in a thousand sportful motions to draw compense of one who had covered a citizen it within his reach, and has a particular way in battle. A soldier would not only venture of imitating the sound of the creature whom his life for a mural crown, but think the most he would ensnare; an artifice to be met with hazardous enterprise sufficiently repaid by in no beast of prey, except the hyena and so noble a donation, the political lion,

But among all honourary rewards, which You seldom see a cluster of news-mongers are neither dangerous nor detrimental to the without a lion in the midst of them. He donor, I remember none so remarkable as never misses taking his stand within ear-shot the titles which are bestowed by the Empeof one of those little ambitious men who set ror of China. These are never given to up for orators in places of public resort. If any subject, says Monsieur le Conte, till the there is a whispering-hole, or any public subject is dead. If he has pleased his emspirited corner in a coffee-house, you never peror to the last, he is called in all public fail of seeing a lion couched upon his elbow memorials by the title which the emperor in some part of the neighbourhood.

confers on him after his death, and his chilA lion is particularly addicted to the pe- dren take their rank accordingly. This rusal of every loose paper that lies in his way, keeps the ambitious subject in a perpetual

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dependance, making him always vigilant and devices mean, and the coins themselves not active, and in every thing conformable to the numerous enough to spread among the peowill of his sovereign,

ple, or descend to posterity. . There are no honorary rewards among us,The French have outdone us in these parwhich are more esteemed by the person who ticulars, and, by the establishment of a soc: receives them, and are cheaper to the prince, ety for the invention of proper inscriptions than the giving of medals. But there is and designs, have the whole history of something in the moderal manner of celebra- their present king in a regular series of ting a great action in medals, which makes, medals. such a reward much less valuable than it | They have failed, as well as the English, was among the Romans. There is general- in coining so small a number of each kind, ly but one coin stamped upon the occasion, and those of such costly metals, that cach which is made a present to the person who species may be lost in a few ages, and is at is celebrated on it. By this means his whole present no where to be met with but in the fame is in his own custody. The applause cabinets of the curious, that is bestowed upon him is too much lim- | The ancient Romans took the only effectited and confined." He is in possession of an ual method to disperse and preserve their honour which the world perhaps knows no- medals, by making them their current thing of. He may be a great man in his | money. own family; his wife and children may see Every thing glorious or useful, as well in the monument of an exploit, which the pub- peace as war, gave occasion to a different lic in a little time is a stranger to. The Ro- coin. Not only an expedition, victory, or mans took a quite different method in this triumph, but the exercise of a solemn devoparticular. Their medals were their cur- tion, the remission of a duty or tax, a new rent money. When an action deserved to temple, seaport, or highway, were transmitbe recorded on a coin, it was stamped per- ted to posterity after this manner. haps upon a hundred thousand pieces of The greatest variety of devices are on money like our shillings, or half-pence, which their copper money, which have most of the were issued out of the mint, and became cur- designs that are to be met with on the gold rent. This method published every noble and silver, and several peculiar to that metal action to advantage, and, in a short space of only. By this means they were dispersed time, spread through the whole Roman em- into the remotest corners of the empire, pire. The Romans were so careful to pre- came into the possession of the poor as well serve the memory of great events upon their as rich, and were in no danger of perishing coins, that when any particular piece of in the hands of those that might have meltmoney grew very scarce, it was often re- ed down coins of a more valuable metal. . coined by a succeeding emperor, many years. Add to all this, that the designs were inafter the death of the emperor to whose hon-vented by men of genius, and executed by a cur it was first struck.

decree of senate. A friend of mine drew up a project of this It is therefore proposed, kind during the late ministry, which would I. That the English farthings and half then have been put in execution, had it not pence be recoined upon the union of the two been too busy a time for thoughts of that nations. nature. As this project has been very much II, That they bear devices and inscriptalked of by the gentleman abovementioned, tions alluding to all the most remarkable to men of the greatest genius, as well as qual-parts of her Majesty's reign. ity, I am informed there is now a design on III. That there be a society establishec foot for executing the proposal which was for the finding out of proper subjects, in then made, and that we shall have several scriptions, and devices. farthings and half-pence charged on the re- IV. That no subject, inscription, or deverse with many of the glorious particulars vice b'e stamped without the approbation of of her Majesty's reign, This is one of those this society, nor, if it be thought proper, witharts of peace which may very well deserve out the authority of privy-council. to be cultivated, and which may be of great! By this means, medals, that are, at presuse to posterity,

ent, only a dead treasure or mere curiosities, As I have in my possession the copy of the will be of use in the ordinary commerce of paper abovementioned, which was delivered life, and, at the same time perpetuate the to the late Lord Treasurer, I shall here give glories of her Majesty's reign, reward the the public a sight of it. For I do not ques- labours of her greatest subjects, keep alive tion, but that the curious part of my readers in the people a gratitude for public services, will be very well pleased to see so much and excite the emulation of posterity. To matter, and so many useful hints upon this these generous purposes, nothing can so subject, laid together in so clear and concise much contribute as medals of this kind, a manner.

which are of undoubted authority, of neces

sary use and observation, not perishable by The English have not been so careful as time, nor confined to any certain place; proother polite nations, to preserve the memory perties not to be found in books, statues, picof their great actions and events on medals. tures, buildings, or any other monuments of Their subjects are few, their mottoes and I illustrious actions.

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