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SCENE I. In the first folio, the play is divided into acts and scenes. At the end, printed side by side with the Epilogue, a list of dramatis persona is given, under the heading "Names of the Actors," and above this is "The Scene, an vn-inhabited Island."

What cheer? On cheer, see Mer. p. 152.

Good, speak to th' mariners. That is, good boatswain or fellow, as D., W., and others explain it. The folio has "Good: Speake to th' Mariners:" and H. and others retain that pointing, making good good cheer. But the cheer was not good, as they were running aground. Cf. also just below, "Nay, good, be patient," and Ham. i. I: "Good now, sit down."

Yarely. Readily, nimbly; from yare, quick, active. Cf. T. N. iii. 4: "be yare in thy preparation;" M. for M. iv. 2: "you shall find me yare A. and C. v. 2: "Yare, yare, good Iras, quick," etc. So in Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, 2268: "This Tereus let make hys shippes yare ;" that is, had his ships made ready.

Cheerly. An example of "-ly found with a noun, and yet not appearing to convey an adjectival meaning." Gr. 447. Cf." angerly," Macb. iii. 5; "hungerly," Oth. iii. 4, etc. S. uses cheerly often, but cheerily not once. Rich. gives an example of the latter from B. and F. Milton has cheerly in L'Allegro-the only instance in which he uses either.

Tend. Attend, as often. Cf. Rich. III. iv. I: "Good angels tend thee!" Lear, ii. I: "knights that tend upon my father," etc.

If room enough. If there be sea-room enough. Cf. Per. iii. I : "But sea-room, and (an) the brine and cloudy billows kiss the moon, I care

not.

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Play the men. Play the part of men; behave like men. Cf. 2 Sam. x.
See also Chapman's Iliad, bk. v. :—

"Which doing, thou shalt know what souldiers play the men,
And what the cowards."

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And Marlowe's Tamburlaine, i. 1 : 'Viceroys and peers of Turkey, play the men."

Where is the master, boatswain? The folio has "Boson," which W. retains; but his reasons for it are hardly satisfactory. You do assist the storm. Cf. Per. iii. I: sist the storm.

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Patience, good sir; do not as

What cares these roarers, etc. H. and others change cares to care, but cares is probably an example of the old plural in -s. See Mer. p. 136 (note on Dealings teaches them suspect) and Gr. 333. Of course no typographical error is possible in cases where the rhyme requires the form in

-s; as

"There lies

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Two kinsmen digg'd their graves with weeping eyes.
Rich. II. iii. 3.

"She lifts the coffer-lids that close his eyes,
Where lo! two lamps burnt out in darkness lies."

"Those petty wrongs that liberty commits
Thy beauty and thy years full well befits."

V. and A. 1128.

Sonnet 41.

"And to their audit comes Their distract parcels in combined sums."

L. C. 230.

To cabin. Abbott (Gr. 90) gives many similar examples of the omission of the; as "At door" (W. T. iv. 4, and T. of S. iv. 1), "At end" (Cor. iv. 7), "To west" (Sonn. 33), etc.

Of the present. Cf. 7. C. i. 2: "For this present," and 1 Cor. xv. 6.
Methinks. See Mer. p. 135, note on Methought.
He hath no drowning mark upon him, etc.

proverb is obvious. Cf. T. G. of V. i. 1 :

:

The allusion to the familiar

"Go, go, begone to save your ship from wrack,
Which cannot perish having thee aboard,

Being destin'd to a drier death on shore."

Down with the topmast, etc. Striking the topmast was a new invention in S.'s time, which he here very properly introduces. Lord Mulgrave, who shows that this whole scene is "a very striking instance of the great accuracy of S.'s knowledge in a professional science, the most difficult to attain without the help of experience," explains this manœuvre as follows: "The gale encreasing, the topmast is struck to take the weight from aloft, make the ship drive less to leeward, and bear the mainsail under which the ship is laid to." Lower is in the imperative mood.

Bring her to try wi' th' main course. Malone quotes Hakluyt's Voyages (1598): "And when the barke had way, we cut the hauser, and so gate the sea to our friend, and tried out all that day with our maine course.

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The phrase is also found in Smith's Sea-Grammar, 1627. The folio reads, "bring her to Try with Maine - course;" and W. thinks it should be pointed thus: "Bring her to try wi' th' main course."

I'll warrant him for drowning. For here may be either "as regards" or "against." Examples of the latter meaning are:

"Somme shal sowe the sakke, quod Piers, for shedyng of the whete."
Piers the Plowman's Vision, vi. 9.

"And next his schert an aketoun,

And over that an haberjoun,
For persying of his hert."
Chaucer, Sir Thopas.

"We'll have a bib for spoiling of thy doublet."

B. and F., Captain, iii. 5.

"If he were too long for the bed, they cut off his legs, for catching cold."

Lyly, Euphues. Lay her a-hold, a-hold. To lay a ship a-hold is to bring her to lie as near to the wind as she can, in order to keep clear of the land, and get her out to sea. [Steevens.]

Set her two courses. That is, the mainsail ("the main course," above) and foresail. The folio reads: "Lay her a hold, a hold, set her two courses off to Sea againe, lay her off," and some modern editors put no point after " courses.'

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Must our mouths be cold? Must we die? It has been suggested (Phila. ed.) that it may mean, Must we resort to cowardly prayers? and the following from B. and F. (Sea Voyage, i. I, an imitation of The Tempest) is cited in support of the explanation

"Thou rascal, thou fearful rogue, thou hast been praying:
-is this a time

To discourage our friends with your cold orisons?”

We are merely cheated, etc. Absolutely cheated. Cf. "mere enemy,” M. of V. iii. 2; "the mere perdition (that is, the entire destruction) of the Turkish fleet," Oth. ii. 2; "the mere undoing (the complete ruin) of all the kingdom," Hen. VIII. iii. 2; etc. So in Bacon's 58th Essay: "As for conflagrations and great droughts, they do not merely (that is, entirely) dispeople and destroy;" where most of the modern editors (Montague and Whately included), mistaking the meaning, have changed "and destroy" to "but destroy."

To glut him. To swallow him. Cf. Milton, P. L. x. 633: "sucked and glutted offal."

Long heath, brown furze. Hanmer suggested "ling, heath, broom, furze," which D. adopts; but there seems no good reason for altering the text of the folio.

SCENE II.-Mounting to the welkin's cheek. Cf. Rich. II. iii. 3 :—

"Their thundering shock At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven." Who had no doubt some noble creature in her. p. 144 (note on Of gold, who) and Gr. 264. change creature to creatures.

On who which, see Mer. D., St., and some others

Or ere.

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The or is undoubtedly the A. S. ær (our ere) which appears in early English in the forms er, air, ar, ear, or, eror. We find or before in Chaucer, as in the Knightes Tale, 1685: Cleer was the day, as I have told or this ;" and later, as in Latimer and Ascham. Ere seems to have been added to or for emphasis when the meaning of the latter was dying out. In early English we find such combinations as erst er, bifore er, before or (Mätzner, iii. 451).

Some explain or ere, which they write or e'er, as a contraction of or ever =before ever. Or ever is, indeed, not unfrequently found (in the Bible, for instance, in Eccles. xii. 6; Prov. viii. 23; Dan. vi. 24, etc.); but, as Abbott remarks (Gr. 131), it is much more likely that ever should be substituted for ere than ere for ever.

Fraughting. Making up her fraught, or freight. S. does not use freight, either as a verb or a noun. See note on fraught, in Mer. p. 145.

More better. For other examples of double comparatives and superlatives in S., see Mer. p. 159 (note on more elder), and Gr. 11.

etc.

Full poor cell. Full-to the full, very. Cf. "full sorry," A. and C. i. I,

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Meddle with my thoughts. That is, mingle with them. Cf. Wiclif, Matt. xxvii. 24: 66 wyn medlid with gall;" John, xix. 39: a medling of myrre and aloes ;" Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, 874:

"How medeleth she his blood with hir compleynte?"

Spenser, Shep. Cal. Apr. 68:

"The redde rose medled with the white yfere;"

Hooker, Eccl. Pol. iv. 8: "A meddled estate of the orders of the Gospel and the ceremonies of poperie;" etc.

Lie there my art. Fuller (Holy State, iv. 6) says that Lord Burleigh, when he put off his gown at night, used to say, "Lie there, Lord Treasurer.". The direful spectacle of the wrack. The word is invariably wrack in S. In Lucrece we have it rhyming with back.

The very virtue of compassion. The very essence or soul of it.

I have with such provision. Hunter suggested prevision, which D. adopts; but, as Mrs. Kemble remarks (Atlantic Monthly, vol. viii. p. 290), “It is very true that prevision means the foresight that his art gave him, but provision implies the exercise of that foresight or prevision; it is therefore better, because more comprehensive."

So safely ordered that there is no soul- This is quite obviously an instance of anacoluthon, but Theo. proposed no foil, and Pope followed him. Capell read no loss; Rowe and Warburton, no soul lost. Johnson suggested no soil.

Betid. The -ed of the participle is often omitted after d and t. Gr. 342. Thus we have acquit (Rich. III. v. 5), bloat (Ham. iii. 4), enshield (M. for M. ii. 4), etc. A few lines below we have "The very rats instinctively have quit it."

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Out three years old. Out=past, more than. Nares explains it as completely." Cf." Be a boy right out," iv. I. See Gr. 183. Twelve year since, etc. The folio reads,

"Twelue yere since (Miranda),

twelue yere since." Pope needlessly changed year to years, and some recent editors have followed him.

And his only heir, etc. The reading of the folio is,

"Was Duke of Millaine, and his onely heire,

And Princesse; no worse Issued."

With a slight change in the pointing this is clear enough, but Hanmer made it read

"Was Duke of Milan; thou his only heir

And princess, no worse issued."

Pope then changed " And princess" to "A princess." D. adopts both emendations.

Holp. For holpen, the old participle of help. For the full form see Ps. lxxxiii. 8; Dan. xi. 34, etc. The contracted form is common in early writers; as in Piers the Plowman's Vision, iv. 169: "For ofte haue I, quod he, holpe you atte barre." Holp is properly the past tense of help, and S. uses it as such in Cor. v. 3: "I holp to frame thee;" Lear, iii. 7: “he holp the heavens to rain ;" etc. He uses holp (and holp'st) nineteen times, and helped (as past tense and participle) only six times.

Teen. Grief, trouble. Cf. R. and F. i. 3: “to my teen be it spoken ;" L. L. L. iv. 3: "of groans, of sorrow, and of teen;" etc. Also, Spenser, F. Q. i. 9, 34: "for dread and dolefull teen ;" Shep. Cal. Nov. 41: "my woful teen ;" etc.

Which is from my remembrance. That is, away from. Often so used; as 7. C. i. 3: "clean from the purpose;" T. N. i. 5: "This is from my commission;" etc. See Gr. 158.

My brother and thy uncle, etc. This, with the following speech of Prospero, has well been called "a network of anacolutha." "The subject, My brother, is dropped, and taken up again as he whom, and finally in false uncle, before its verb (but only after another interruption) is reached in new created. A parenthesis begins with as at that time; but it ceases to be treated as a parenthesis, and eddies into the main current of expression at These being all my study" (Phila. ed.).

Manage. See Mer. p. 153.

As at that time. The as is probably redundant here, as it often is in statements of time. In early English as is often prefixed to dates: "as this year of grace," etc. Chaucer has as now, as here, etc.=now, here, etc. Prof. G. Allen (Phila. ed.), who was the first to call attention to this use of as in S., quotes the Collect for Christmas in the Prayer-Book: “Almighty God, who hast given us thy only-begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born," etc. See also Gr. 114. Cf. M. for M. v. I: "One Lucio as then the messenger."

Through all the signiories it was the first. Botero (Relations of the World, 1630) says, " Milan claims to be the first duchy in Europe."

Who t' advance, and who, etc. On who whom, see Mer. pp. 131, 143, and Gr. 274.

To trash for overtopping. A metaphor taken from hunting. To trash a hound was to check or hamper him, so that he would not overtop or outrun the pack. Cf. Oth. ii. 1:

H

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