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(Scirpus monander, Rottbo) which has a Holcus fragrans of Ms."and Pursh, three sided chaff and a long triphyllous (Dimesia fragrans,) constitutes involucrum. Raf.

genus, totally different from Holcus, and 2. Bigelowia montana. Raf. Stem an- belonging to the natural family TRIMEIA gular; leaves oblong, acute enerved; in the natural order ACHIROPIA of the peduncles solitary elongated. A.

graftes. Its character will be, exterior Arenaria seu Stellaria (anonmyo) Bige- glume bivalve triflore, interior glume low, Caulo anguloso, foliis oblongis acutis bivalve, two lateral male flowers with $ eneroibus, pedunculis solitaris elongatis, stamens, the middle one hermaphoidite floribus apetalis.

and with 2 stamens. Raf. Obs. Dr. Bigelow is doubtful of the 4. Melica triflora. Bigelow. Hairy, genus of this plant, and has not even panicle compact exterior glumes triflore, named it. It cannot be an Arenaria, interior glumes awned, A Villosa paniwhose character is to have entire petals, cula coarctata, glumes trifloris, corpusnor a Stellaria, which must have bifid culo accessorio, fosiculis aristatis. petals ; it must therefore constitute a pe- Obs. This species must form with the culiar genus in the natural family Alsinia, Melica aspera, of Desfontaines, a subintermediate between the genera Phar- genus distinguished by its triflore glumes, naceum, Ballarion and Arenaria, whose and which I shall name Trianthusa. Raf. characters will be: Cal. 5 phyllous, no 5. Scirpus obtusus. Bigelow. Chaff. petals, 10 stamens, 3 styles, capsule uni- cylindrical and spiked, naked ; spike lanlocular, and which dedicated to Dr. ceolate, scales thick and obtuse at the Bigelow, author of the Florula Bostonien- top, J. Culmo tereti, mido, monossis, &c. Raf.

tachyo, spica lanceolata, squamis apice 3. Dimesia monticola. Raf. Exterior carnosis obtusis. Big. valve of the interior glume awned on the 6. Vaccinium gualtheroides. Bigelow. back in the lateral male flowers. J. Procumbent, leaves obovate entire, flow

Holcus monticola. Bigelow. Glumisers nearly solitary, berries oblong, style trifloris, hemaphrodito intermedio dian- persistent. J- Prostratum, foliis obodro, maculis lateralibus triandris, valvu- vatis integris, floribus subsolitaris, baceis la exteriore dorso aristato.

oblongis stylo coronatis. Big. Obs. This plant, together with the

C. S. R.




OBSERVATIONS ON THE USE OF GYPSUM changed and becomes glauber salt or sul

phate of soda, by assuming the sulphuric THE general introduction of gypsum acid of the gypsum. Such have been the cultivated districts of the U. States, bas for them. heen of the utmost importance to the The following method of applying typAgriculture of the country. Its use, how- sum on the sea coast, makes up for the ever, has been limited to the interior, or unsuccessful experiments heretofore perat least now within 40 or 50 miles from formed with it as a manure; and if future the sea board. Its failure to produce fer- practice should corroborate the present tility, within a saline atmosphere, has been statement, it would leave a doubt of the accounted for upon the principles of che- correctness of the theory which accounts mical affinity: (Trans. Agricultural Socie- for the preceding results in failing to proty, N. Y. Vol. I.) Plaister of paris, called duce fertilizing effects. As the air, rain, also gypsum, is sulphuric acid in combi- and dew have the same saline impregnanation with lime, forming the chemical tion within a sea atmosphere, the same union, making sulphate of lime. The sea chemical changes should take place in salt contained in the atmosphere is muri- whatever way the plaister is applied to atic acid in union with soda, forming mu- produce fertility. The following notice riate of soda. When these two ingredi- was taken from a New-York daily paper ents come together in solution, the sul- of August, 1812. (The Public Advertiser.) phate of lime or gypsum is converted in- “A gentleman of respectability and into muriate of lime by the muriatic acid of telligence, of Long-Island, lately.commuthe sea salt. As the action which takes nicated that the following process is rapidplace in this case must be that of a double ly prevailing in his neighbourhood, and in elective attraction, the sea-salt is also many parts of New Jersey. When the

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Indian corn (maize) has fairly silked, and several days in and about Cape Ann barthe farina on the blossom is matured, dust bour, has brought to my recollection one a small portion of ground plaister on the of this species. tufts of silk. There ought to be no wind, “ On a passage I made from Quebec, and perhaps the advantage would be in 1787, in a schooner of about eighty greater if applied while the dew was on tons burden, while standing in for the in the morning. The gentleman stated Gut of Canso, the island of Cape Breton that whenever this had been practised the being about four leagues distant, one of cobs were crowded with grains to the the crew cried out, A shoal a-head! very extremity: He likewise observed The helm was instantly put down to tack that advantage had also been obtained by ship, when to our great astonishment, this dusting the blossoms of potatoes. Per- shoal, as we thought it to be, moved off, haps the same process would be advanta- and as it passed athwart the bow of our geous on the blows of melons, cucumbers, vessel, we discovered it to be an enorsquashes, pumpions, and even peas and mous Sea-serpent, four times as long as beans."

the schooner. Its back was of a dark I am apprehensive of some mistake in green colour, forming above the water a this matter, as nothing has come to my number of little hillocks, resembling a knowledge on the subject since cutting chain of hogsheads. I was then but a out the above paragraph from the news- lad, and being much terrified, ran below paper, in 1812 ; but if the fact should be until the monster was at some distance so, it is of some moment to agriculture from us. I did not see his head distinctand the sciences to diffuse the informa- ly; but those who did, after I had hid tion; and it is with a view of soliciting a myself in the cabin, said it was as large knowledge of what has been done by as the small boat of the schooner. I rethose who have made experiments, that collect the tremendous ripple and noise I have offered these observations on the he made in the water, as he went off from subject. If gypsum fails of fertilizing the us, which I compared at the time to that earth on the sea coast, from chemical occasioned by the launching of a ship. changes with sea salt, the same effect “My venerable friend, Mr. of must take place when it is sprinkled on your city, was a passenger with me at the the blossom or mingled with the dew; time. He will corroborate this statement, for it is well known that dew contains and probably furnish you with a better much earthy and saline particles in solu- description of this monster; for I well tion, and is generally more impure than recollect his taking his stand at the bow rain ; and from experiments which I have of the vessel, with great courage, to exmade on rain-water, it appears impregna- amine it, while the other passengers were ted with salt, and other impurities, at all intent only on their own safety. seasons of the year, in and about New- “At Halifax, and on my return to BosYork. Hence, if gypsum will fertilize, as ton, when frequently describing this monabove applied in a sea atmosphere, che- ster, I was laughed at so immoderately mists should know it—and this informa- that I found it necessary to remain silent tion is to be derived from practical far- on the subject, to escape the imputation SAMUEL AKERLY. of using a traveller's privilege of dealing

in the marvellous." Further evidence to prove the existence of On the evening of September 9, capt.

the Kraken, in the ocean, and tending to James Riley was at my house, and said show that this huge creature is a species that he knew capt. Folger, of Nantucket, of Sepia or Squid. Being three several who was occupied on a whaling voyage communications of facts, made to Dr. in the southern Atlantic Ocean, about 20 Mitchill, by William Lee, Esq. Capt. years ago. On the cruise, he saw an aniRiley, and Capt. Neville, in September, mal of uncommon size, floating on the 1817, communicated by Dr. Mitchill. sea, off the coast of Brazil. Capt. F. then (See our Magazine for JUNE, p. 124, commanded a very large French built for Capt. Fanning's Narrative.) ship, and the floating carcass was four or Copy of a letter addressed to Dr. Mitch- five times as long as his vessel. It attract

ill, by our late Consul at Bordeaux, now ed the spermaceti whales, who came to in the treasury department, Wm. Lee, feed upon it, and had eaten away great Esq.

portions of the flesh. He visited the huge Washington, Sept. 2, 1817. body of the creature, and satisfied him“My dear sir,

‘self that it was an enormous craken. He The description given in our news. hauled all his boats upon it, and his men "papers of a Sea-serpent, lately seen for ascended it and lived upon it as if it had


been a rock or island. They remained the whole voyage. She was accordingly on it and near it for the purpose of killing kept to windward for the purpose of the whales that came to devour it. In this, avoiding it; but the smell was, notwiththey were so successful, that by continu- standing, extremely nauseous and dising there they took whales enough to load gusting. their vessel and complete her cargo. The On conversing with mariners in the back of the kraken was high and dry White Sea, such occurrences were spoken enough for them to inhabit temporarily, of by them, as too common to excite and to look out for their game. And when much attention or any doubt. from this point of observation they dis- Afterwards, while at Drontheim in covered a whale coming to make a meal, Norway, capt. N. discoursed with practithey launched their boats from the top of cal men concerning things of this kind. the dead kraken, and made an easy prey The prevailing idea was, that such driftof him. The substance of the monster's ing lumps were by no means uncommon; body was skinny, membranous and gela- that they were bodies or fragments of tinous, and destitute of the fat and blub- huge squids; that these were sometimes ber for which the whale is remarkable.

borne away by the Maelstrom current, Captain Neville, being on a voyage and ingulphed and dashed to pieces by from London to Archangel, in the year its whirlpools ; and thus these broken 1803, saw floating on the ocean in about trunks and limbs sometimes cast on shore the latitude of 68, a mass of solid matter and sometimes tossed about on the sea. of a dirty whitish colour, which when he It is supposed that squids and whales descried it, and for some time after, was inhabit the same tracts of ocean; because believed to be an island of ice. On ap- the former furnishes food for the latter, proaching it, however, he ascertained it to at least for the cachalats, orco, and other be an animal substance of an irregular toothed and voracious species. figure, as if lacerated, decayed, and eaten away. The remnant of the carcass was never

INPORTANT SURGICAL INTELLIGENCE. theless full as large as the brig in which Extract of a letter from James Kent Platt, he sailed; whose capacity was one hun- M. D. a young physician, from Newdred and eighty-nine tons, and length York, who is now in attendance at the seventy feet.

London Hospitals, to Dr. David HoThis enormous body was the food of sack. animals both of the air and of the water.

London, June 17, 1817. For, as he sailed within a few rods of it, MY DEAR SIR, he saw great numbers of gulls and other We have lately had two or three şea-fowls, sitting on it and flying over it; new and important operations. About a those which were full, retiring, and the week since, Mr. Cooper tied the aorta hungry winging their way to it for a re- just above its bifurcation, in a man who past. He also beheld several cetaceous was labouring under an immense aneuriscreatures swimming round it; some of mal tumour of the left external iliac artethem were whales of a prodigious magni. ry. The meurism was too high and tude, exceeding the vessel in length. large to admit either of the external or Others were smaller and seemed to be- common iliac being secured, and as the long to the grampus and porpoise tribe. sac had sloughed and hæmorrhage had He considered them all as regaling them- begun, it was thought justifiable to pass selves with its flesh.

a ligature around the aorta itself. It was Near one extremity of this carcass, he a dangerous, but it was a dernier resort. distinguished an appendage or arm hang- An incision was made three or four inches ing down into the water, which from his long, through the parietes of the abdoacquaintance with the sepia, he concluded men, on the left side of the umbilicus; to be that of a squid; being probably the the intestines were pushed aside, and the only one left after the rest had putrified vessel detached from the surrounding or been devoured.

parts and membranes by the fore finger Such was likewise the opinion of å na- of the right hand, which was kept under vigator of much experience and long ob- the artery till the common aneurismal servation in the scenery of the north At- needle was

introduced, when one ligature lantic then on board ; who remarked that was applied. The ends of the ligature the corrupting lump was intolerably fetid were brought out at the external wound, and offensive to man; and would, if the the integuments were placed in contact, brig was suffered to run against it, impreg- and then secured by a quill suture. nate her with foulness and stench for Previously to the operation an attempt.


was made to suppress the hæmorrhage opportunity of removing the secreted by pressing on the abdomen, but this matter, faster than it could be deposited failed. The operation did not produce by the arteries. He had been induced any extraordinary pain. The man lived to believe, from observing the languor of two days after it-on dissection it appear- the circulation in the leg, after the opeed that no part of the intestines, and no ration for poplitial aneurism, that in the veins had been included in the ligature. present instance, it would be so long beThe aorta had been rendered completely fore the circulation would be completely impervious by it—there was no evidence restored by anastomosis, that the absorof peritoneal inflammation, and nothing, bents, having the balance of action in besides the aneurismal tumour, appear- their favour, would not only maintain it, ed unnatural within the cavity of the so as to remove the present enlargement, abdomen. It may be proposed as but also, to prevent any future accumuquestion, what was the immediate cause lation. When the operation was perof the man's death? Mr. Cooper sug- formed the right leg was ten inches larger gested no explanation. The patient seem- in circumference than the left. In about ed in tolerable good health previous to a fortnight afterwards, it had become the operation. I do not know how we diminished to nearly the same size with shall account for his sinking so suddenly, the healthy limb. This was very gratiunless we call in the aid of the old doc- fying to Mr. Cooper; the absorbents had trine of sympathy. According to that, performed the labour he had projected the general system received so violent a for them—they had removed the orishock from the operation, that it was un- ginal deposition; it remained now to be able to rally its vital forces; it made an proved, that they could prevent any attempt at resistance, but finding itself future enlargement. The boy was disunequal to the task, it sunk under the charged from the hospital, and in about a effort.

month he returned with his leg as large as By the same reasoning we explain why it had been before. This sequel had been there were no appearances of peritoneal anticipated by some, but the prospect of inflammation; the constitution was so pa- introducing a useful improvement seemed ralized, that it could not react, it could to Mr. Cooper sufficiently encouraging to not exert sufficient power to institute an make the attempt. I admire his

enterinflammatory process.

prise ; it bears him along to the noblest Though this experiment has failed, yet achievements; he is not retarded by the as a fact, it is very interesting in a surgi- obstacles which dishearten and disarm cal and physiological point of view. It common men: Even in his failures I see shows that the vessel can be tied in the a grandeur of design, which marks the living body—and what is curious, that greatness of his character ; they seem to little alteration was made in the pulse at arise out of circumstances which no huthe wrist, by thus cutting off the circula- man power can either prevent or contion from the inferior half of the system. trol. I shall leave London with regret It might have been conjectured, that that I lose forever afterwards the instrucsymptoms of congestion in the head and tion of so great a man. breast would have arisen, but none such With sentiments of respect and esteem, occurred. The most prominent change

I remain truly yours, produced was a pain in the abdomen,

JAMES KENT PLATT. which the patient compared to a sensation of burning lead being in his belly. LAW INTELLIGENCE. The artery was tied in the evening at 10,

New-York Mayor's Court. and this pain had chiefly subsided the

JOHN P. CLEMENTS vs. ISAAC next morning. But I will not be longer tedious in the detail of the case ; you


will probably soon see the particulars pub- Price, for the Defendant. lished in a more interesting form.

WILKINS, for the Plaintiff. I cannot forbear mentioning to you an- This was a special action on the case other surgical operation, which, though against Grimshaw, tried at the Septemold in its form, is new in its application. ber term of this court, before his Honour Mr. C— tied the femoral artery in the the Recorder, for falsely and deceitfully usual place, in a boy affected with the dis- recommending one Abel Wooster to the ease commonly called the Barbadoes leg. plaintiff as a man of property; whereby His object here was to lessen, suddenly, the plaintiff was induced to give credit to the quantity of arterial circulation in the Wooster, and afterwards lost his debt. limb, and thus to give the absorbents an The facts as they appeared on the trial VOL. I. NO. VI.

3 L

were as follows. The palsy had incapa. Wooster, and thereby made himself liacitated the plaintiff for the grocery busi- ble for the amount, and therefore the suit ness, in which he was engaged, and his ought to have been brought against him wife had by her industrious management as endorser oi the same. of it, acquired four hundred and seventy Price contended that the objection was dollars. The defendant, who was well not placed upon the ground on which the acquainted with the plaintiff

, and inform- plaintiff was entitled to recover. Deceit ed hat his wife had that amount of and damage were the foundation of this money in her possession, advised her not action, and if the plaintiff had sustained to part with it until he should point out a a loss by this false representation of the person to whom it might be safely intrust- defendant, it was immaterial by whom ed, and at the same time cautioned her the note was endorsed. Inquiries as to never to deposite money in any of the the credit of third persons were frequentbanks, as there was not one of them good ly made with confidence in the veracity, for any thing. On the 23d of February, rather than the pecuniary circumstances 1816, the defendant came with Wooster of the informant; and if a man not worth to the wise of the plaintiff, and advised a cent should be inquired of as to the inher to loan Wooster that amount. Woos- solvency of his neighbour, his worthless ter was at this time an utter stranger to liability for the amount, could never exthe plaintiff and his family. The defend- cuse a misrepresentation made with the ant received the money, and Wooster intent and effect of prejudicing another. gave his note with Grimshaw's endorse- The Court charged the jury, that if ment at 60 days. It appeared that the they were of opinion that the defendant defendant and Wooster were confedera- knowing Wooster to be insolvent, repreted for this kind of deception, and had sented him to be a man of good credit, successfully practised it on several occa- and the plaintiff advanced and lost his sions—that Wooster, though at that time money by means of such representation, possessed of a considerable stock of there could be no doubt of the plaintiff's crockery, was in bad credit, and that be- right to recover. In a community like fore he failed in July following, had con- ours, it was all important to restrain and fessed a judgment in favour of the de- punish all fraudulent designs on the fair fendant for eight thousand dollars, under dealer. From all the evidence, he had no which the defendant sold and appropria- doubt that Grimshaw knew the circumted to his use all the property at that time stances of Wooster to be desperate—that in the possession of Wooster.

he misrepresented them to the plaintiffWilkins objected among other things and that Wooster thus obtained the mothat all evidence of fraudulent represen- ney in question. tation was met and rebutted by the fact, The Jury immediately gave a verdict that the defendant endorsed the note of for the plaintiff for $522 26.


Biographical Memoir of the late Solomon Schaeffer, Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran

Church in Hagerstown, Stale of Maryland.

, eminently blessed to the congrega- and a persuasion that he was in the path tions under his care, and obviously con- of duty; and was thereby at no loss for tributed to the increase of the spiritual a reply. family of Christ. Great numbers were He urged in substance: “ that the Gosannually added to the church, and confes- pel was calculated to benefit mankind at sedly not without advancement in the large ; that the word of God was not heavenly life. By these means the con- . to be bound to any tongue or people. gregations were in an increasing and Jesus Christ commissioned his disciples flourishing state. Notwithstanding this to preach the Gospel to every kindred, well known and acknowledged truth, and nation. Do we not, said he, celebrate some of the clerical brethren, as well as in our Church the great miracle on the others, still upbraided him for preaching day of Pentecost, when the Lord poured in the English language. But he was sup- out his Spirit upon the Apostles, and gave

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