« AnteriorContinuar »
2. Sp. Platurüs suurenli Raf. Tail Water Snakes, with a compressed or de- obtuse. pressed tail, and a scaly body. (No fins IV. Genus. HYDROPHis Latr. Daud. and no gills.)
(Hydrus Schneider.) Body cylindrical, I. Genus. ENHYDRIS Latreille, &c. with equal scales in parallel rows, mouth (Hydrus Schneider. Coluber Pallas Dau- with fangs, tail compressed, scales as on din.) Body with transverse scaly plates the body. underneath, mouth with sharp teeth but 1. Sp. Hydrophis chittul Latr. Chittul no fangs, tail compressed, with two rows Hydrophis." White, with many zones of of scaly plates underneath, and often'one a light blue, tạil obtuse, 306 scales in each or two nails at the end.
row of the body, 48 in the caudal rows, 1. Sp. Enhydris caspia Latr. Caspian Found in India by Russel, length 3 feet, Enhydris. Back cinereous olivaceous, very poisonous as well as the following; with 4 rows of round black spots, 180 ab- their bite kills in a few minutes. dominal plates, 70 pair of caudal plates. 2. Sp. Hydrophis cyanura Raf. (H. Found by Pallas in the Caspian Sea, the hoglin Latr.) Hoglin Hydrophis. Blue Wolga, &c. S feet long.
above, yellow underneath, so8 scales in 2. Sp. Enhydris piscator Latr. Fishing each row of the body; tail entirely blue, Enhydris. Yellowish brown, with many with 48 scales in each row, Also found small round black spots, in oblique rows in the East Indies by Russel, length two and black line, 152 abdominal plates, and feet and half. 24 pairs of caudal plates. Found by V. Genus. PELAMIS Daud. (Hydrophis Russel in the swamps of India, Sfeet long. Latr. Hydrus Schneider.) Differing from
3.Sp. Enhydris palustris Latr. Swamp Hydrophis, by having no fangs, and thereEnhydris. Yellow brown, with rhom- fore being harmless. boidal brown spots, edged with black, tail 1. Sp. Pelamis bicolor Daud. (Hydrowhitish underneath, 140 abdominal plates, phis platura Latr.) Bicolor Pelamis. 49 pairs of caudal plates. Found hy Black above, whiteunderneath, tail roundRussel in the swamps of India, 2 or 3 ed at the end. Found by Forster in the
Pacific Ocean. 4. Sp. Enhydris cerulea Latr. Blue 2. Sp. Pelamig schneideri Raf. (PelaEnhydris. Body blue, belly and tail yel- mis bicolor Var. Daud.) Schneiderian Pelow, with a blue line in the middle, 159 lamis. From the East Indies. abdominal plates, 52 pairs of caudal plates. 3. Sp. Pelamis fasciatus Daud. (HydroFound by Russel in the rivers of India, 2 phis lancicauda Latr.) Zoned Pelamis. feet long.
Sallow, with transverse brown zones, 200 5. Sp. Enhydris rhyncops Latr. Beak- scales in each row of the body; tail, laned Enhydris. Head partly black, with a ceolate acute, with 50 scales in each row. bill shaped snout, body dark gray, throat Described by Vosmaer and Russel, from and belly yellowish, 114 abdominal plates, the Indian Archipelago, &c. 59 pairs of caudal plates. Found in the 4. Sp. Pelamis marginatus Raf. (HyEast Indies by Russel, length four feet and drophis Shootur Latr.) Shootur Pelamis. half, perhaps a peculiar genus.
Blue, scales slightly edged with yellow, JÍ. Genus. Natrix Raf. (Enhydris many narrow transverse yellow stripes on Latr. Daud.) It differs from the fore- the back: very faint posteriorly, 382 scales going, by having a broad head, (per- in the rows of the body; tail lanceolate, haps with langs) a narrow neck, the ab- with 40 scales in each row. Found by domen carinated, &c.
Russel in the swamps of India, perhaps an 1. Sp. Natrix dorsalis Raf. (Enhydris Hydrophis. dorsalis Latr. Daud.) Dorsal Natrix. 5. Sp. Pelamis fuscatus Raf. Brown Dirty white, with a black sinuated dorsal Pelamis. Entirely of an olivaceous brown, stripe, 43 pairs of caudal plates. A very scales very small, tail obtuse. I have obsmall species, about 1 foot long.
served it in the Mediterranean, near the III. Genus. Platurus Latr. Daud. shores of Sicily, where it is called Serpe(Hydrus Schneider.) Differing from En- demari (Sea Snake,) along with many hydris, by having fangs, and the tail with real fishes: length 2 feet. two scales at the top.
VI. Genus. OPHINECTES Raf. Dif1. Sp. Platurus fasciatus. Latr. (Hy- fering from Pelamis by having a comdrus colubrinus Schn.) Zoned Plature. pressed body and a carinated or angular Cinereous above, with broad brown zones, abdomen.-İ arrangein this new gemus, all tail acute. Length 2 feet, from South the Sea Snakes, mentioned in Peron's America and the East Indies: many spe. Travels; they were all found on the westcfes are probably blended here.
ern and southern shores of Australią or
New-Holland ; such as may have fangs in imitation of the ancient Greek and Roought to belong to the genus Natrix, and man writers, given the name of Seathose with cylindrical bodies to the genus Snakes to the large eels or fishes they Pelamis.
happened to observe; this I apprehend 1. Sp. Ophinectes cinereus, Raf. Cine- is the case with Pontopidan in his Natural revus Ophinectes. Entirely gray or ash History of Norway, with Mongitore in colour.
* his remarkable objects of Sicily, with Le2. Sp. Ophinectes viridis
, Raf. Green guat in his travels to Rodriguez-Island, Ophinectes. Entirely green.
&c. Their observations, and the facts 3. Sp. Ophinectes luteus, Raf. Yellow they record, are notwithstanding equally 0. Entirely yellow.
valuable, since they relate to monstrous 4. Sp. Ophinectes cerulescens, Raf. unknown fishes, which seldom fall under Bluish 0. Entirely of a bluish colour. the observation of men. The individuals
5. Sp. Ophinectes versicolor, Raf. Ver- of huge species are not numerous in nasicolor 0. Varied with many transverse ture, either on land and in water, and it is sones, blue, white, red, green, and black. probable they often become extinct for Many species are probably meant here. want of food or reproduction.
6. Sp. Ophinectes maculatus, Raf. Spot- Among the four different animals which ted 0. Covered with many irregular large have lately been observed by Americans, spots.-Many species.
and named Sea-Serpents, only one (the 7. Sp. Ophinectes punctatus, Raf. Dot- Massachusetts Serpent) appears to be ted 0. Covered with numberless small such: another is evidently a fish, and two dots.-Many species.
are doubtful. I shall offer a few remarks 8. Sp. Ophinectes crythrocephalus, Raf. on each. Red-head 0. Head of a beaatiful red, 1. The Massachusetts Sea Serpertt. body
From the various and contradictory ac9. Sp. Ophinectus dorsalis, Raf. Backed counts given of this monster by witnesses, O. Dark green with large spots of yel- the following description may be collecttow and light green on the back.-Length ed—It is about 100 feet long, the body is 3 or 4 feet; near Dewitt's land.
round and nearly two feet in diameter, of 10. Sp. Ophinectes major, Raf. Large a dark brown, and covered with long Ophinectes. “Green spotted with red and scales in transverse rows; its head isscaly, brown.—Length from 8 to 10 feet; also brown mixed with white, of the size of a from the shores of Dewitt's land. horse's and nearly the shape of a dog's ;
This last species appears to be the the mouth is large, with teeth like a shark; largest real sea-snake, which has fallen its tail is compressed, obtuse, and shaped under the personal observation of natural- like an oar. This animal came in August ists as yet. But larger species still have last into the bay of Massachusetts, in purbeen noticed at different periods. If I had suit of shoals of fishes, herrings, squids, the time and opportunity of perusing all &c. on which it feeds. Its motions are the accounts of travellers and historians, very quick; it was seen by great many, I could probably bring many into notice; but all attempts to catch it have failed, but this tedious labour must be postponed, although $5000 has been offered for its and I must warn those that may be in- spoils. It is evidently a real Sea-Snake, clined to inquire into the subject, not to belonging probably to the genus Pelamis, be deceived by the imperfect and exagge- and I propose to call it Pelamis megophias, rated accounts of ancient or unknown which means great sea-snake Pelamis. It writers. Whenever they neither mention might however be a peculiar genus, which the scales nor tail of their Sea Serpents, the long equal scales seem to indicate, and or when they assert they had no scales, which a closer examination might have or had gills or fins, you must in all those decided : in that case the name of Megoinstances be certain that they are real phias monstruosus might have been apfishes rather than Serpents. There might propriated to it. however be found some Sea Snakes with- 2. Capt. Brown's Sea Serpent. This out scales, since there are such land snakes, fish was observed by capt. Brown in a and there are fishes with scales and yet voyage from America to St. Petersburg, without fins ; but there are no fishes with in July, 1816, near 60 N. latitude and 8 out gills, and no snakes or serpents with W. longitude, or north of Ireland. In gills! in that important character the clas- swimming, the head, neck, and fore part sical distinction consists.
of the body stood upright like a mast ; it Nearly all the writers which I can re- was surrounded by porpoises and fishes. member, have been unacquainted with It was smooth without scales, and had " Hat obvious distinction; and they have 8 gills under the neck, which decidedly evinces that it is not a Snake, but a new 2. It appears thatanother large species of genus of fish! belonging to the eighth or. Water-Snake is noticed by D. Felix Azader Tremapnea, 28th family Ophictip, and ra, in his travels in South America, (Paris, third sub-family Catremia, along with the 1809. 4 vol. 8vo.) under the name of genera Sphagebranchus and Synbranchus Curiyn, which may belong to the genus of Bloch, which differ by having only one · Pelamis, although this worthy traveller or two round gills under the neck. I has omitted to describe its tail and scales. shall call this new genus Octipos (mean- It may be called and characterized as foling 8 gills beneath), whose characters will lows: be--body round, without scales, (or Pelamis curis. (Curiyu. Azara trav. fins,) head depressed, mouth transverse, Vol. I. p. 226.) Spotted and variegated, large, 8 transverse gills under the neck.- of black and yellowish white. And its specific name and definition will It measures over 10 feet, and is ofthe size be Octipos bicolor. Dark brown above, of the leg; it lives in the lakes and rivers muddy white beneath, head obtuse.- of Paraguay, north of the 31st degree of Capt. B. adds, that the head was two feet latitude. It goes sometimes on land (and tong, the mouth 15 inches, and the eyes shrubs), but moves heavily thereon ; it over the jaws similar to the horse's_ihe has a dreadful aspect, but does not bite ; whole length might be 50 feet.
itlives on fishes, young otters, apereas and 3. The Scarlet Sea-Serpent. This was copibaras. observed in the Atlantic ocean by the cap- 3. The Water-Snake of Lake Erie has tain and crew of an American vessel, from been seen again, and described to be of a New-York, while reposing and coiled up, copper colour, with bright eyes, and sixty near the surface of the water, in the sum- feet long. It is added, that at a short dismer of 1816. It is very likely that it was tance balls had no effect on him ; but it is a fish, and perhaps might belong to the omitted to mention whether it was owing same genus with the foregoing; I shall to having hard scales, (in which case it refer it thereto, with doubt, and name it might be a real snake of the genus Enhy. Octipos ? Coccineus.--Entirely of a bright dris or Pelamis) or to the indexterity of crimson, head acute. Nothing further the marksman. descriptive was added in the Gazettes 4. Mr. W. Lee has brought to notice where the account was given, except that another Sea-Snake, seen by him many Its length was supposed to be about 40 years ago, near Cape Breton and Newfeet.
foundland, which was over 200 feet long, 4. Lake Erie Serpent. It appears that with the back of a dark green; it stood on our large lakes have huge serpents or fish- the water in flexuous hillocks, and went es, as well as the sea. On the 30 July, through it with impetuous noise. This 1817, one was seen in lake Erie, 3 miles appears to be the largest on record, and from land, by the crew of a schooner, might well be called Pelamis monstruosus; which was 35 or 40 feet long, and one foot but if there are other species of equal size, in diameter; its colour was a dark ma- it must be called then Pelamis chloronotis, hogany, nearly black. This account is or green-back Pelamis. very imperfect, and does not even notice 5. Dr. Samuel Mitchill has exhibited if it had scales; therefore, it must remain to the Lyceum of Natural History, at the doubtful whether it was a snake or a fish. sitting of the 15th September, the speciI am inclined to believe it was a fish, un- men of a species of Sea-Snake from his til otherwise convinced; it might be a gi- museum, sent him some years ago from gantic species of eel, or a species of the Guadaloupe, by Mr. Ricord de Mariana, above genus Octipos. Until seen again, which appears to be another new species, and better described, it may be recorded belonging to the genus Enhydris, to which under the name of Anguilla gigas, or gi- the name of Enhydris annularis may be gantic eel.
given: we shall add its definition and de
scription. 1. The Pelamis megophias,or Great Sea- Enhydris annularis. Ringed Enhydris Snake, appears to have left the shores of --whitish, ringed with black, rings broadMassachusetts, and to have baffled the at- er on the back, which is cinereous and ratempts to catch it, probably because those ther angular in the middle; tail broad, attempts were conducted with very little short,obtuse, with 70 pairs of scales underjudgment. But a smaller snake, or fish, neath, more than 200 pairs of abdominal 9 feet long, and a strange shark have been scales. taken, of which the papers give no de- This animal is about 18 inches long, coscription; let us hope that they will be vered with smooth and roundish scales described by the naturalists of Boston.- ahave, the head is depressød, obtuse, smalle
covered with similar scales, and nearly 5. Extracts from the Journal of Mr:: black, the lips are white; a white half ring Charles Le Raye, relating to some new sets on the nape of the neck, and extends Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region, on each side over the eyes; a black line with Notes by C.S. R. connects the eyes with the nostrils; an ob- A concise and interesting Topogralong white band lays below the head, lon- phical Description of the state of Ohio, gitudinally; the nostrils are round, the Indiana Territory and Louisiana, &c. mouth is small and with a few small teeth; was published at Boston in 1812, in a the body is cylindrical, but the back is small 12mo. volume, by an anonymous slightly carinated towards its centre, and writer, styling himself a late Officer of of an ash colour; the black rings are nar- the U.S. Army. To this work, an account row underneath. The tail is only two of the Indian tribes East and West of the inches long, very compressed ; the extre- Mississippi, is added; and likewise, the mity is broader, obtuse, tipped with white, Journal of Mr. Le Raye while a captive and has a slight lateral angle on each side, with the Sioux nation, on the waters of or a protuding longitudinal nerve; a simi- the Missouri. This Journal occupies lar appearance is perceptible on the upper from page 158 to 204, and is replete with and lower edges, which appear to be useful and valuable geographical inforthickened ; the whole tail is covered with mation and natural observations. large scales of a transverse and broad Mr. Charles Le Raye, who appears to shape.
have been a Canadian trader, and an inThis snake is found in the West Indies, telligent man, was going, in 1801, to trade in the sea, particularly on the shores of with the Osage nation, when, on the 238 the Island of Guadaloupe.
of October, he was made a prisoner and 6. A fabulous account of a great Water- plundered, by a party of Sioux or NadoSnake that, according to the Indian tradi- wessies, who were then at war with the tion, dwelt in ancient times in a lake near Osages. He remained their captive until Philadelphia,
may be seen in Dr. Barton's the 26th April, 1815, and during that peMedical and Physical Journal, Vol. 2, p. riod visited many nations on both sides 168. As other Indian traditions, relating of the Missouri, such as the Ricaras, to the mammoth, the megalonx, &c. it Mandans, Minetarrees, and the Crow, the may be partly founded on truth.
Flat-head and Snake Indians. He was 7. The great Sea-Snake has been seen allowed to accompany a hunting party of again towards the middle of September, Minetarrees (or Menitures or Gros-venin the bay of Massachusetts, and three tres) to the plain of the Yellow Stone yellow collars observed on its neck, which river, and the upper plains of the Mishas led some to believe it might be ano- souri, near the Rocky Mountains. Those ther individual and species; but this cir- excursions enabled him to observe macumstance might have been overlooked ny of the new and rare Quadrupeds of before: it is not stated whether it had those regions, and he appears to have streaks of a lighter hue on the body, as been the first observer, who has noticed the first was represented to have by some them with accuracy, and whose observawitnesses. It is therefore likely that the tions have been communicated to the two characters of “streaks of a lighter public : Since such observations of Caphue on the body, and three yellow collars tains Lewis and Clarke, as relate to those on the neck," may be added to its de parts, were only made between 1804 and scription. . The collars are described as 1806, and not published until 1814. about 2 inches broad and i foot apart. Those circumstances will render Mr.
8. Dr. Mitchill informs me that Gene- Le Raye's observations particularly inral Hawkins has written a Memoir on the teresting. It is from intelligent travelSea-Serpents of Massachusetts, which he lers that naturalists derive their most has sent, with a drawing to Sir Joseph correct and accurate materials: I conBanks ; it is a paper of some length, and sider those furnished by Mr. Le Raye as much interest, as it relates facts and all highly valuable, mostly new, and entitled the circumstances attending the appear to priority; wherefore they claim the ance and natural history of those huge attention of all those who shall feel any animals, taken upon the oaths of eye- share of interest in the study of the aniwitnesses. He attempts to prove, with mals of North America: and I have been much probability, that several individuals induced to collect them together and ilhave been seen, and two at least, if not lustrate them by appropriate notes or three species ; one with three collars, comments, hoping thereby to render another without any, and a smaller one, them of more easy access and utility.
1. Page 165.—" During our stay
Indians killed a deer, which is called the 4. Page 169.--" A species of the badtong tailed deer. It was longer than the ger, called prarow, inhabits these plains, red deer, of a darker colour, and with a (those of the Sioux river.) Its head much white belly. Its horns are short, small, resembles the dog; legs short and very and somewhat flat; its tail nearly eigh- thick in proportion to its body, armed teen inches long. They are said to be with long, sharp claws, well adapted to plenty in those plains. The plains of digging. The size of the body somethe Kanzas river.
what exceeds the ground bog; hair of a Note. This concise description is suffi- dark brown colour, and tail
visibly reciently accurate to enable us to ascertain sembling that of a ground hog. It burthat it belongs to a new species of deer, rows and hedges in the ground.” anknown east of the Mississippi, to which Note. By this notice, the animal I shall give the name of Corvus macro- might be a marmot or Arctomys instead vrus, which means long tailed deer; it of a badger, but as it is called such by may be characterized as follows-horns Le Raye, I will consider it as a new spesomewhat depressed, shorter than the cies of badger, which may be named and head, body brownish above, white be- characterized as follows-Melesium pralow, tail elongated.
tense (meadow badger,) entirely of a 2. Page 168.-“An animal is found in dark brown, tail bushy, long claws. these plains (on the Sioux river, north of 5. Page 187.-"Here, (on the Yellow the Missouri) called the Prairie chien, or Stone river) we killed several Rocky meadow dog. It is smaller than the Mountain sheep. The male, or moungray fox, and formed much like the dog. tain ram, is considerably larger than the Its ears are pointed and stand erect, and female, and has much longer horns. The the whole head very much resembles the horns of the male which we killed, meadog. Its tail is long, slim, and of a dun sured three feet in length, and five inches colour. It digs holes and hurrows in a diameter, at his head. This animal is light loamy soil, and in the same holes taller than a deer, and has a larger body. a small speckled snake takes shelter, It is covered with soft hair of a dun cowhich the Indians call the dog's guard. lour, gradually becoming of a lighter coThe Indians have many superstitious lour towards the belly, which is entirely notions respecting these dogs. The Ay- white. Its horns are shaped, in many no-wars or Nez percés nation, have a tra- respects, like the horns of rams, or the dition that the human race sprang from common sheep, bending backwards, but this dog and the beaver. All other na- have many rough knots. Its tail resemtions hold them in great veneration.” bles that of the red deer. The legs and
Note. A very imperfect description of feet resemble the sheep, but the hoofs this new species of fox, which I shall somewhat longer. It is swift, and climbs name Canis chlorops, (green eyed fox, or
the clefts of rocks with so much agility meadow fox) as it is probably the same and ease, that no other animal can follow species better described in Lewis and it, and by this means it escapes the Clarke's travels, vol. i. p. 207. Its defi- wolves. Its flesh is esteemed equal to nition, drawn from both accounts, may that of the deer.” A figure of this anihe-tail elongated, strait and dun colour, mal is annexed. ears long and pointed, eyes green, fur Note. This species of sheep has been pale reddish brown.
well described by Geoffroy in the annals 3. Page 168.—“A kind of deer is fre- of the Museum of Paris, vol. 2, page 360, quently killed here, (on the Sioux river) and Desmarets has given to it the name called mule deer. It is smaller and of a of Ovis cervina in the new Dictionary of darker colour than the red deer, having Natural History, vol. 24, page 5, 1614. large branched horns. The ears are very Yet some American Naturalists persist in large, the tail about five inches long with the wrong belief that it is the same anishort dark hair, and at the end a tust mal'as the argali of Siberia, or Ovis amcomposed of long black hair.
It has been well distinguished by „Vote. This short account is however being denominated an animal with the characteristic; it belongs to my Cervus body of a deer, and the head of a ram. hemionus (mule deer) a new species, akin It is called big-horn by some other trato the Cerrus melanurus, or black tail vellers. deer. Its description will be-horns ve- 6. Page 139.-"We only hunted the Ty branched, longer than the head, ears buffalo, mountain sheep and Cabree. A longated, body of a reddish brown, tail party was sent to gain the summit of a
wn with a black tuft at the end. ridge, so as to pass over the pther side,