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A hill that pertained to Phinehas, his son). This grant | integrity, in opposition to those abominable vices, by which was probably made to Phinehas as a token of the respect themselves, and the neighbouring nations, had been defiled. of the whole nation, for his zeal, courage, and usefulness: 1. The major part of men have one religion for youth, anfor the priests had properly no inheritance. At the end of other for old age; but he who serves God in integrity, this verse, the Septuagint add,

serves him with all his lieart, in every part of life. 2. Most “In that day, the children of Israel, taking up the ark men have a religion of times, places, and circumstances. of the covenant of God, carried it about with them, and This is a defective religion. Integrity takes in every time, Phinehas succeeded to the high priest's office, in the place every place, and every circumstance. God's law being of his father, until his death; and he was buried in Ga ever kept before the eyes, and his love in the heari, dictaibaath, which belonged to himself.

ing purity and perfection to every thought, word, and work. “Then the children of Israel went every man to his own 3. Many content themselves with abstaining from vice, and place, and to his own city.

think themselves sure of the kingdom of God, because they And the children of Israel worshipped Astarte and Ash- do not sin as others. But he who serves God in integrity, taroth, and the gods of the surrounding nations, and the not only abstains from the act, and the appearance of evil

, Lord delivered them into the hands of Eglon, king of but steadily performs every moral good. 4. Many think, Moab, and he tyrannized over them for eighteen years." if they practise some kind of virtues, to which they feel

The last six verses in this chapter were, doubtless, not less of a natural repugnance, that they bid fair for the king. written by Joshua; for no man can give an account of his dom; but this is opposite to uprightness. The religion of own death and burial; Eleazar, Phinehas, or Samuel, God equally forbids every species of vice, and recommends might have added them, to bring down the narration, so as every kind of virtue. to connect it with their own times; and thus preserve the "V. The peril of the engagement. This covenant had thread of the history unbroken. This is a common case; in it the nature of an oath ; for so much the phraise, before many men write histories of their own lives, which, in the the Lord, implies: therefore, those who entered into this last circumstances, are finished by others : and who has covenant, bound themselves by oath unto the Lord, lo ever thought of impeaching the authenticity of the preced-be steady and faithful in it. But it may be asked, 'as huing part, because the subsequent was the work of a differ man nature is very corrupt, and exceedingly fickle, is there ent hand? Hirtius' supplement has never invalidated the not the greatest danger of breaking such a covenant; and authenticity of the Commentaries of Cæsar, nor the work is it not better not to make it, than to run the risk of breakof Quintus Smyrnæus, that of the Ilias and Odyssey of ing it, and exposing oneself to superadded punishment, on Homer. We should be thankful, that an adequate and that account Answer, He who makes such a covenant faithful hand has supplied those circumstances which the in God's strength, will have that strength to enable him to original author could not write ; and without which the prove faithful to it. Besides, if the soul do not feel itself work would have been imperfect.

under the most solemn obligation to live to God, it will live Mr. Saurin has an excellent dissertation on this grand to the world and flesh. Nor is such a covenant as this federal act, formed by Joshua and the people of Israel on more solemn and strict, than that which we have often this very solemn occasion; of the substance of which the made; first, in our baptism; and often afterward in the reader will not be displeased to find the following very sacrament of the Lord's supper, &c. Joshua allows there is short outline, which may be easily filled up by any whose a great danger in making this covenant. Ye cannot serve business it is to instruct the public: for such a circumstance the Lord, for he is a holy, strong, and jealous God, &c. may, with great propriety, be brought before a Christian But this supposes only, that nothing could be done right, congregation.

but in his Spirit, and by his strength. The energy of the "Seven things are to be considered in this renewal of Holy Spirit, is equal to every requisition of God's holy law, the covenant.

as far as it regards the moral conduct of a believer in Christ. I. The dignity of the mediator.

“VI. The solemnity of the acceptance.-NotwithstandII. The freedom of those who contracted.

ing Joshua faithfully laid down the dreadful evils which III. The necessity of the choice.

those might expect who should abondon the Lord; yet they IV. The extent of the conditions.

entered solemnly into the covenant. God forbid! that we V. The peril of the engagement.

should forsakc the Lord; but we will serve the Lord. They VI. The solemnity of the acceptance.

seemed to think, that not to covenant in this case, was to VII. The nearness of the consequence.

reject. "I. The dignity of the mediator:- Take a view of his " VII. The nearness of the consequence. There were names. Hosea and Jehoshua. God will save: he will false gods among them, and these must be immediately

The first is like a promise: the second the fulfil-put away. As ye have taken the Lord for your God, then ment of that promise. God will save sometime or other ;- put away the strange gods which are among you, ver. 23. this is the very person by whom he will accomplish his The moment the covenant is made, that same moment the promise. Take a view of Joshua's life : his faith, courage, conditions of it come into force. He who makes this coveconstancy, heroism, and success.-A remarkable type of nant with God, should immediately break off from every Christ. See Heb. iv. 8.

evil design, companion, word, and work. Finally, Joshua “II. The freedom of those who contracted.-Take away erected iwo monuments of this solemn transaction : 1. He the gods which your fathers served beyond the flood; and caused the word to be written in the book of the law, ver. in Egypt, &c. ver. 14, &c. Joshua exhibits to the Israelites 26. 2. He erected a stone under an oak, ver. 27. that ihese all the religions which were then known; 1. That of the two things might be witnesses against them, if they broke Chaldeans, which consisted in the adoration of fre. 2. the covenant which they then made, &c." That of the Egyptians, which consisted in the worship of There is the same indispensable necessity, for every one the or, Apis, cats, dogs, and serpents : which had been who professes Christianity, to enter into a covenant with preceded by the worship even of vegetables, such as the God through Christ. He who is not determined to be on onion, &c. 3. That of the people of Canaan, the princi- God's side, will be found on the side of the world, the devil, pal objects of which were Astarte, (Venus,) and 'Baal- and the flesh. And he who does not turn from all his inipeor, (Þriapus.) Make remarks on the liberty of choice quities, cannot make such a covenant. And he who does which every man has, and which God, in matters of not make it now, may probably never have another opporreligion, applies to, and calls into action.

tunity. Reader, death is at ihe door, and cternily is at “ÍNI. The necessity of the choice.—To be without reli- hand. These are truths which are every where proclaimgion, is to be without happiness here, and without any title ed every where professedly believed-every where acto the kingdom of God.' To have a false religion, is the knowledged to be important-and perhaps no where laid broad road to perdition ; and to have the true religion, and to heart as they should be. And yei all grant that tiey are live agreeably to is, is the high road to heaven. Life is born to die ! precarious : death is at the door: the judge calls: much is On the character and conduct of Joshua, much has al. to be done, and perhaps little time to do it in! Eternity ready been said in the notes, and particularly in the preface depends on the present moment.--Choose-choose speedily to this book. A few particulars may be added. --determinately, &c.

It does not appear that Joshua was ever married, or that "IV. The ertent of the conditions.-Fear the Lord, he had any children. That he was high in the estimation and serve him in truth and righteousness. Fear the Lord of God, we learn from his being chosen to succeed Moses Consider his being, bis power, holiness, justice, &c. This in the government of the people. He was the person alone, is the gate to religion. Religion itself consists of two of all the host of Israel, who was deemed every way qualiparts.- 1. Truth. 1. In opposition to the detestable idolatry fied to go out before the congregation, and to go in; to lead of the forementioned nations. 2. In reference to that re them out and bring them in : and be the shepherd of the velation which God gave of himself. 3. In reference to people, because the Spirit of God was in him. See Numb. that solid peace and comfort which false religions may pro- xxvii. '17, &c. He is called the servant of God, as was mise, but cannot give, and which the true religion commu Moses; and was, of all men of that generation, next in nicates to all who properly embrace it. II. UPRIGHTNESS, or eminence to that great legislator.

save.

Like his great master, he neither provided for himself, dependents, at the expense, and often to the ruin, of their nor his relatives, though he had it constantly in his power country! 80 to do. He was the head and leader of the people; the Joshua retires only from labour when there is no more chief and foremost in all fatigues and dangers; without work to be done, and no more dangers to be encountered. whose piety, prudence, wisdom, and military skill

, the He was the first in the field, and the last out of it ; and whole tribes of Israel, humanly speaking, must have been never attempted to take rest till all the tribes of Israel had ruined. And yet this conqueror of the nations did not reserve got their possessions, and were settled in their inheritances! to himself a goodly inheritance, a noble city, nor any part of him it might be truly said, as of Cæsar, he continued of the spoils of those he had vanquished. His country- to work, nil actum reputans, si quid superesset agendum: men, it is true, gave him an inheritance among them, chap. for "he considered nothing done, while any thing remained xix. 50. This, we might suppose, was in consideration of undone." his eminent services; and this, we might naturally expect, Behold this man retiring from office and from life! withwas the best inheritance in the land! No! they gave him out any kind of emolument--the greatest man of all the Timnath-serah, in the barren mountains of Ephraim, and tribes of Israel; the most patriotic, and the most serviceaeven this he asked, chap. xix. 50. But was not this the ble, and yet the worst provided for. Statesmen ! naval best city in the land ? No-it was even no city; evidently and military commanders! look Joshua in the face, read no more than the ruins of one that had stood in that place; his history, and learn from it, what true PATRIOTISM means. and hence it is said, he builded the city, and duelt therein That man alone, who truly fears and loves God, credits his be, with some persons of his own tribe, revived the stones revelation, and is made a partaker of his Spiril

, is caout of the rubbish, and made it habitable.

pable of performing disinterested services to his country, Joshua believed there was a God; he loved, and acted and to mankind ! under his influence; and endeavoured, to the utmost of his

MASORETIC NOTES ON JOSHUA. power, to promote the glory of his Maker, and the welfare The number of verses in the book of Joshua is 656 of man; and he expected his recompense in another world. (should be 658, see on chap. xxi. 36, &c.) of which the

Like Him of whom he was an illustrious type, he led a symbol found in the word in detaron, (and shall sing,) painful and laborious life, devoting himself entirely to the Isai. xxxv. 6. service of God, and the public good. How unlike was Its middle verse is the 26th of chap. xii. Joshua to those men, who, for certain services, get elevated Its Masoretic sections are 14 ; the symbol of which is to the highest honours; but, not content with the recom found in the word ' yad, (the hand,) Ezek. xxxvii. I. See pense thus awarded them by their country, use their new the note at the end of Genesis, and the Haphtoras at the influence for the farther aggrandizement of themselves and end of the Pentateuch.

ADVERTISEMENT CONCERNING THE ACCOMPANYING MAP. No pains have been spared in constructing the map, which accompanies this book. All the ancient and modern maps within reach, and they were not a few, have been consulted, in order to make it as correct as possible. It is truly sura prising to find such discordances relative to places comparatively at home, and so often visited by the most learned and intelligent travellers. No two of them agree in the position of the places in general: and gazetteers and books of geography, compiled from the accounts of ancient and modern travellers, are as discordant among themselves as the constructors of maps. In the main, I have followed Dr. Pocock and Dom Calmet, who appeared to be the most correct. The former visited many of the places in person; and the latter has collated all the accounts within his reach, with the sacred text; and has displayed, in his inquiries, such a minuteness of research, and extensive critical investigation, as are worthy of the highest commendation. As a general directory relative to the position of the most remarkable places in the Holy Land and Syria, it is hoped the map will be found sufficiently accurate: farther than this, nothing can be promised; nor can the reader be directed to any other quarter, from which he can expect greater or more accurate satisfaction. Experience has taught me, that maps in general, are less to be trusted to, than any other means of informa. tior. Mr. Whiston, from whom much accuracy might be expected on such a subject, after having laid down a map of the promised land, constructed for his History of Josephus, wisely gives an alphabetical list of all the principal places in Judea, with their latitudes and longitudes, not as they are found in the great map of nature, but as they are laid down in his map. Thus the table refers you to the map, and the map to the table, and thus Mr. Whiston checks himself, and is the sole proof of his own accuracy! This is not a solitary case: every map of this land is incorrect: and the reader is requested to consult that which accompanies this work with an eye of candour and indulgence.

599

OF THE

PENTATEUCH AND BOOK OF JOSHUA:

Being a Systematic Arrangement of Events; from the Creation of Adam, A. M. 1, to the Birth of Peleg, A. M.

1757, and of each successive Year, from the Dispersion of Mankind at the Birth of Peleg, to the Settlement of the Israelites in the Land of Canaan, at the Death of Joshua, A. M. 2561, inclusive; Synchronized with the principal Epochs in use among the different Nations of the World, viz. The Year of the World—the Year before Christ-ihe Year before and after the Deluge-the Year of the Julian Period and the Year before the First Olympiad. To which are added, the Reigns of the contemporary Sovereigns of the most remarkable Monarchies; togeiher with the Year of the Life of all the Ante and Postdiluvian Patriarchs on record, corresponding with the Years of the principal Epochs mentioned above. Designed to save the curious Reader the trouble of reducing the Years of any particular Epoch to those of another, in which he may wish to fix any Event that took place within the limits of these Tables; and to prevent the necessity of recurrence to Systematic Chronologies for Historic Facts in any wise connected with those mentioned in the Sacred Writings.

TABLE I.

A Chronology of the Birth and Death of all the Patriarchs, from Adam, A. M. 1, to Reu, the son of Peleg, A. M. 1787.

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