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A paragon to their queen. For their queen. Cf. 7. C. iii. 1: "I know that we shall have him well to friend;" Rich. II. iv. I: "I have a king here to my flatterer;" also Matt. iii. 9; Luke, iii. 8, etc. Below (iii. 2) we

find "that hath to instrument this lower world."

Widow Dido. This was the title of a popular song of that day. See Percy's Reliques, or Prof. Child's English and Scottish Ballads, vii. p. 207. Study of that. Study about that; wonder what you mean by it. See

Gr. 174.

The miraculous harp. An allusion to the myth of Amphion, who raised the walls of Thebes by the power of his music.

In my rate. In my estimation, or reckoning. Cf. above (i. 2)," all pop

ular rate."

Whose enmity he flung aside, etc. Cf. J. C. i. 2:

"The torrent roared; and we did buffet it
With lusty sinews; throwing it aside,
And stemming it with hearts of controversy."
See Gr. 228.

His wave-worn basis. His for its.

I not doubt. This omission of the auxiliary do in negative sentences is quite common. See below (v. 1), "whereof the ewe not bites," "I not know," and "I not doubt;" and 2 Hen. IV. iv. 1 : "It not belongs to you." See also Gr. 305.

Who hath cause to wet the grief on't. Which hath cause to weep. The antecedent of who is eye. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. iv. 3: "The heart Who great and puff'd up." See Gr. 264.

Which end o' th' beam she'd bow. The folio has "should bow," which is probably a misprint for "sh'ould bow."

The dear'st o' th' loss. "Throughout S., and all the poets of his and a much later day, we find this epithet (dearest) applied to that person or thing which, for or against us, excites the liveliest interest.

It may be said to be equivalent generally to very, and to import the excess, the utmost, the superlative of that to which it is applied." (Caldecott.) Cf. "dearest enemy" (1 Hen. IV. iii. 2), “dearest foe" (Ham. i. 2), “dearest need" (Rich. III. v. 2), "dearest groans" (A. W. iv. 5), etc. See also C. p. 292, and D. (Glossary). Cf. below (v. 1), "dear loss."

Had I plantation. There is a play on the word plantation. Gonzalo uses it in the sense of colony (cf. Bacon, Ess. xxxiii., Of Plantations), but Antonio takes it in the sense of planting.

I' th' commonwealth, etc. This passage is evidently copied from Florio's translation of Montaigne's Essays, published in 1603, and therefore aids (see Introduction, page 8) in fixing the date of the play. W. gives the quotation from Florio, as follows: "It is a nation, would I answere Plato, that hath no kinde of traffike, no knowledge of Letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politike superioritie; no use of service, of riches, or of povertie; no contracts, no successions, no dividences, no occupation, but idle; no respect of kinred, but common; no apparell, but naturall; no manuring of lands; no use of wine, corn, or mettle. The very words that import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulation, covetousness, envie, detraction, and pardon were never heard amongst them."*

*The original runs thus: "C'est une nation, diroy ie a Platon, en laquelle il n'y a

Of it own kind. See above (i. 2) on With it's sweet air.

Foison. Plenty. The word is French (fuison in Old French), the Latin fusio, from fundere.

T'excel th' golden age. As to excel. Cf. M. of V. iii. 3: "So fond to come abroad;" and see Gr. 281.

Sensible and nimble. Sensitive and excitable. See Mer. p. 145. Cf. Ham. ii. 2: "the clown shall make those laugh whose lungs are tickled o' th' sere" (that is, tickled with a dry cough).

An it had not fallen flat-long. On an, see Mer. p. 131, and Gr. 101. Flat-long, that is, as if struck with the side of the sword instead of its edge. Flatling is used in the same sense; as in Spenser, F. Q. v. 5, 18: "Tho with her sword on him she flatling strooke."

A bat-fowling. On a, see Gr. 140. Bat-fowling was a method of fowling by night, in which the birds were started from their nests and stupefied by a sudden blaze of light. Markham, in his Hunger's Preuention, or the Whole Arte of Fowling, says, "I thinke meete to proceed to Battefowling, which is likewise a nighty taking of all sorts of great and small Birdes which rest not on the earth, but on Shrubbes, tal Bushes, Hathorne trees, and other trees, and may fitly and most conueniently be used in all woody, rough, and bushy countries, but not in the champaine." He goes on to describe the process. D. (Glossary) quotes the passage in full.

Adventure my discretion. That is, venture or risk my [character for] discretion. Cf. T. G. of V. iii. 1 : "So bold Leander would adventure it ;" Cymb. i. 7: that I have adventur'd to try," etc.

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Omit the heavy offer of it. Neglect the offer of its heaviness. Omit often means to pass over, lay aside, or neglect; as above (i. 2): "Whose influence, if I court not, but omit ;" Oth. ii. I: "do omit their mortal natures;" M. for M. iv. 3: "What if we do omit This reprobate till he were well inclin'd?" etc.

What thou shouldst be.
The occasion speaks thee.

what you are intended for;

=

On should ought, see Gr. 323.

"The opportunity which now occurs shows that is, to be a king" (Jephson).

If heed me. That is, if you intend to heed me. Such ellipses in conditional sentences are common in S. See Gr. 383-393. Cf. above (i. 2), "O, if a virgin," etc.

Trebles thee o'er.

That is, over again. See Gr. 58 a, and cf. M. of V. iii. 2: "I would be trebled twenty times myself."

I am standing water. Jephson interprets this, "I am stagnant, slow of understanding and action." It seems to me rather to mean, I am passive, ready to listen to you and to be influenced by you. He already guesses what Antonio means, and cherishes the purpose while he mocks it. Steevens quotes the following from a critic in the Edinburgh Magazine for Nov. 1786: "Sebastian introduces the simile of water. It is taken up by Antonio, who says he will teach his stagnant water to flow. "It has aulcune espece de trafique, nulle cognoissance de lettres, nulle science de nombres, nul nom de magistrat ni de superiorité politique, nul usage de service, de richesse ou de pauvreté, nuls contracts, nulles successions, nuls partages, nulles occupations qu'oysifves, nul respect de parenté que commun, nuls vestements, nulle agriculture, nul metal, nul usage de vin ou de bled; les paroles mesmes qui signifient le mensonge, la trahison, la dissimulation, l'avarice, l'envie, la detraction, le pardon, inouyes."

already learned to ebb,' says Sebastian. To which Antonio replies, 'O, if you but knew how much even that metaphor, which you use in jest, encourages to the design which I hint at; how, in stripping the words of their common meaning, and using them figuratively, you adapt them to your own situation !'"

This lord of weak remembrance. "This lord who, being now in his dotage, has outlived his faculty of remembering; and who, once laid in the ground, shall be as little remembered himself as he can now remember other things" (Johnson).

He's a spirit of persuasion. Monk Mason thought that "he's" is for "he has," not "he is," and quotes 1 Hen. IV. i. 2: "Well, mayst thou have the spirit of persuasion," etc. Steevens regarded the words "professes to persuade" as a marginal gloss or paraphrase, which by some mistake became incorporated with the text, and D. appears to favor this view. Johnson could "draw no sense" from "this entangled sentence," but there seems to be no special difficulty in it. The parenthesis is clearly marked in the folio, thus:

"(For hee's a Spirit of perswasion, onely

Professes to perswade) the King his sonne's aliue," etc.

But doubts discovery there. But doubts whether there is any thing to be discovered there. The folio has" doubt," which the Philadelphia editors think "may be retained ;" "but doubt" being considered equal to "without doubting," or the "can not" being mentally carried on: "[can_not] but doubt discovery there."

Beyond man's life. An obvious and intentional hyperbole. Hunter (New Illustrations, i. p. 166) thinks that Man's Life is probably the translation of the name of some African city, and finds an ancient city, named Zoa, not far from Tunis.

The man i th' moon. This is one of the oldest of popular superstitions. According to one version, the man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath (Numb. xv. 32 foll.) was imprisoned in the moon; but another tradition made this lunar personage to be Cain. In the Testament of Cresseid (written by Henryson, but sometimes ascribed to Chaucer) we find the following in a description of the moon:

"Hir gyse was gray, and full of spottis blak,
And on hir breist ane churle paintit ful evin,
Beirand ane bunche of thornis on his bak,
Quhilk for his thift micht clim na nar the hevin."
[Laing's ed., 1865.]

It will be recollected that the man in the moon is one of the characters in the clowns' play in M. N. D. See iii. 1, and v. 1.

Can take no note. Can receive no information. Cf. Bacon, Ess. xlix. : "that if Intelligence of the Matter could not otherwise have beene had but by him, Advantage bee not taken of the Note, but the Partie left to his other Meanes."

She from whom. That is, in coming from whom. The folio has "She that from whom." The emendation was made by Rowe, and is adopted

by D., H., W., and others.

In yours and my discharge. Is in yours, etc.; that is, "depends on what you and I are to perform" (Steevens). "Act and prologue being

technical terms of the stage, discharge also is so to be understood, as in M. N.D. i. 2: 'I will discharge it in either your straw-coloured beard,' etc." (Phila. ed.)

Measure us back. Us refers to that which is supposed to "cry out," or 66 every cubit."

There be that can rule Naples. See Mer. p. 134 (note on There be landrats), and Gr. 300.

Could make a chough of as deep chat. Could train a chough to talk as wisely. Cf. A. W. iv. 1:"chough's language, gabble enough, and good enough." Yarrel (History of British Birds) observes that in the description of Dover Cliff ("The crows and choughs that wing the midway air," Lear, iv. 6), "possibly S. meant jackdaws, for in the M. N. D. he speaks of 'russet-pated' (gray-headed) choughs, which term is applicable to the jackdaw, but not to the real chough."

How does your content tender, etc. How does your favorable judgment regard. For tender=regard, value, cf. Hen. V. ii. 2: "But we our kingdom's safety must so tender;" A. Y. L. v. 2: “ By my life, I do; which I tender dearly," etc.

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Much feater. More neatly or trimly. See on Foot it featly, i. 2, and Gr. I.

If it were a kibe, etc. If it were a sore heel, it would make me exchange my boot for a slipper. Cf. Ham. v. I: "the toe of the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier, he galls his kibe."

That's dead. Farmer suggested that these words are a gloss, or marginal note, that has somehow found its way into the text. This ancient morsel. That is, Gonzalo.

Should not upbraid. On should, see Gr. 322.

Suggestion. Temptation, “hint of villainy" (Johnson). Cf. below (iv. 1), "the strong'st suggestion Our worser Genius can." The verb is likewise used in the sense of tempt, incite, seduce; as in A. W. iv. 5: "I give thee not this to suggest thee from thy master;" T. G. of V. iii. 1 : Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested," etc.

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I'll come by Naples. Cf. M. of V. i. 1: "But how I caught it, found it, or came by it," and see Gr. 145.

When I rear my hand. Cf. J. C. iii. 1: "Casca, you are the first that rears your hand."

To fall it. See Mer. p. 135, and Gr. 291. Cf. below (v 1), "fall fellowly drops."

To keep thee living. The folio has "keepe them liuing."

Why are you drawn? Why are your swords drawn? See Gr. 374. Cf. R. and J. i. 1: “What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds?" and, again, "What, drawn, and talk of peace!" See also M. N. D. iii. 2, and Hen. V. ii. 1.

I shak'd you. S. generally uses shook, both as past tense and participle, but he has shak'd in five instances, in three of which it is the participle. In I Hen. IV. iii. 1, we find shak'd once and shook three times in a single scene. See Mer. p. 141 (note on Not undertook).

That's verily. The reading of the folio, changed by most of the editors to "That's verity." See Gr. 78.

SCENE II.-By inch-meal. Inch by inch. We still have piece-meat (not used by S.), but inch-meal, limb-meal (Cymb. ii. 4: "tear her limbmeal"), drop-meal, and other compounds of the kind are obsolete. Meal in these words is the A. S. mal (time, portion), not melu, melo (meal, flour). Urchin-shows. Elfin apparitions. See above (i. 2) on Urchins.

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Mow. Make faces. Cf. below (iv. 1), "with mop and mow ;" and the stage direction in iii. 3," with mocks and mows.' Not from mouth, as some have made it, but (see Diez, Scheler, and Wb.) from the French moue (pouting, wry face). And after bite me. Cf. J. C. i. 2: "And after scandal them." Mount their pricks. fire that mounts the eyes.'

And to torment me.

Raise their prickles. Cf. Henry VIII. i. 1: "The liquor till't run o'er ;" and Id. i. 2: “mounting his

For the and, see Gr. 95 and 96.

Yond. See on What thou seest yond, i. 2.

Bombard. Also spelled bumbard; a large flagon, or "black-jack," made of leather. Cf. 1 Hen. IV. ii. 4: "that huge bombard of sack." Foul (which Upton wished to change to full) probably means black with age and decayed-ready to fall to pieces.

Poor-john. A cant name for salted hake, a coarse and cheap kind of fish. Cf. R. and J. i. 1: ""Tis well thou art not fish; if thou hadst, thou hadst been poor John." So in Massinger's Renegado, i. I :

"To feed upon poor-john, when I see pheasants

And partridges on the table."

In B. and F.'s Scornful Lady (ii. 3), "pitch and poor-john" are mentioned as the foul odors of Thames Street, London.

A doit. See Mer. p. 136.

A dead Indian. Cf. just below, "savages and men of Ind." There may be an allusion to the Indians brought home by Sir Martin Frobisher in 1576.

Gaberdine. See Mer. p. 135.

I will here shroud. Take shelter. Both noun and verb were thus used. Cf. A. and C. iii. 13: “Put yourself under his shroud" (his protection). See also Milton, Comus, 147: "Run to your shrouds ;" and 316: “Or shroud within these limits;" Spenser, F. Q. i. 1, 8: "therein shrouded from the tempest dread," etc.

As proper a man. See Mer. p. 132 (note on A proper man's picture). At nostrils. In the folio this is printed "at' nostrils," and may be a misprint for "at's nostrils." We find, however, "at mouth" (J. C. i. 2), "at heart" (A. Y. L. i. 2), " on knees" (T. and C. v. 3.), " on nose" and " side" (A. Y. L. ii. 7), and the like. See Gr. 90.

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on

Afore. This form was common in old English, and so was to-fore, which we find in T. A. iii. 2: "O, would thou wert as thou to-fore hast been!" I will not take too much for him. That is, I will take all I can get. Will give language to you, cat. Alluding to the proverb, "Good liquor will make a cat speak." A few lines below, there is an allusion to the proverb, "He hath need of a long spoon, that eats with the devil.”

Siege. Stool, excrement. It is used in the same sense by Ben Jonson and Sir Thomas Browne. Besides its ordinary meaning, it has also in S.

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