Imágenes de páginas

Are like invulnerable. Alike invulnerable. Prof. Allen (Phila. ed.) suggests printing it "like" (cf. ""las !" for "alas !"), as he finds no example of like-alike.

Requit. Cf. "Have quit it," i. 2, and see Gr. 342.

Than any death Can be at once. Than any death-at-once can be. For many similar examples of transposed "adjectival phrases," see Gr. 419 a. Which here else falls. On the number of the verb, see Gr. 247. Is nothing. This ellipsis of there is not uncommon. See Gr. 404.

Clear life. Pure, blameless. Cf. Lear, iv. 6: "the clearest gods." So in The Two Noble Kinsmen, i. I: "for the sake Of clear virginity."

With good life And observation strange. Johnson says: "With good life may mean 'with exact presentation of their several characters,' with observation strange of their particular and distinct parts.' So we say, ‘he acted to the life.' Or, good life may mean "good spirit," and observation strange "wonderfully exact observance" [of my orders, or of the requirements of the part]. Observation is elsewhere--observance; as in M. N. D. iv. I: "For now our observation is performed." On strange, cf. "strangely stood the test," iv. I.

Whom they suppose is drown'd. Other examples of this confusion of two constructions are K. John, iv. 2: "Of Arthur, whom they say is killed tonight;" and Cor. iv. 2: "The nobility. . . whom we see have sided." Cf. Matt. xvi. 13.

Mine lov'd darling. See Gr. 238.

Bass. Utter in a deep tone. W. prints "base," but there can be no good reason for following the spelling of the folio.

But one fiend. Let but one fiend come.

This ecstasy. This madness. In S. ecstasy "stands for every species of alienation of mind, whether temporary or permanent, proceeding from joy, sorrow, wonder, or any other exciting cause."



SCENE I. A thread of mine own life. The folio reads "a third," which, as D. remarks, "is rather an old spelling than a mistake: in early books we occasionally find third for thrid, i. e. thread." V. retains "third," but K., Sr., St., W., H., and others read "thread."

Who once again. For who whom, see Mer. pp. 131, 143, and Gr. 274. Virgin-knot. Alluding to the zone or girdle which was worn by maidens in classical times, and which the husband untied at the wedding, Hence solvere zonam to marry. Cf. Per. iv. 3: "Untied I still my virgin-knot will keep."

Aspersion. Literally, sprinkling. There is perhaps an allusion to the old ceremony of sprinkling the marriage-bed with holy water in token of blessing.

Opportune. The accent is on the penult. Cf. W. T. iv. 4: "And most pportune to our need I have." See Gr. 490.

Our worser genius can. S. uses worser fifteen times. Can; i. e. "can

suggest," as some explain it; or can may be to have power, to be able. See Mer. p. 133 (note on May you stead me ?), and Gr. 307.

The edge of that day's celebration, etc. "The keen enjoyment of the cel. ebration of our wedding-day.' (Jephson.)

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Fairly spoke. The -n or -en of the participle is often dropped by the Elizabethan writers. See Gr. 244.

What would my potent master? See Mer. p. 135 (note on How much you would).

The rabble. That is, "thy meaner fellows."

Some vanity.

Some illusion. Cf. the old romance of Emare:

"The emperour sayde on hygh,
Sertes, thys ys a fayry,

Or ellys a vanyte.'

Presently? Immediately. See Mer. p. 131.

Mop and mow. The two words have the same meaning (see on Mow, ii. 2), and are often thus conjoined in writers of that day. Cf. B. and F., Pilgrim, iv. 2:

"What mops and mowes it makes! heigh, how it frisketh!

Is 't not a fairy? or some small hob-goblin?"

White-cold. The folio has "white cold," but it is probably a compound adjective, like "sudden-bold" (L. L. L. ii. 1), “ fertile-fresh" (M.Wives, v. 5), "active-valiant" and "valiant-young" (1 Hen. IV. v. I), etc. See Gr. 2.

My liver. The liver was anciently supposed to be the seat of love. Cf. Much Ado, iv. I: "if ever love had interest in his liver." A corollary. A surplus. See Wb.

Pertly. Briskly, promptly.


Stover. Fodder for cattle. It has the same origin as the law-term estovers (see Wb.). In some parts of England, according to Jephson, it means hay made of clover. Thatch'd probably means "covered, strewn," and not, as it has been explained, "having shelters thatched with straw." Pioned and lilied. The folio has "pioned, and twilled," which some editors have retained, explaining it as dug and ridged." Steevens says that Spenser has pioning digging. Rowe changed "twilled” into “tuliped," and Capell into "tilled." Others have changed "pioned" to "pionied" and "peonied;" but Dr. Johnson gives "piony" as another form for "peony," and the spelling of the folio may as well stand. The peony may not suit our modern taste as a flower for "chaste crowns,' but old writers are quoted who call it "the mayden piony" and "virgin peonie." It has been objected that peonies and lilies do not bloom in April, but Boswell quotes Bacon's Essay Of Gardens: "In Aprill follow, The Double white Violet; The Wall-Flower; The Stock-Gilly-Flower; The Couslip; Flower-De-lices, and Lillies of all Natures; Rose-mary Flowers; The Tulippa; The Double Piony;" etc.

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Broom groves. Groves in which broom (Spartium scoparium) abounds; though Steevens asserts that the broom itself sometimes grows "high enough to conceal the tallest cattle as they pass through it, and in places where it is cultivated still higher." Hanmer changed "broom" to "brown."

Lass-lorn. Forsaken by his lass, or lady.

Pole-clipt. Not "clipped so as to be trained to a pole" (as Jephson explains it), but with the poles clipt, or embraced, by the vines. S. uses clip (including inclip once) fourteen times* in this obsolete sense, and only three times in its ordinary sense.—Vineyard is probably here a trisyllable. See Gr. 487.

Watery arch and messenger. Iris was the goddess of the rainbow, and also the messenger of Juno.

Bids thee leave these, and..

to come. See on Than to suffer, iii. 1.

Her peacocks. The chariot of Juno was drawn by peacocks, as that of Venus was by doves (see "Dove-drawn," a few lines below).

Amain. Literally, with main (which we still use in "might and main"), that is, with strength or force, vigorously.

Saffron wings. Cf. Virgil, Æn. iv. 700: "Iris croceis


Bosky. Wooded. Cf. Milton, Com. 313: "every bosky bourn." Estate. Grant, or settle as a possession. Cf. M. N. D. i. 1: "all my right of her I do estate unto Demetrius." See also A. Y. L. v. 2.

The means that dusky Dis, etc. The means by which Pluto carried off Proserpina. See Ovid, Met. v. 363 foll. For the epithet, cf. the "atri ... Ditis" of Virgil (Æn. vi. 127), etc.

Blind boy's. Cf. M. N. D. i. 1: "therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind," etc.

Paphos. A city in Cyprus, one of the favorite seats of Venus.

Thought they to have done. Cf. below, "I thought to have told thee," and see Gr. 360.

Mars's hot minion. Mars's ardent favorite. Venus was the wife of Vulcan, but loved Mars. Minion, originally equivalent to "darling" (Fr. mignon), came at length to mean "an unworthy object on whom an excessive fondness is bestowed." In Sylvester's Du Bartas (1605) we find "God's disciple and his dearest minion." So in Stirling's Domes-day: "Immortall minions in their Maker's sight."

Has broke. See on Fairly spoke, above..

I know her by her gait. Cf. Virgil, Æn. i. 46: “divum incedo regina." Marriage, blessing. So pointed in folio. Most of the editors print "marriage-blessing," which may be what S. wrote.

The second See Gr. 484. Theo. made the

Earth's increase, foison plenty. The reading of the folio. folio has "and foison," which is adopted by many editors. All the early editions give the whole Song to Juno. correction.

Spring come to

Their confines.

you, etc. Cf. Amos, ix. 13.

Their abodes in air, earth, water, etc. Cf. Ham. i. 1 :
"Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air,

The extravagant and erring spirit hies
To his confine.

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So rare a wonder'd father and a wise. Cf. K. John, iv. 2: "So new a fashion'd robe;" C. of E. iii. 2: "So fair an offer'd chain," etc. See Gr. 422. The Phila. ed. states that some copies of the folio read "wise," and others "wife." The change must have been made while the book was *The Phila. ed. says "thirteen," but one instance in The Passionate Pilgrim is omitted.

printing, but which is the corrected reading can not now be determined. All the other folios have "wise." Rowe reads "wife," and is followed by Pope, Theo., Capell, Johnson, and the Var. eds., without note or comment. D. gave "wise" in his 1st ed., but changes it to "wife" in the 2d. K., on the other hand, has "wife" in the 1st ed. and "wise" in the 2d. Sr. has "wife;" St., "so rare a wonder, and a father wise;" the Camb. editors, "wife;" W. and H. "wise."

Winding brooks. The folio has "windring," and it is doubtful whether we should read "wand'ring" or "winding."

Sedg'd crowns. Cf. Milton's description of the river-god Camus (Lyc. 104): "his bonnet sedge." Walker (Crit. Ex.) suggests "sedge" here. Crisp channels. Rippled or ruffled by the wind. Cf. Milton, P. L. iv. 237: "the crisped brooks ;" and Com. 984: "the crisped shades and bowSome explain it here as "curling or winding channels." Either interpretation is better than Jephson's: "because of the crisply curled verdure on their banks."


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Avoid! Depart, begone! Cf. A. and C. v. 2: Avoid, and leave him ;" W. T. i. 2: "Let us avoid," etc. Cf. 1 Sam. xviii. II.

Distemper'd. Disturbed, excited. Cf. R. and J. ii. 3: "a distemper'd head;" K. John, iv. 3: "distemper'd lords," etc. See Gr. 439.

Leave not a rack. The folio has "racke." Rack, as applied to the clouds, is not the same word as wracke=wreck (see Wb.), but old writers often spelled them both "rack" or "racke." The critics are not agreed which is the word here. The best plea for rack (=vapor) may be found in the Phila. ed.; the best for wrack (or wreck) in D.'s 2d ed., vol. i., p. 253. The weight of argument seems to me slightly in favor of the latter, which W. adopts. H. takes the other view. It may be remarked that we still have rack=wreck in "rack and ruin."

Made on. See Mer. p. 143 (note on Glad on't), and Gr. 181, 182. Presented Ceres. Represented, personated. Cf. M. Wives, iv. 6: "present the fairy queen." In M. N. D. (iii. 1 and v. 1) it occurs several times in this sense. See also Milton, Il Pens. 99: "Presenting Thebes, or Pelops' line."


Unback'd colts. Cf. the description of the effect of music on unhandled colts," M. of V. v. I.

Bring it hither. For the redundant it, see Gr. 243, 417. Stale. Decoy, bait. Cf. B. and F., Hum. Lieut. iii. 2: "Stales to catch kites;" Sidney, Arcadia: "But rather one bird caught served as a stale to bring in more;" Spenser, F. Q. ii. J. 4: "he craftie stales did lay," etc.

Hang them on this line. The folio has "on them." Line is the old name for the lime or linden tree, used below (v. 1) in "line-grove." Hunter (New Illust., vol. i., p. 179) understands the tree to be meant here; but, as D. has suggested, Stephano's joke, “Now, jerkin, you are like to lose your hair," has no point unless we assume the "line" to be a hair-line. Buy a hair-line" is one of the cries in an old wood-cut of 1611, illustrating the trades and callings of that day; and in Lyly's Midas, a barber's apprentice facetiously says, "All my mistres' lynes that she dryes her cloathes on, are made only of Mustachio stuffe" (i. e. of the cuttings of moustaches). Play'd the Jack. The Jack-o'-lantern, or Will-of-the-Wisp.


Good my lord. My good lord. Cf. 7. C. ii. 1: "Dear my lord;" R. and J. iii. 5: "Sweet my mother;" T. and C.v. 2: "O poor our sex !" See Gr. 13. I, thy Caliban. See Mer. p. 152 (note on You and I), and Gr. 209.

O King Stephano! O peer! An allusion to the old song, "Take thy old cloak about thee," one stanza of which (quoted in Oth. ii. 3) begins, "King Stephen was a worthy peer," etc.

A frippery. A shop for second-hand clothes.


To dote. For the construction, see Gr. 356.

Let's alone. The reading of the folio. Theo. read "Let's along," which D. adopts. Malone proposed "Let it (or Let't) alone," and is followed by Collier, V., and H. W. retains the old reading, explaining it thus: "Let us do the murder alone, without the Fool's aid." In iii. 2, Caliban says to Stephano:

"If thy greatness will,

Revenge it on him, for I know thou dar'st;
But this thing [Trinculo] dare not.'

Jerkin. A kind of doublet.

To lose your hair. A quibbling allusion to the loss of hair from fever (or other disease) in crossing the line, or equator.

Pass of pate. Sally of wit. Pass (=thrust) is a term in fencing.
Lime. That is, bird-lime.

Barnacles. Probably not the shell-fish, but the geese into which these were supposed to be transformed. Marston (Malcontent, iii. 1) says: "like your Scotch barnacle, now a block, Instantly a worm, and presently a great goose."

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