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For a full account of this old superstition, and an explanation of its origin, see Max Müller's Lect. on the Science of Language, Second Series, pp. 552-571 (Amer. ed.).
See Gr. I.
Lies at my mercy, etc. See on What cares these roarers, i. 1. D., W., and H. read "Lie," but there is no reason for changing the old construction. Lies is found plural in S. at least five times, in three of which the rhyme forbids any change.
SCENE I.-His carriage. His load, burden. Cf. K. John, v. 7: “For many carriages he hath despatch'd." See also Judges, xviii. 21; 1 Sam. xvii. 22; Isa. x. 28; Acts, xxi. 15, etc.
Line-grove. Changed by most editors to "lime-grove ;" but see on Hang them on this line, iv. I.
Weather-fends. Defends from the weather. Till your release. Till you release them. tive."
See Gr. 432.
Your is a "subjective geni
Him that you term'd. On him=he, see Gr. 208.
His tears runs.
See Gr. 333.
That relish all as sharply Passion. That "feel everything with the same quick sensibility," or that are fully as sensitive to suffering.
Ye elves, etc. Some expressions in this speech may have been suggested by Medea's speech in Ovid's Metamorphoses (book vii.), which S. had probably read in Golding's translation:
"Ye ayres and windes, ye elves of hills, of brookes, of woodes alone,
I call up dead men from their graves, and thee, O`lightsome moone,
Green sour ringlets. "Fairy rings," or circles on the grass supposed to be made by the elves in their nightly dances. Dr. Grey (Notes on S.) says they "are higher, sowrer, and of a deeper green than the grass which grows round them." They were long a mystery even to scientific men. Priestley (1767) ascribed them to the effects of lightning; Pennant (1776) and others, to the burrowing of moles, by which the soil was loosened and thus made more productive; Wollaston (1807), to the spreading of a kind
of agaricum, or fungus, which enriches the ground by its decay. This last explanation is now known to be the correct one.
Mushrooms. The folio has the old form, "mushrumps."
Weak masters. This is commonly explained, “weak if left to yourselves," though powerful auxiliaries (as we say that "fire is a good servant, but a bad master"); but Jephson thinks that "masters is only used ironically, as a term of slight contempt." Of the two interpretations I prefer the latter; but the "irony" is affectionate rather than contemptuous. Azur'd. See Gr. 294. Their senses that. A solemn air, etc. May this solemn air, which is the best comforter, etc. Boil'd. Cf. M. N. D. v. I: “seething brains ;" and W. T. iii. 3: "these boiled brains of nineteen and two-and-twenty.'
The senses of those whom. See Gr. 218.
Sympathizing with what appears in thine. "to fall it on Gonzalo." Gr. 291. On fel
Sociable to the show of thine. Fall fellowly drops. Cf. ii. I: lowly, see Gr. 447.
Apace. At (or with) a quick pace, rapidly; a compound, like amain (with main, or strength).
I will pay thy graces Home. I will repay thy favors to the utmost, or thoroughly. Cf. M. for M. iv. 3: "Accuse him home and home." Cymb. iii. 5 "satisfy me home;" and v. 2: "that confirms it home." We still say “charge home” (Cor. i. 4) and “strike home” (T. A. ii. 1 and 3).
You, brother mine. On the use of you here, followed by thee in "I do forgive thee," etc., see Gr. 232.
Remorse and nature. Pity and natural affection. See Mer. p. 156, and cf. C. of E. i. 1: "was wrought by nature, not by vile offence."
Reasonable shore. Shore of reason.
Discase me. Undress myself. Cf. W. T. iv. 3: "therefore discase thee." This reflexive use of the personal pronoun is common in S. See Gr. 223. Sometime. Formerly. See Mer. p. 130.
I do fly After summer. Cf. M. N. D. iv. I: "Trip we after the night's shade;" and Milton, Hymn of Nativ. 236: "Fly after the night-steeds,' etc. Theo. changed "summer" to "sunset," and other critics have made sad work of the Song by attempts to improve the pointing of the folio, which is essentially as I have given it, following V., W., D., and H. The meaning is well brought out by V.: "At night, when owls do cry,' Ariel couches, 'in a cowslip's bell;' and he uses 'the bat's back' as his pleasant vehicle to pursue summer in its progress round the world, and thus live merrily under continual blossoms.' It has been objected that bats do not 'fly after summer," but become torpid in winter; but, even if the poet had known this zoological fact, he might none the less have made Ariel use the creature for his purposes. The "tricksy spirit" was not limited by natural laws.
See Gr. 333, 336.
Being awake. For the construction, see Gr. 376. See note on the same phrase, i. 2. Inhabits. Another example of the old plural. Trifle to abuse me. Phantom to deceive me. Cf. Ham. ii. 2: "Abuses me to damn me." We have the same expression in B. and F. (Bonduca, v. 2): "In love too with a trifle to abuse me."
I not know. See on I not doubt, ii. 1, and cf. "the ewe not bites," etc. Since I saw thee. We should now say "have seen thee." See Gr.
"And if" in
An if this be at all. If indeed there be any reality in it. the folio. See Gr. 103, 105.
Taste some subtilties of the isle. "This is a phrase adopted from ancient cookery and confectionery. When a dish was so contrived as to appear unlike what it really was, they called it a subtilty. Dragons, castles, trees, etc., made out of sugar, had the like denomination." (Steevens.) Pluck. Bring down. Cf. A. W. iii. 2: “pluck his indignation on thy 'head."
Justify you traitors. How is this justified? letters."
Prove you traitors. Cf. A. W. iv. 3: "Second Lord.
I am woe for't. I am sorry for it. Cf. A. and C. iv. 14: "Woe, woe are we, sir." In Cymb. v. 5, we find "I am sorrow for thee." See Gr. 230.
Of whose soft grace. By whose kind favor.
Ás late. As it is recent; but some explain it, “and as recent." Supportable. Accent on the first syllable. Cf. "détestáble” (K. John, iii. 4; T. of A. iv. 1) and “délectable" (Rich. II. ii. 3). Gr. 492. Abbott himself is inclined to put it under 497. Steevens reads "portable," a word used by S. in this sense in Lear, iii. 6, and Macb. iv. 3.
Have I means. For the transposition, see Gr. 425.
That they were living. "The subjunctive used optatively." Gr. 364. Myself were mudded, etc. For 66 myself" as subject, see Mer. p. 137 (note on Yourself). Cf. iii. 3: “my son i̇' th' ooze is bedded; . . . And with him there lie mudded."
Do so much admire. Do so much wonder.
Which was thrust forth of Milan. To content ye. On ye, see Gr. 236. often" please" or delight" in S. tent me to hear him."
See Gr. 266 and 166.
Content (cf. the French contenter) Cf. Ham. ii. 2: "it doth much con
"Here Prospero discouers Ferdinand and Miranda, playing at Chesse." Such is the stage direction in the folio. It is the only allusion to chess in S., unless there be a punning one in T. of S. i. 1, where Katherine says, pray you, sir, is it your will To make a stale of me amongst these mates?" Steevens thinks that the introduction of the game here was suggested by the romance of Huon de Bordeaux, where "King Ivoryn caused his daughter to play at the chesse with Huon," etc. But, as Prof. Allen suggests in an interesting Excursus in the Phila. ed., even if S. did take a hint from that old romance, it was probably because he was aware that there was a special appropriateness in representing a prince of Naples as a chess-player, since Naples, in the poet's day, "was the centre of chess-playing," and probably famed as such throughout Europe.
Cf. Gr. 220.
Play me false. Cheat me.
If this prove, etc. H. says: "The sense of this passage is not altogether clear. The word not seems wanting after prove; unless if have by some means got substituted for but. Alonso has lost his son once, and if this which he now sees prove not a mere vision, he will have to lose him
again." I can see no difficulty in the passage. If this be a mere vision, his son is not restored to him, and he must again give him up as lost. I am hers. That is, her father.
Chalk'd forth the way. We should say “chalk'd out the way.” C£
Hen. VIII. i. 1 :
"Chalks successors their way."
No man was his own. Was master of himself, or in his senses.
Here is more of us. See on There is no more such shapes, i. 2.
Safely found Our King and company. That is, found them safe. Cf. just below, freshly beheld Our royal, good, and gallant ship." S. often uses adverbs as "predicate adjectives," a fact not mentioned by Abbott, though he refers to the use of adverbs for adjectives after is (78). Cf. above (iii. 1), "look wearily" for "look weary." So in M. Wives, ii. I: "looks so merrily;" A. Y. L. i. 2: "he looks successfully," etc. But elsewhere we have "looks pale," "looks sad," "look stern,' """look fair," etc. We find also the adjective for the adverb, as in 1 Hen. VI. i. 2: "Meantime look gracious on thy prostrate thrall," etc. The two constructions are often confounded by good writers even in our day.
Gave out split. Gave up as gone to pieces. In 2 Hen. VI. iv. 8, “given out these arms" means given them up.
Yare. See on Yarely, i. I.
Tricksy. Steevens (followed by Dyce) explains the word as "clever, adroit;" Jephson as "pretty or engaging;" others as "cunning, sportive," Rich. (Dict.) defines it "trickish, artful, dexterous, adroit, active, smart," and cites Warner, Albion's Eng. vi. 31:
"There was a tricksie girle, I wot,
As peart as bird, as straite as boult,
Florio (Ital. Dict.) defines Pargoletta as “quaint, pretty, nimble, trixie, tender, small."
Dead of sleep. The folio reading. Malone read "on sleep" (Cf. Acts xiii. 36), but on and of were often used interchangeably, as indeed they still are by illiterate people. See Gr. 180, 182. Abbott himself puts this under 168 (of="as a consequence of").
But even now. Just now. See Gr. 38.
Several. Separate, distinct; as in iii. 1, and iii. 3.
Capering to eye her. Jumping for joy at the sight of her.
On a trice. We say "in a trice," as S. does elsewhere. In Lear, i. I. we have "in this trice of time."
Moping. The folio has "moaping," and some editors print "mopping" (=grimacing). The Phila. ed. explains it rightly: "Depressed and moping, because suddenly interrupted in the midst of their rejoicing, separated from their companions, and enforced' to go, whither they knew not, by some irresistible supernatural power."
Conduct of. Conductor of. Cf. Rich. II. iv. 1: "I will be his conduct;" R. and. J. v. 3: "Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide!"
Beating on. Cf. 2 Hen. VI. ii. 1: "thine eyes and thoughts Beat on a crown. Above (i. 2) we have "For still 'tis beating in my mind."
Single I'll resolve you. In private I will explain to you. Prof. Allen (Phila. ed.) suggests that single is here used as in "a single thing,” i. 2. "In that case, the train of thought would be: There needs no such resort as you speak of to divine means (to an oracle) to rectify your knowledge; I alone-1, a mere weak man-will resolve your doubts."
Which to you shall seem probable. Of every These happen'd accidents. Coragio. Courage (Italian). These be. See Gr. 300, and cf. iii. I: "There be some sports," etc. Badges. The stolen apparel they had on. Johnson says: "The sense is, 'Mark what these men wear, and say if they are honest.'' 'In the time of S. all the servants of the nobility wore silver badges on their liveries, on which the arms of their masters were engraved" (Nares). Hence the allusion here and in several other passages in S. Cf. Lucrece, 1053:
Which explanation, etc. See Gr. 271.
"To clear this spot by death, at least I give
One so strong that, etc. For the relative after such and so, see Gr. 279. Cf. below, "Sail so expeditious that shall catch," etc.
Deal in her command, etc. "Act as her vicegerent without being au thorized, or empowered so to do" (Malone). Jephson explains without her power, "though not equal to the moon in power."
Reeling ripe. Ripe may be one of the many "slang" terms for drunk, or reeling-ripe (ripe, or fit for reeling) may be a compound like crying-ripe, smarting-ripe, etc. Cf. B. and F., Woman's Prize, ii. 1:
"My son Petruchio, he's like little children
This grand liquor, etc. An allusion to the "grand elixir," or aurum potabile of the alchemists, which they pretended would confer immortal youth upon him who drank it. It was a joke of the time to compare sack to this elixir, and "gilded" is elsewhere found in the same sense as here. In Fletcher's Chances (iv. 3), in reply to the question, "Is she not drunk too?" we find, "A little gilded o'er, sir; old sack, old sack, boys!"
I fear me. Many verbs, now intransitive, were used by S. reflexively. See Gr. 296, and cf. "retire me" just below.
This is a strange thing, etc. Steevens read "as strange a thing," but other examples of the ellipsis are to be found in S. See Gr. 276.
Seek for grace. Seek for pardon.
The nuptial. S. always uses nuptial, if we except one passage in the very corrupt text of Pericles (v. 3). On the other hand, he has funerals (cf. the Latin funera, and the French funérailles) in F. C. v. 4, and T. A. i. 2 (1 in Globe ed.), though elsewhere his word is funeral.
Our dear-belov'd solemnized. This is the metre of the folio (as Boswell remarks), and is followed by D. and W. Collier, K., and H. print it "dearbeloved solemniz'd." But we have "solémnized" in L. L. L. ii. 1: “Of Ja-ques Falconbridge so-lem-nized." Cf. the one instance of the word in