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the sense of seat (M. for M. iv. 2: “the siege of justice”), and of rank, or place (Ham. iv. 7: "the unworthiest siege ;" Öth. i. 2: "men of royal siege").

Moon-calf. A monstrosity, supposed to be occasioned by lunar influence. In Holland's Pliny (vii. 15) we find, “a moone-calfe, that is to say, a lump of flesh without shape, without life."

An if. See Gr. 101-103.

Hast any more of this? For the ellipsis of the subject, see Gr. 401, 402. Thy dog and thy bush. See above on The man i th' moon, and cf. M. N. D. iii. I, etc. The "bush" was the bundle of sticks connected with the narrative in Numb. xv.

Afeard. See Mer. p.
Well drawn, monster.

144.

A good draught, monster.

Crabs. Crab-apples. "Roasted crabs" are mentioned in L. L. L. v. 2 (Song), and M. N. D. ii. 2. Cf. Lear, i. 5: “as like this as a crab is like an apple."

Scamels. This is the reading of the folio, but the word is found nowhere else. Some have thought it a diminutive of scam, a name by which the limpet is said to be known in some parts of England; others read “seamells" or "sea-malls" (the latter form is actually found as the name of a bird in Holme's Acad. of Armory, 1688); and others "stannels" or "staniels." Of these emendations the last is perhaps the most plausible. Montagu (Ornithological Dict.) says that the "Kestrel, Stannel, or Windhover ... is one of our most common species [of hawks], especially in the more rocky situations and high cliffs on our coasts, where they breed." The bird is also mentioned by S. in 7. N. ii. 5: "And with what wing the staniel checks at it!" At least, no one doubts that this is the correct reading, though the old editions print "stallion."

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Trenchering. The reading of the folio, changed to trencher by Theo., D., H., and most of the editors; but, as W. remarks, "surely they must have forgotten that Caliban was drunk, and after singing 'firing' and 'requiring' would naturally sing 'trenchering.' There is a drunken swing in the original line, which is entirely lost in the precise, curtailed rhythm

of

'Nor scrape trencher, nor wash dish.'"

ACT III.

SCENE I.-There be some sports are painful. See Mer. p. 134, and Gr. 300 and 244. Painful requiring pains, or laborious. Cf. L. Ľ. L. ii. 1 : "painful study;" T. of S. v. 2: "painful labour both by sea and land.” Fuller (Holy War, v. 29) speaks of Joseph as "a painful carpenter," and in his Holy State (ii. 6) he says, "O the holiness of their living, and painfulness of their preaching !"

Delight in them sets off. Delight is the subject of sets off, which is here equivalent to offsets. Cf. Macb. ii. 3 : "The labour we delight in physics pain."

The mistress which. See Gr. 265.

I

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Most busy, least when I do it. "This is the great crux of the play. Few passages in S. have been the subject of more conjecture, and to none has conjecture been applied with less happy results.' The first folio reads, "Most busie lest, when I doe it;" the other three folios, " Most busie least, when I do it." Pope reads, "Least busie when I do it." Theo. gave "Most busie-less when I do it ;" and Dr. Johnson puts "busiless" into his Dict., citing this passage to justify it. Neither Worc. nor Wb. recognizes the word. The editors from Theo. (1733) down to the Var. of 1821 adopted "busiless," and of recent editors D. and H. (the latter without comment) have followed them. The difficulty of the passage is well shown by the vacillation of the best modern critics. D. in his 2d ed. (1864) says that "busiless' is "far more satisfactory, on the whole, than any of the numerous emendations that have been proposed;" while in his 1st ed. (1857) he doubts "if so odd a compound ever occurred to anybody but the critic himself." K. in 1839 followed Theo., but in 1864 he adopts the reading of the later folios, defending it thus: "The opposition of most and least renders the line somewhat obscure; but if we omit most, reading 'Busy least when I do it,' the sense is clear enough. It is not less clear with most, so punctuated." W. in his Shakespeare's Scholar (1854) accepts "busy-less," and considers "busiest" to be "graceless and inappropriate ;" but in his edition of S. (1857) he reads "busiest," adding this note : "The present text is the happy conjecture of Holt White. Busiest of course refers to thoughts. Ferdinand's 'sweet thoughts' of Miranda were busiest when he was labouring to win her."

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Of the other attempts at emendation the following are worthy of mention: Collier's MS. corrector's "Most busy-blest when I do it," Staunton's Most busy felt when I do it ;" Spedding's "Most busiest when idlest;" the Camb editors, "Most busied left when idlest ;" and Keightley's "Most busy, lest when I do it—."

I have preferred, on the whole, to follow Verplanck and retain the reading of the folios ("lest" and "least" may be regarded as identical), with the slight change in punctuation. The passage may then be explained as follows: "In these reflections I forget my labours, which are even refreshed with the sweetness of the thoughts, and I am really most busy in mind, while I am least busy with my task-occupied with my thoughts, idlest with my hands." I take this paraphrase from the Phila. ed., where the passage, with the various readings and criticisms, is very fully and ably discussed.

On the transposition in "least when," cf. above (i. 2), “Curtsied when you have," etc. For the various forms of transposition in S., see Gr. 419

427.

a noun.

But yours it is against. Cf. A. and C.ii.4: “Hasten your generals after;" A. W. iii. 4: "That barefoot plod I the cold ground upon," etc. Gr. 203. Visitation. Visit; its ordinary meaning in S. He does not use visit as Cf. M. of V. iv. I: "in loving visitation was with me," etc. Hest. See on this word above (i. 2). It occurs three times in this play, but nowhere else, unless we adopt the reading of the 1st Quarto in 1 Hen. IV. ii. 3: "On some great sudden hest ;" where all the other old editions have "haste," or "hast," which is another spelling of the same word.

I

Admir'd Miranda! Ferdinand refers to the Latin origin of the name, from the gerundive of mirari, to admire.

The top of admiration. Cf. M. for M. ii. 2: "the top of judgment;" 2 Hen. VI. i. 2: "top of honor;" Cor. i. 9: "top of praises," etc. Several. Separate. Cf. v. I: "strange and several noises." So in Milton, Com. 25: "commits to several government;" Hymn on Nativ. 234: "Each fetter'd ghost slips to his several grave," etc. Owed. Owned. See on the same word, i. 2.

To like of. Cf. Much Ado, v. 4: "if you like of me ;" L. L. L. i. 1: “But like of each thing that in season grows;" Rich. III. iv. 4: “Richard likes of it," etc. See also Gr. 177.

Than to suffer. Pope changed this to “Than I would suffer;" but the insertion of to with a verb after its omission with a preceding one (especially an auxiliary) is not uncommon in S. See Gr. 350.

If hollowly. Cf. M. for M. ii. 3 :

"And try your penitence, if it be sound,
Or hollowly put on."

What else i th' world. Whatever else there is, anything else. Cf. 3 Hen. VI. iii. I : "With promise of his sister and what else." See Gr. 255. Your maid. Your maid-servant.

Your fellow. Your companion. The word was applied to both sexes. Cf. Judges xi. 37 and Psa. xlv. 14 (Prayer-Book version). Companion was formerly used contemptuously, as fellow still is. Cf. 7. C. iv. 3: "Companion, hence !" and 2 Hen. VI. iv. 10: "Why, rude companion, whatsoe'er thou be." It is found in this sense even in so late a work as Smollett's Roderick Random (1748): “Scurvy companion! Saucy tarpaulin ! Rude, impertinent fellow!"

Whether you will or no. This use of no, though common in old writers, is condemned by modern grammarians. See F. 523, note x.

A thousand thousand. That is, farewells.

Who are surpris'd with all. On who (=for they), see Gr. 263. With all, the reading of the folio, was changed by Theo. to withal, and D. follows him. W. and H. read with all.

I'll to my book. For the ellipsis, see Gr. 405.

SCENE II.-There's but five. See on There is no more such shapes, i. 2. Standard. Standard-bearer, or ensign. The quibbles on this word, and on lie, just below, are obvious enough.

Debosh'd. This is the old spelling of debauched, and is found in the folio in the four instances in which S. uses the word (A. W. ii. 3 and v. 3, Lear, i. 4, and here).

That a monster should be such a natural! A quibble on natural as opposed to monstrous and as=fool.

But this thing dare not. That is, would not dare. Gr. 361.

Pied ninny. Alluding to the motley dress of the professional jester, or fool, as the name patch (see Mer. p. 142) perhaps does.

Quick freshes. Springs of fresh water. Quick (=living) is applied to water flowing from a spring, as "living" is in the Bible and elsewhere. S. does not elsewhere use fresh as a noun, but it is found in other old writers.

Wezand. Throat, windpipe. The word is omitted by Mrs. Clarke in her Concordance.

A sot. A fool (the French sot). This is its only meaning in S. Cf. C. of E. ii. 2: "Thou snail, thou slug, thou sot!" Lear, iv. 2: "he called me sot, And told me I had turn'd the wrong side out," etc.

And that most deeply to consider. For the omission of the relative, see Gr. 244.

Troll the catch. Sing the tune. A catch is a round, in which the parts are taken up (or caught up) in succession. Troll, as a noun, means the same as catch (see Wb.); and to troll was to sing as in a troll, or catch. While-ere. A while ago. See Gr. 137.

The picture of Nobody. Probably an allusion to a ludicrous figure (head, arms, and legs, without a trunk, or body) printed on the old popular ballad of The Well-spoken Nobody. (Halliwell.)

Take't as thou list. "Take what shape pleases thee."

Will hum, etc.

See on I'd divide, i. 2. The Phila. ed. says that this use of will to "express a custom" is not mentioned by grammarians and lexicographers. It had been mentioned by F. (§ 522, 21) at least ten years before the criticism was made, and this very passage from the Temp. is quoted as an illustration of the idiom.

In dreaming. For other examples of inwhile, or during, see Gr. 161. That when I waked. So that. See Gr. 283.

SCENE III.-By 'r Lakin. By our Ladykin, or the Virgin Mary. The diminutive, as often, expresses endearment our dear Lady.

My old bones aches.

The folio has akes. See on Aches, i. 2; and for the form of the verb, on What cares these roarers, i. I.

Forth-rights and meanders. Straight paths and winding ones. Cf. T. and C. iii. 3: "Or hedge aside from the direct forth-right." There is

an allusion to the artificial "mazes" of the olden time.

Attach'd with weariness. Seized with weariness. Attach is etymologically the same as attack, and is often found in that sense. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 8, 33:

"Like as a fearefull partridge, that is fledd

From the sharpe hauke which her attached neare." Will we take throughly. See Mer. p. 144 (note on Throughfares) and p. 158. A living drollery. A drollery was a puppet-show. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. ii. 1 : "a pretty slight drollery."

One tree the phanix' throne, etc. In Holland's translation of Pliny's Nat. Hist. (xiii. 4) we read: "I myself verily have heard straunge things of this kind of tree; and namely in regard of the bird Phenix, which is supposed to have taken that name of this date-tree [called in Greek poivič]; for it was assured unto me that the said bird died with that tree, and revived of itselfe as the tree sprung again." Lyly, in his Thoughts, says: As there is but one phoenix in the world, so is there but one tree in Arabia wherein she buildeth." Florio, in his Ital. Dict., defines "Rasin" as "a tree in Arabia, whereof there is but one found, and upon it the phoenix sits." See also the opening lines of the poem of The Phonix and the Turtle, in the Passionate Pilgrim.

Certes. Certainly. The word was nearly obsolete in S.'s day. He ases it only five times. It is a favorite archaism with Spenser.

I cannot too much muse. That is, wonder at it. Cf. Macb. iii. 4: "Do not muse at me ;" 2 Hen. VI. iii. 1: "I muse my lord of Gloster is not come," etc. We find the word also as a noun- wonderment; as in Spenser, F. Q. i. 12, 29: ." he sate long time astonished, As in great muse.'

Praise in departing. A proverbial expression. Praise given too soon may have to be retracted.

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Dew-lapp'd like bulls. Doubtless a reference to the victims of goître, so common in mountainous districts, especially in some parts of Switzerland. Whose heads stood in their breasts. Cf. Oth. i. 3: men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders." Pliny (Nat. Hist. v. 8) tells of men that have no heads, but mouths and eyes in their breasts; and Hakluyt, in his Voyages (1598), describes "a nation of people whose heads appear not above their shoulders." Bucknill (Medical Knowledge of Shakespeare) suggests that the poet "may only refer to the effect produced by forward curvature of the spine, in which the head appears to be set below the shoulders."

Each putter-out of five for one. Thus in the folio. Theo. suggested "on five for one," which W. adopts. Malone (followed by D.) reads "of one for five." Collier, K., the Camb. editors, and H. retain the reading of the folio, which may be explained as "at the rate of five for one." The allusion is to "a kind of inverted life insurance" which was in vogue in S.'s day. A traveller before leaving home put out a sum of money, on condition of receiving two, three, or five times the amount upon his return. If he did not return, of course the deposit was forfeited. Cf. Ben Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour, ii. 3: "I am determined to put forth some five thousand pounds, to be paid me, five for one, upon the return of myself, my wife, and my dog, from the Turk's court in Constantinople. If all or either of us miscarry in the journey, 'tis gone: if we be successful, why, there will be twenty-five thousand pounds to entertain time withal." Whom Destiny. . . hath caused to belch up you. On the supplementary pronoun, see Gr. 249. Up you may be an accidental transposition, as W. regards it; but see Gr. 240.

Hath to instrument. Hath for or as instrument. their queen, ii. I.

Such like. See Gr. 278.

See on A paragon to

Their proper selves. Their own selves. Cf. Cymb. iv. 2: proper hand," etc.

"With my

The elements Of whom. Cf. above (ii. 1), “your eye Who hath cause;" and see Gr. 264.

Bemock'd-at. Cf. “hoped-for” (3 Hen. VI. v. 4), “sued-for” (Cor. ii. 3), "unthought-on" (W. T. iv. 4), “unthought-of" (1 Hen. IV. iii. 2), etc. See Gr. 431.

Still-closing. Cf. above (i. 2), “still-vexed Bermoothes," and see Mer.

p. 128.

Dowle. A fibre of down. The word is probably (see Wb.) a corruption of down. In 2 Hen. IV. iv. 4, the folio has "There lyes a dowlney feather," and in the next line "that light and weightlesse dowlne."

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