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13 JEHOASH.

11 AMAZIAH.
14

12
15

13 Ten thousand of the children of Seir slain
16

14 by Amaziah in the Valley of Salt; and
1 JEROBOAM II. Reigned 41 years.

15 ten thousand precipitated from the top of
2 Thespieus succeeds Aripbron in the govern.

16

a rock, and dashed to pieces. Amaziah,
3 ment of Athens.

17 proud of his victory over the Edomites,
4

18

provokes the Israelitish king to battle.
5

19 The following year Jehoash overcomes
6 The fall of the Assyrian empire by the 20 him, takes him prisoner, breaks down four
7 death of Sardanapalus is supposed to 21 bundred cubits of the wall of Jerusalem;
8 have taken place about this time. Ar. 22 and having spoiled the temple and the
9 baces founds the empire of the Medes | 23 king's house of a vast treasure, returns to
10 upon the ruins of the Assyrian empire. 24 Samaria.
11
12 Caranus founds the kingdom of Macedon, 26
13 and reigns 28 years. This kingdom con. 27
14 tinued till the battle of Pydna, a period 28
15
of 646 years.

29
16

1 UZZIAH. Reigned 52 years. He is victo-
17 Charilaus, the successor of Lycurgus, dying 2 rious over the Philistines, Arabians, and
18 after a reign of 64 years, Nicander suc 3 Mehanims. His standing army consists
19 ceeds him in the kingdom of Lacedæmon,

4 of 307,500 men. In this reign lived the
20 and reigns 39 years.

5

prophets Amos and Hosea.
21

6
22

7

8
24

9
25

10
26

11
27

12
28

13

(ernment of the Athenians.
29 Ardysus begins to reign over Lydia, and 14 Agamestor succeeds Tbespieus in the gov.
30
rules 36 years.

15 Amulius Sylvius and Numitor succeed Pro.
31

16

cas in the kingdom of Alba, the former
32

17 of whom reigned 44 years. Numitor
33

18 reigned alone 2 years, and was their last
34 Sosarmus is supposed to have succeeded 19 king. He died about 751 B. C.
35 Arbaces in the government of the Medes 20
36 about this time; but the chronology of 21
37 this event is very uncertain. He is suc-
38 ceeded 30 years after by Medidus.

23
39

21
40 The triremes first invented by the Corin. 25 Cænus, the second king of Macedon, begins
41 thians.

26

his reign.

27
After Jeroboam's death an interregnum of 28 Birth of Jotham, who was afterward king

11 years and a half is supposed to have 29 of Judab.
taken place: for Zachariah, the son of 30
Jeroboam, did not commence his reign 31
till the 3eth year of Azariah, or Uzziah, 32 The monarchical government abolished at
king of Judah. See 2 Kings xx. 8. The 33 Corinth, and the Prytanes elected. Two
fourth dynasty of Israelitish monarchs, 34 years afler, Eschylus succeets Agamestor
riz. that of Jehu, is terminated by the in the perpetual archonship of the Athe-
death of Zachariah, B. C. 773.

35 nians.
36

37 Thurimas succeeds to the throne of Mace
ZACHARIAH. Reigned 6 months.

38 don, and reigns 45 years.
1 SHALLUM. Reigned 1 month.

39
2 MENAHEM. Reigned 10 years. Here be. | 40
3 gins the sixth dynasty of Israelitish kings, 41 Theopompus succeeds Nicander in the king.
4 that of Shallum subsisting only a single 42

doin of Lacedæmon, and reigns ti years.
5 month.

43
6

45
8

46 Uzziah, attempting to burn incense upos
9

47 the altar of incense in the teinple, is smil.
10

48 ten with the leprosy.

49
1 PEKAHIAH. Reigned 2 years.

50 Alyattes succeeds to the Lydian throne.

51
1 PEKAH. Reigned 20 years. Here begins 52 Isaiah begins to prophesy.

the senenth Israelitish dynasty, that of 1 JOTHAM. Reigned 16 years. This king
Menahem having subsisted 12 years. 2 overcomes the Ammonites, whom he come

3 pels to pay tribute.
5

4
6

5 Alemæon, the last perpetnal archon, begins

his administration, and rules two years;
7 Rome built on the 20th of April of this 6 after whom decennial archons are ap
year according to Varro.

7 pointed, Charops being the first.
9

8
10 The rape of the Sabines.

9 Birth of Hezekiah, who succeeded his father

10 Ahaz in the kingdom of Judah.
12
13 PEKAH. Meles succeeds Alyatles in the 12 JOTHAM. Commencement of the era of
14 Lydian throne.

13 Nabonassar, king of Babylon.
15

14
16

15
17 The first Messenian war begins; and con. 16
18 tinues 19 years, to the taking of Ithoine. I AJAZ. Reigned 16 years. In the first year
19

2 of this reign Æsimedes succeeds Charops
20 Pekah slain in the 4th year of Ahaz by 3 in the decennial archonship of the Athe.

Hoshen, the son of Elah. An anarchy 4 nians. Clidicus succeeds Asimedes, and 10

is supposed to have suoceeded for some 5 years after, Hippomenes succeeds Clidicus.

2
3
4

8

Roinnlus.

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KINGDOM OF ISRAEL.

KINGDOM OF JUDAH.
With the contemporary events of Heathen With the contemporary events of Heathen
nations.

nations,

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9

23

war.

28
29
30
31
32
33
31
35
36
37

9

9

years, as Hoshea is said not to have

6 AHAZ.
commenced his reign before the 12th 7
year of Ahaz, 2 King xvii, 1. The be 8 Candaules succeeds Meles in the Lydian
ginning of Hoshea's reign is placed two throne ; who 17 years after is succeeded
years later, that his 9th year may syn 10 by Gyges.
chronize with Hezekiah's 6th.

11 Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony.
12

13
1 HOSHEA. Reigned 9 years. Here begins 14 Perdiccas succeeds to the throne of Mace.
2

the eighth and last dynasty of Israelitish 15 don, and reigns 51 years.
3 kings.

16
4

1 HEZEKIAH. Reigned 29 years.

2
6 Samaria besieged by Shalmanezer, king 3 Zeuxidamus succeeds Theopompus in the
7 of Assyria. End of the first Messenian 4 throne of Lacedæmon, and reigns 33
8

5

years.

6 In the sixth year of Hezekiab (which was
7 HEZEKIAH.

the ninth year of Hoshea, the son of
8 Elah,) Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, took Samaria, carried the Israelites into cap-

tivity, and so put an END TO THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL, 254 years after the
10 revolt of the ten tribes from Rehoboam.
11
12

(13 years.
13 About this time Cerdiccas succeeds Medidus in the government of the Medeg, and rules
14 Sennacherib, king of Assyria, comes up against Judah, and takes several of its fenced
15 cities; but is pacified by a tribute. Hezekiah falling sick, is miraculously restored to
16 health.
17 Sennacherib again invading Judea, the whole of the Assyrian army, consisting of 185,000
18 men, is destroyed in one night by an angel of the Lord. Birth of Manasseh, who
19 succeeded Hezekiah in the kingdom of Judah.
20
21
22
23

(thenjans.
24 Corcyra built by the Corinthians, four years after the building of Tarentum by the Par.
25 Leoeratos, the successor of Hippomenes, dying, Apsandrus succeeds him in the Athenian
26

government.
27 Deioces, governor of the Medes, assumes the title of king, and reigns 53 years. Ecba-

tana was built in this reign, according to Herodotus.
29 1 MANASSEH. Reigned 55 years. This is the longest reign in the Jewish annals.

Numa Pompilius.

2
3

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3207 737 X. 4

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32 19 735

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3 20
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4 21
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4 25
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3277) 727

2 27
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2 31
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3 32
323 721

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3284 720 XV. 1 34
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3296 708 XVIII. 1 46
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4 49
3300 704 XIX. 1 50
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51
3302) 702

3 52
3303) 701

4 53
3304 700 XX. 1

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3305 699

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3 56
3307 697

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330 696 XXI. 1 58
3303 695

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3 60
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4 61
3312 692 XXII. 1 62
3313 691

2 63
3314 690

3
3315 689

4 65
3316) 688 XXIII. 1 66
3317 687

2 67
3318) 686

3 68
3319 685

69
3320 684 XXIV. 1 70
3321 683
3322 682

3 72
3223 681

4 73
3324 680 XXV, I
3325 679

75
3326 678

3 76
3327 677

4 77
3328 676 XXVI. 1 78
3329675

79
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3 80
3331 673

4 81
3332 672 XXVII. 1 82
3333 671

83
3334 670

3 84
3335 669

4
3336 668 XXVIII.1

86
3337 667
3338 606

3
3339 665

4 89
3340 664 XXIX. 1 90
3341) 663

91
3342 662

3 92
3343 661

4 93
3344 660 XXX. 1 94
3345 659

2 95
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3 96
3347) 657

4 97
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3349/ 655

2 99
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3 100
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2 103
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3 104
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3357 647

2 107
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108
3359 645

109
33601 645XXXIV.1 110

Vol. I.-122

8

7 Eryxias, the last perpetual archon of the Athenians, begins his administration.
9 Anaxidamus succeeds his father Zeuxidamus in the throne of Lacedæmon, and reigned

39 years. He was of the race of the Proclidæ.

64

10
11

15

20

13
14 The second Messenian war begins; and continues 14 years, to the taking of Ira, after a

siege of 11 years.
16 The government of Athens intrusted to annual archons. Creon being the first.
17
18
19 Ardysus II. succeeds Gyges in the Lydian throne, and reigns 49 years.
21 Argæus, king of Macedon, begias his reign.
22 Manasseh, on account of his impiety, is carried into captivity by the Assyrians; but,
23 upon his repentance, God restores him to his liberty and kingdom.
24
25 End of the second Messenian war, which confirmed the Messenians under the power of
26 the Lacedæmonians. The Messenians attempted a third time to free themselves from
27 the power of Lacedæmon, B. C. 465; but it was not till 370 B. C. that the descendants

of the Messenians finally returned into the Peloponnesus, after a long banishment of
upwards of 300 years.

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29
30
31

33

32 Battle of the Horatii and Curiatii. Death of Metius Suffetius, the Alban dictator.
34 Alba destroyed, and the inhabitants carried to Rome. Birth of Amon, son of Manasseh,
35 king of Judah.

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38
39
40 Cypselus nzurps the government of Corinth, and keeps it for 30 years. The following
41 year Byzantium is said to have been built by a colony of Argives, or Athenians. Pa.

terculus says it was founded by the Milesians; Justin that it was founded by the
Lacedæmonians; and Ammianus that it was founded by the Athenians. Byzantium

is the same with what was afterward called Constantinople.
45
46
47 Birth of Pittacus, one of the seven wise men of Greece.
48 Archidamus succeeds to the throne of Lacedæmon, and reigns 46 years
49
50 Birth of Josiah, who was afterward king of Judah.
52 Phraortes succeeds Deioces in the kingdom of Media. This monarch is supposed to be

the same with the Arphaxad mentioned in Judith.

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KING DOM OF JUDAH.

Year of the world.
Year before Christ. 2017

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With the contemporary eveats of Heathen nations.

30
31
32

1 AMON. Reigned 2 years.
2
1 JOSIAH. Reigned 31 years. Birth of Thales happened about this time.
2 Pbilip succeeds Argeus in the throne of Macedon, and reigas 38 years.
4 The celebrated Solon was born at this time. He died B. C. 558, at the age of en

3

Ancus Martius.

13

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

8 Josiah (only 16 years of age) begins to manifest great zeal toward the pure worship
9 of Jehovah.
10
11 Sadyattes sticceeds Ardyssus II. in the Lydian throne.
12 Josiah commences a thorough reformation in the religion of Judea, which is completed

in his eighteenth year. Cyrene built by Baltus.
14
15
16

(reigns 40 years.
17 Cyaxares, or Cyaraxes, succeeds Phraortes in the kingdom of Media and Persia, and
18 Josiah repairs the temple, destroys the vessels of Baal and Asherah, puts down the

idolatrous priests, breaks down the houses of the sodomites, and the bigh places,
defiles Tophet, takes away the horses of the sun, destroys Jeroboam's allai, and

celebrates a great passover.
22
23 Alyattes II. of the family of the Mermnadæ, and father of the celebrated Cræsus,

succeeds to the Lydian throne, and reigns 57 years. This king drove the Cimme.
25 rians from Asia, and made war against the Medes. An eclipse of the sun terminated
26 a battle between him and Cyaxares. He died when engaged in a war against Hileias

19
20
21

XL.

24

3361 643 XXXIV. 2

11
3362 642

3 112
3363 641

4 113
3361 640

XXXV. 1 114
3365 639

2 115
33661 633

3 116
3367 637

117
3368 36 XXXVI. 1 118
3369 635

119
3370 634

3 120
3371 633

4 121
3372 632 XXXVIII 122
3373 031

2 123
3374 630

3

124
3375 629

125
3376 628 XXXVIII.1 126
3377627

127
3378 626

3

128
3379 625

129
3380 624 | XXXIX. 1 130
3381 623

131
3382 622

3 132
3383 621

133
3384 620

134
3385 619

135
3386 618

3 1.36
3387 617

4 137
3388 616 XLI. 1 138
33-9 615

2 139
3390 614

140
3391 613

141
3392) 612 XLII. 142
3393 611

143
3394 610

144
3395 609

145
3316 608 XLIII. 1 146
3397 607

147
3398606

148
3399 605

149
3400 604

XLIV. 1 150
3401 603

151
34102 602

152
3103 601

153
3401 600 XLV. 154
3405 599

155
3406 598

156
3407 597

157
34081 596 XLVI. 1 158
3-409 595

159
3410 594

160
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3412 592 XLVII. 1 162
3413 591

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3414 590

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3416 588 XLVII. 1 166

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30
31
1 JEHOAHAZ. Reigned 3 months.
2 JEHOIAKIM. Reigned 11 years.
3

(Babylon.
4 Jeremiah foretells the 70 years' captivity. Nebuchadnezzar begins his reign over
5 Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies.
6 Agasicles succeeds to the throne of Lacedæmon, and reigns 41 years,
7 The Phænicians sailed round Africa by order of Necho. The age of Arion, Pittacus,

Alcæus, &c.
9 Æropas succeeds to the throne of Macedon, and reigns 20 years.
11 Birth of Sappho, the celebrated poetess, happened about this time.
I JEHOIACHIN. Reigned 3 months and 10 days.
1 ZEDEKIAH. Reigned 11 years. He was the last Jewish king, and commenced his

reign in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar.
3 The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares, king of Media and Persia.
5
6 About this time Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.
8 The Pythian games first established at Delphi.
9 Jerusalem besieged by Nebuchadnezzar; and two years after. (viz. in the 19th year of
10 Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. lii. 12.) the city is taken, the temple burot, and be people
11 carried away into captivity. Thus ends THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH, after it had

stood from the death of Solomon 387 years, and from the captivity of the ten tribes
133 years. About this time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon,
the prophets Ezekiel and Daniel, Æsop, Stersichorus, &c. Nebuchadnezzar fired
after the destruction of the temple 24 years.

2

7

970

INTRODUCTION

TO THE

BOOK OF EZR A.

A

T the conclusion of 2 Kings, and also of the preceding book, 2 Chronicles, we have seen the state of misery and and their innumerable backslidings and rebellions. These at last issued in their captivity; the inhabitants of the former country being carried away by the Assyrians, and those of the latter by the Chaldeans. The former never recovered their ancient territories; and were so disposed of by their enemies, that they either became amalgamated with the heathen nations, so as to be utterly undistinguishable, or they were transported to some foreign and recluse place of settlement, that the place of their existence, though repeatedly guessed at, has, for more than two thousand years, deen totally unknown.

In mercy to the less polluted inhabitants of the kingdom of Judah, though delivered up into the hands of their enemies, God had promised, by his prophet, that at the expiration of seventy years they should be enlarged, and restored to their own country. This prediction was most literally fulfilled; and the books of Ezra, Esther, and Nehemiah, inform us how the divine goodness accomplished this most gracious design, and the movers and agents whom he employed on the occasion. The writer of the following book was undoubtedly the chief agent under God; and his history, as found in the most authentic writings of the Jews, is too nearly connected with this book, and too important in every point of view, to be passed by. No man has written on this subject with such perspicuity as Dein Prideaux; and from his invaluable work, The connected History of the Old and Nero Testaments, I shall freey borrow whatever may be best calculated to throw light upon the ensuing history,

“In the beginning of the year 458 before the Christian era, Ezra obtained of King Artaxerxes, and his seva counsellors, a very ample commission for his return to Jerusalem, with all his nation that were willing to accompany hin thither; giving him full authority there to restore and settle the state, and reform the church of the Jews, and to regulat and govern both according to their own laws. This extraordinary favour, not being likely to have been obtained bu. by some more than ordinary means, appears to have been granted by King Artaxerxes to the solicitations of Esther, who, though not at that time advanced to the dignity of his queen, was yet the best beloved of his concubines.

"Ezra was of the descendants of Seraiah, the high priest, who was slain by Nebuchadnezzar, when he burnt the temple and city of Jerusalem.

"As Ezra was a very holy, so also was he a very learned man, and especially skilled excellently in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; and, therefore, he is said to have been a very ready scribe in the law of God, for which he was so eminent, that Artaxerxes takes particular notice of it in his commission. He began his journey from Babylon, a the first day of the first month, called Nisan, which might fall about the middle of our March; and, having, halted & the river of Ahava till the rest of his company was come up to him, he there, in a solemn fast

, recommended himsel and all that were with him to the divine protection : and then, on the twelfth day, set forward for Jerusalem, they al. having spent four months in their journey from Babylon thither. On his arrival he delivered up to the temple the offerings which had been made to it by the king and his nobles, and the rest of the people of Israel that stayed behind; which amounted to a hundred talents of gold, with twenty basins of gold of the value of a thousand darics, and siz hundred and fifty talents of silver, with vessels of silver of the weight of a hundred talents more: and then, liaving communicated his commission to the king's lieutenants and governors throughout all Syria and Palestine, he betook himself to the executing of the contents of it, whereby he was fully empowered to settle both the church and the state of the Jews, according to the law of Moses; and to appoint magistrates and judges to punish all such as should be refractory; and that not only by imprisonment, and confiscation of goods, but also with banishment and death, according as their crimes should be found to deserve. And all this power Ezra was invested with, and continued faithfully to execute it for the space of thirteen years, till Nehemiah arrived with a new commission from the Persian court, for the same work. Ezra, having found in the second year of his government (Ezra ix. and x.) that many of the people hac taken strange wives, contrary to the law, and that several of the pricsts and Levites, as well as the chief men of Judah and Benjamin, had transgressed herein, after he had in fasting and prayer deprecated God's wrath for it, he caused proclamation to be made for all the people of Israel that had returned from the captivity to gather themselves together at Jerusalem, under the penalty of excommunication, and forfeiture of all their goods. And when they were met, he made them sensible of their sin; and engaged them in promise and covenant before God, to depart from it by putting away their strange wives, and all such as were born of them, that the seed of Israel might not be polluted with such an undue commixture; and thereon commissioners were appointed to inquire into this matter, and cause every man to do according to the law.

"And they sat down the first day of the tenth month to examine into this matter, and made an end by the first day of the first month; so that in three months' time, that is, in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months of the Jewish year, a thorough reformation was made of this transgression : which three months answer to January, February, and March, of our year.

"About this time, (Esther ii. 21.) Bigthan and Jeush, two eunuchs of the palace, entered into a conspiracy against the life of King Artaxerxes. Most likely they were of those who had attended Queen Vashti; and, being now out of their offices by the degrading of their mistress, and the advancing of another in her place, took such a disgust at this, as to resolve to revenge themselves on the king for it; of which Mordecai, having got the knowledge, made discovery to Queen Esther, and she in Mordecai's name to the king; whereon inquiry being made into the matter, and the whole treason laid open and discovered, the two traitors were both crucified for it, and the history of the whole matter was entered on the public registers and annals of the kingdom.

"Ezra continued in the government of Judea till the end of the year 446; and, by virtue of the commission he had from the king, and the powers granted him thereby, he reformed the whole state of the Jewish church, according to the law of Moses, in which he was excellently learned, and settled it upon that bottom upon which it afterward stood till the time of our Saviour. The two chief things which he had to do, were to restore the observance of the Jewish law according to the ancient approved usages which had been in practice before the captivity, under the directions of the prophets; and to collect together and set forth a correct edition of the Holy Scriptures; in the performance of both which the Jews inform us, he had the assistance of what they call the Great Synagogue, which they tell us was a convention, consisting of one hundred and twenty men; who lived all at the same time under the presidency of Ezra, and assisted him in both of these two works; and among these they name Daniel and his three friends, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego.

"But the whole conduct of the work, and the glory of accompliehing it, is, by the Jews, chiefly attributed to him, under whose presidency they tell us it was done; and, therefore, they look upon him as another Moses : for the law, they say, was given by Moses; but it was reviewed and restored by Ezra, after it had in a manner been extinguished and lost in the Babylonish captivity: And, therefore, they reckon him as the second founder of it: and it is a common opinion among them that he was Malachi the prophet; that he was called Ezra as his proper name, and Malarni, (which signifies an angel or messenger,) from his office, because he was sent as the angel and messenger of God to restore again the Jewish religion, and establish it in the same manner as it was before the captivity, on the foundation of the law and the prophets. And, indeed, by virtue of that ample commission which he had from King Artaxerxes, he had an opportunity of doing more herein ihan any other of his nation; and he executed all the powers thereof to the utmost he was able, for the resettling both of the ecclesiastical and political state of the Jews in the best posture they were then capable of: and from hence his name is in so high esteem and veneration among the Jews, that it is a common saying among their writers, "That if the law had not been given by Moses, Ezra was worthy by whom it should have been given.' As to the ancient and approved usages of the Jewish church, which had been in practice before the captivity, they had by Joshua and Zerubbabel, with the chief elders then contemporaries, and by others that after succeeded them, been gathering together from their first return to Jerusalem, as they could be recovered from the memories of the ancients of their nation, who had either seen them practised themselves before the captivity, or who had been informed concerning them by their parents or others, who had lived before them.

“ All these, and whatsoever else was pretended to be of the same nature, Ezra brought under a review; and, after due examination, allowed such of them as were to be allowed, and settled them by his approbation and authority : they gave birth to what the Jews now call their Oral Law: for they own a twofold law-the first, the Written Law, which is recorded in the Holy Scriptures; and the second, the Oral Law, which they have only by the tradition of their elders. And koth these, they say, were given them by Moses from mount Sinai, of which the foriner only was committed to writing, and the other delivered down to them from generation to generation by the tradition of the elders: and, therefore, holding them both to be of the same authority, as having both of them the same divine original, they think themselves to be bound as much by the latter as the former, or rather much more; for the Written Law is, they say, in many places, obscure, scanty, and defective, and could be no perfect rule to them without the Oral Law; which containing, according to them, a full, complete, and perfect interpretation, of all that is written in tbe other, supplies all the detects, and solves all the difficulties of it; and, therefore, they observe the Written Law no otherwise than according as it is explained and expounded by their Oral Law. And hence it is a common saying among them, "That the covenant was made with them not upon the Written Law, but upon the Oral Law;' and, therefore, they do, in a marner, lay aside the former, to make rooin for the latter, and resolve their whole RELIGION into their traditions, in the sene manner as the Romanists do theirs, having no farther regard to the Written Word of God than as it agrees with ther traditionary explications of it, but always preferring them thereto, though in many particulars they are quite cortradictory to it; which is a corruption that had grown to a great height among them, even in our Saviour's time; for he charges them with it, and tells them, That they make the word of God of none effect through their traditions, Merk vii. 13. But they have done it much more since, professing a greater regard to the latter than to the former: and hence it is said that we find it so often said in their writings, That the words of the scribes are lovely above the words of the law; that the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the scribes are all mighty: that the words of the elders are weightier than the words of the prophets; (where, by the words of the scribes, and the words of the elders, they mean their traditions, delivered to them by their scribes and elders.') And in ouier places, 'Chat the written text is only as water; but the Mishna and Talmud, in which are contained the traditions, are as vine and hippocras.' And again, "That the written Law is only as salt

, but the Mishna and Talmud as pepper and sveet spices.' And in many other sayings, very common among them, do they express the very high veneration which they bear toward the Oral or Traditionary Law, and the little regard which they have to the Written Word of God in comparison of it, making nothing of the latter but as expounded by the former; as if the Written Word were no more thin the dead letter, and the Traditionary Law alone the soul that gives it the whole life and essence.

"And this being what they hold of their traditions, which they call their Oral Law, the account which they give of it original is as follows: for they tell us that, 'At the same time when God gave unto Moses the law in mount Sinai, he gave unto him also the interpretation of it, commanding him to put the former in writing, but to deliver the odier aly by word of mouth, to be preserved in the memories of men, and to be transmitted down by them from generation o generation by tradition only; and from hence the former is called the Written, and the other, the Oral Law. And o this day all the determinations and dictates of the latter are termed, by the Jews, 'Constitutions of Moses from mount Sinai ;' because they do as firmly believe that he received them all from God in his forty days' converee with him in hat mount, as that he then received the Written Text itself. That on his return from this converse he brought both & these laws with him, and delivered them unto the people of Israel in this manner :--As soon as he was returned to his tent, he called Aaron thither unto him, and first delivered unto him the text, which was to be the Written Law, and after that, the interpretation of it, which was the Oral Law, in the same order as he received both from God in tle mount. Then Aaron arising, and seating himself at the right hand of Moses, Eleazar and Ithamar his sons wens next in; and, being taught both these laws at the feet of the prophet, in the same manner as Aaron had been, they also xose and seated themselves, the one on the left hand of Moses, the other on the right hand of Aaron; and then the serenly aders, who constituted the sanhedrim, or great senate of the nation, went in, and being taught by Moses boih these laws in the same manner, they also seated themselves in the tent; and then entered all such of the people as were desirous of Inowing the law of God, and were taught in the same manner. After this, Moses withdrawng, Aaron repeated the vhole of the law, as he heard it from him, and also withdrew; and then Eleazar and Ithamar repeated the same; and, in their withdrawing, the seventy elders made the same repetition to the people then present; so that each of tben, having heard both these laws repeated to them four times, they all had it thereby fixed in their memories : and that then they dispersed themselves among the whole congregation, and communicated to all the people of Israel what lied thus been delivered to them by the prophet of God. That they did put the text into writing, but ihe interpretation of it they delivered down only by word of mouth to the succeeding generations; that the written text contained the sis hundred and thir!een precepts, into which they divide the law and the unwritten interpretations, all the manners

, ways, and circumstances, that were to be observed in the keeping of them; that after this, toward the end of the forlista year from their coming up out of the land of Egypt, in the beginning of the eleventh month, (which fell about the beginning of our June,) Moses, calling all the people of Israel together, acquainted them of the approaching time of his death, and therefore ordered, that if any of them had forgot aught of what he had delivered to them, they should repair to him, and he would repeat to them what had slipped their memories, and farther explain to them every dirticulty and doubt which might arise in their minds concerning what he had taught them of the law of their God; and that bere og they applying to him, all the remaining time of his life, that is, from the said beginning of the eleventh month till the sixth day of the twelfth month, was employed in instructing them in the text which they call the Written Law, and in the interpretation of it, which they call the Oral Law; and that, on the said sixth day, having delivered unto them thirteen copies of the Written Law, all copied out with his own hand, from the beginning of Genesis to the end of Deuteronomy, one to each of the twelve tribes, to be kept by them throughout their generations, and the thirteenth to the Levites, to be laid up by them in the tabernacle before the Lord; and having, moreover, repeated the Oral Law to Joshua his successor, he went, on the serenth day, up into mount Nebo, and there died; that after his death Joshua delivered the same Oral Law to the elders, who after succeeded him, and they delivered it to the prophets, and the prophets transmitted it down to each other, till it came to Jeremiah, who delivered it to Baruch, and Baruch to Ezra, by whom it was delivered to the men of the Great Synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the Just; that by him it was delivered to Antigonus of Socho, and by him to Jose the son of Jochanan, and by him to Jose the son of Joeser, and by him to Nathan the Arbelite, and Joshua the son of Berachiah, and by him to Judah the son of Jabhai, and Simeon the son of Shatah, and by them to Shemaiah and Abitulion, and by them to Hillel, and by Hillel to Simeon his son, who is supposed to have been the same who took our Saviour into his arms when he was

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