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19 1. s Whosoever lieth with a beast, shall kill you with the sword; and your wives shall surely be put to death.

be widows, and your children fatherlese. 201. He that sacrificeth unto any god, save 25 | P Il' thou lend money to any of my people unto "the LORD only, he shall be uiterly de- that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as stroyed.

an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury. 21 T i Thou shalt neither vex a stranger nor 26 ? If thou at all take thy neighbour's raioppress himn: for ye were strangers in the land ment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him, of Egypt.

by that the sun goeth down: 22* Ye shall not afflict any widow, or father 27 For that is his covering only, it is his rai less child.

ment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and 23 If thou alliet them in any wise, and they it shall come to pass, when he "crieth unto me, icry at all unto me, I will surely - hear their that I will hear; for I am s gracious. cry;

28 | : Thou shalt not revile the "gods, nor 2 And my "wrath shall wax hot, and I will curse the ruler of thy people.

& Lev. 18. 2 & 3. 15 -h Nurnb. 5. 2,7, & Deut. 13. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 13, 14, 15. & 17. 2, 3, 5 Mac 2 21.- Ch. 23. 9. Lev. 19. 3 & 25.35. Dent 10 19. Jer. 7. 6. Zech 1. 10. Mal. 3. 5.- Deut. 10. 18. & 21. 17. & 27. 19. PL 91. 6. Lai. 1. 17, 23. & 10. 2. Ezek 22 2. Zech. 7. 10. James 1. 27. - Deut. 15. 9. & 24. 15. Job 35. 9. Luke 18. 7.-10 Ver. 2. Job 31.2 Pr. 18. 6. & 115. 19. James 5. 4.

n Job 31. 23. Psa. 69. 21. - Psa. 109.9. Lam. 5. 3.- Lev. 25. 36-37. Deut. 3. 19, 20, Neh. 5. 7. Pst. 15. 5. Ezek. 18.8, 17- Deut. 24. 6, 10, 13, 17. Job 22 6. & 21. 3, 9. Prov. 20. 16. & 22. 17. Ezek. 18. 7, 16. Anos 2.8.-r Ver. 2. & Ch. 31. 6. 2 Chron, 30. 9. Psa 50. 15.- Eccles. 10. 20. Acts 23. 5. Jude 8. u Or, judges. Ver. 8, 9. Pea. 32. 6.

possessed the power commonly attributed to them, are strongly shows his abhorrence of the crime. It is no comquestions which it would be improper to discuss at length mon crime, and shall not be punished in a common way: in a work of this kind; but that witches, wizards, those the wrath of God hall wax hot against him who in any who dealt with familiar spirits, &c. are represented in the wise afflicts or wrongs a widow, or a faiherless child; and Sacred Writings, as actually possessing a power to evoke we may rest assured, that he who helps either, does a serthe dead, to perform supernatural operations, and to dis- vice highly acceptable in the sight of God. cover hidden or secret things, by spells, charms, incanta Verse 25. Neither shalt thou lay upon him usury] 703 tions, &c. is evident to every unprejudiced reader of the neshec, from nashac, to bite, cut, or pierce with the teeth, Bible Of Manasseh it is said, He caused his children to biting usury. So the Latins call it usura rorax-derourpass through the fire in the valley of the Son of Hinnom: ing usury. “The increase of usury is called you neshec, also he observed limes [-wy, vcônan, he used divination by because it resembles the biting of a serpent; for as this is clouds) and used enchantments, and used witchcraft, so small as scarcely to be perceptible at first, but the venom [1e s ve cisheph] and dealt with a familiar spirit, [neyi soon spreads and diffuses itself, till it reaches the vitals, so w ceasuh ob, performed a variety of operations by means

the increase of usury, which at first is not perceived nor of what was afterward called the groupe Tubwvos, the spirit felt, at length grows so much, as by degrees to devour of Python,) and with wizards, ( 97 yideoni, the wise or

another's substance."--Lcigh. knowing ones) and he wrought much evil in the sight of

It is evident, that what is here said must be understood the Lord, 2 Chron. xxxii. 6. It is very likely that the of accumulated usury, or what we call compound interest Hebrew 9 casaph, and the Arabic ciis cashafa, had only; and accordingly qua neshec is mentioned with, and originally the same meaning, to uncover, to remove a veil, distinguished from nian terebith, and no merebith, to manifest, rereal, make bare or naked ; and liko interest, or simple interest, Lev. xxv. 36, 37. Prov. xxviii

. mecashefat, is used to signify commerce with God, see 8. Ezek, xviii. 8, 13, 17. and xxii. 12.- Parkhurst. Wilmet and Giggeus. The mecashephah, or witch, there Perhaps usury may be more properly defined unlawful fore, was probably a person who professed to reveal hidden interest ; receiving more for the loan of money than it is mysteries, by commerce with God, or the invisible world. really worth, and more than the law allows. It is a wise

From the severity of this law against witches, &c. we regulation in the laws of England, that if a man be conmay see in what light these were viewed by Divine Justice. victed of usury, of taking unlawful interest, the bond or They were seducers of the people from their allegiance to security is rendered void, and he forfeits treble the sum Gol, on whose judgment alone they should depend; and borrowed. Against such an oppressive practice, the wisby impiously prying into futurity, assumed an attribute of dom of God saw it essentially necessary to make a law, to God, the foretelling of future erents, which implied in prevent a people, who were naturally what our Lord calls itself the grossest blasphemy, and tended to corrupt the the Pharisees, conspy upas, lovers of money, (Luke xvi. 14.) minds of the people, by leading them away from God, and from oppressing each other; and who, notwithstanding the the revelation he had made of himself. Many of the Is- law in the text, practise usury in all places of their disraelites had, no doubt, learnt these curious arts from their persion, to the present day. long residence among the Egyptians; and so much were Verse 26. If thou-take thy neighbour's raiment to the Israelites attached to them, that we find such arts in pledge] It seems strange that any pledge should be taken, repute among them; and various practices of this kind which must be so speedily restored: but it is very likely, prevailed through the whole of the Jewish history, not that the pledge was restored by night only; and that he who withstanding the offence was capital, and in all cases pledged it, brought it back to his creditor next morning; punished with death.

The opinion of the rabbins is, that whatever a man needed Verse 19. Lieth with a beast] If this most abominable for the support of life, he had the use of it when absolutely crime had not been common, it never would have been necessary, though it was pledged. Thus, he had the use mentioned in a sacred code of laws. It is very likely that of his working-tools by day, but he brought them to his it was an Egyptian practice; and it is certain, from an creditor in the evening. His hyke, which serves an Arah account in Sonnini's Travels, that it is practised in Egypt as a plaid does a Highlander

, (see it described, ch. xii. 34.) to the present day.

was probably the raiment here referred 10: it is a sort of Verse 20. Utierly destroyed) The word on cherem, coarse blanket, about six yards long, and five or six feet denotes a thing utterly and finally separated from God, and broad, which an Arab always carries with him, and on devoted to destruction, without the possibility of redemp- which he sleeps at night; it being his only substitute for a tion.

bed. As the fashions in the east scarcely ever change, it Verse 21. Thou shalt neither ver a stranger nor op- is very likely that the raiment of the Israelites was prepress him! This was no: only a very humane law, but it cisely the same with that of the modern Araba, who live was also the offspring of a sound policy. Do not ver a in the very same desert in which the Hebrews were when stranger: remember, ye were strangers. Do not oppress this law was given. How necessary then to restore the a stranger: remember, ye were oppressed. Therefore do hyke to a poor man before the going down of the sun, that unto all men as ye would they should do to you. It was he might have something to repose on, will appear evident the produce of a sound policy--Let strangers be well treated from the above considerations. At the same time, the Among you, and many will come to take refuge among you, returning it daily to the creditor, was a continual acknowand thus the strength of your country will be increased. ledgment of the debi, and served instead of a written acIf refugees of this kind be treated well, they will become knowledgment or bond, as we may rest assured that proselytes to your religion, and thus their souls may be writing, if practised at all before the giving of the law, was saved. In every point of view, therefore, justice, humanity, not common. sound policy, and religion, say-Neither vex nor oppress

Verse 28. Thou shalt not rerile the gods) Most coma stranger.

mentators believe, that the word gods here, means magis. Verse 22. Ye shall not afflict any widow or fatherless trates. The original is 1.5 Elohim, and should be unchild. It is remarkable, that offences against this law, derstood of the true God only- Thou shalt not blaspheme, are not left to the discretion of the judges to be punished: or make light of God-55pn tekalel, the fountain of jusa God reserves the punishment to laimself; and by this, he tice and power--nor curse the ruler of thy people, who

it me.

29 T Thou shalt not delay to offer the w first 2 : Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do of thy ripe fruits, and of thy * liquors: y the evil; ti neither shalt thou i speak in a cause to first-born of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. decline after many to wrest judgment :

30 - Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, 3 Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man and with thy sheep: a seven days it shall be in his cause. with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give 41 * If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass

going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to 31 | And ye shall be b holy men unto me: him again. neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of 5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee, beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs. lying under his burden, mand wouldest forbear

to help him, thou shalt surely help with him. CHAPTER XXIII.

6 - Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of Laws against eril-speaking, ! Against had company, 2 Against partiality, 2. thy poor in his cause. Laws commanding acts of kindness and humanity, 4,5. Against oppresswn, 6.

ñ • Keep thee far from a false matter; Pand unkindness to strangers, 9. The or mange concerning the salbatical year, 10, the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for 9 I &e 13. The thrve aumal festivals, 11. The feast of unleavened bread, 15. The will not justify the wicked. feast of harveel, and the feast of ingathering, 16. All the males to appear before

81 And - thou shalt take no gift: for the gist leavened bread-mo fare to be left till the next day – the first fruits to be brought to blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of tion of the angel of Cind , wiw was to lead the prople into the promised land, and the righteous.

9 | Also, thou shalt not oppress a stranger: destroyed, 21. Ditlerrut promises to obedience, 25---77. Hornets shall be sent to drive out the Canaanites, be the ancienne intensitants to be driven out by dieule for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye league or covenant to be made with the ancient inhabitants, who are all to be al were strangers in the land of Egypt. terly expellel, 32, 33.

10 T And six years thou shalt sow thy land, NHOU d shalt not raise a false and shalt gather in the fruits thereof:

report: put not thine hand with 11 But the seventh year, thou shalt let it rest the wicked, to be an ' unrighteous witness. and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat:

Against unrightevnes derint, 7 Against bribery and corruption, 8

Against

God thrice in the yeur, 17. Different ordinances:--no blood to be offered with

An. Exod. Isr. I.

Sivan

THON

v Heh. thy fulness-w Ch. 23. 16, 19. Prov, 3. 9. - Heb. tear-y Ch. 13. 2, 12. & 34. 19. - Deut. 15. 19.- Lev. 22. 27.- Ch. 19. 6. Lev. 19. 2. Deut. 14. 21. c Lev. 228. Exek. 4. 14. & 14.31 - Ver. 7. Lev. 19. 16. Psa. 15. 3. & 101.5. Prov. 10. 19. See 2 Sam. 19. 27. with 16. 3-e Or, receive.- Ch. 20. 16. Deut. 19. 16, 17, 18. Pxa. 35. 11. Prov. 19. 5,9, 2. & 21. 3. See 1 Kings 21. 10, 13. Matt. 25. 69, 60, 61. Acts 6. 11, 13-g Gen. 7. 1. & 19. 4, 7. Ch. 21, 2. Joah 21. 15. I Sam. 15. 9. I Kings 19. 10. Job 31. 31. Prov. 1. 10, 11, 15. & 4. 14. Matt. 27. 21, 25. Mark 15. 15. Luke 23. B. Acts 24. 27. & 5.9.-h Ver. 6,7 Lev. 19. 15. Dent. 1. 17. Psa. 72. 2-i Heb. anser.-k Deut. 22. 1. Job 31. 29. Prov. 21. 17. & 25. 21.

Matt. 5. 41. Rom. 12. 20. 1 Thess. 5. 15.- Deut. 22. 4.-m Or, wilt thou ceas to help him? or, and wouldest ceaed to leave thy business for him; thou shall nig lerine it to join reith him.- Ver. 2. Deut. 27. 19. Job 31. 13, 21. Eecks 5. 8. Isai 10. 1, 2. Jer. 5.28 & 7. 6. Amos 5. 12. Mal. 3. 5.- Ver. 1. Lev. 19. 11. Luke 14 Eph. 4. 5.- Deut. 27. 25. Ps 91.21. Prov. 17. 15, 26. Jer. 7. 6. Matt. 297. .

Ch. 34. 7. Rom. 1. 18. - Deut. 16. 19. 1 Sam. 83. & 12 3. 2 Chron. 19. 7. Pen. 20.10. Prov. 15. 27. & 17. 8. 23. & 29. 4. Isai. 1. 2. & 5. 23. & 33 15 Euk. 22 12 Amos 5. 12. Ecclus. 20. 29. Acts 120.-- Hleb, the secing - Ch. 24. 21. Deut. 10 19. & 24. 14, 17. & 27. 19. Paa. 94 6. Ezek. 22.7. Mal. 3.5.-u Heb. soul.- Lev. 25. 3,

derives his authority from God. We shall ever find, that And to the same purpose Tibullus, in one of the most beauhe who despises a good civil government, and is disaffected tiful of his elegies: to that under which he lives, is one who has little fear of

Et quodcunque mihi pomum nouus educat annus,

Libatum agricola ponitur ante deo. God before his eyes. The spirit of disaffection and sedi

Fira Cerea, tihi sit noeiro de rure corona tion, is ever opposed to the religion of the Bible. When

Spicea, quæ lempli pendeat ante fores.

Eleg. lib. I. eleg. i ver. 13. those who have been pious, get under this spirit of misrule,

“My grateful fruits, the carliest of the year, they infallibly get shorn of their spiritual strength, and

Before the rural rod hall daily wait, become like salt that has lost its savour. He who can in

From Ceres' gites I'll cull each brotener ear

And bang a wheulen wreath before her gate." Grainger. dulge himself in speaking evil of the civil ruler, will soon. learn to blaspheme God. The highest authority says, the same book, where he specifies the different offerings

The same subject he touches again in the fifth elegy of Fear God: honour the king. Verse 29. The first of thy ripe fruits] This offering made for the produce of the fields, of the flocks, and of the

vine, ver. 27. was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness

Nla deo sciel agricola pro ritibus uran, of God, who had given them their proper sced-lime, the

Pro segete spicas, pro grege serre dapen. first and the latter rain, and the appointed weeks of

* With pious care, will load ench rural shrine.

For ripen'd crope, a golden she assign, harvest.

Cates for my fold, rich clusters for my wine."

Id-See Calm From the practice of the people of God, the heathens borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. The These quotations will naturally recall to our memory the following passage from Censorinus De Die Natali, is offerings of Cain and Abel, mentioned Gen. iv. 3, 4. beautiful and worthy of the deepest attention :

The rejoicings at our harrest-home, are distorted remains Illi enim (majores nostri) qui alimenta, patriam, lu of that gratitude which our ancestors, with all the primicem, se denique ipsos deorum dono habebant ; ex omnibus tive inhabitants of the earth, expressed to God, with apaliquid diis sacrabant, magis adeò, ut se gratos approba- propriate signs and ceremonies. Is it not possible to rerent, quam quod deos arbitrarentur hoc indigere. Itaque store, in some godly form, a custom so pure, so edifying, cùm perceperant fruges, antequam rescerentur, Diislibare and so becoming ? There is a laudable custom, observed instituerunt: et cum agros atque urbes, deorum munera by some pious people, of dedicating a new house to God, possiderent, partem quandam templis sacellisque, ubi eos by prayer, &c. which cannot be too highly commended. colerent dicarêre.

Verse 30. Seren days shall it be with his dam] For "Our ancestors, who held their food, their country, the the mother's health, it was necessary that the young one light, and all that they possessed, from the bounty of the should suck so long: and prior to this time, the process of gods, consecrated to them a part of al heir property; nutrition in a young animal, can scarcely be considered as rather as a token of their gratitude, than from a conviction completely formed. Among the Romans, lambs were not that the gods needed any thing. Therefore, as soon as the considered as pure or clean, before the eighth day; por harvest was got in, before they had tasted of the fruits, calves before the thirtieth :-Pecoris fætus, die octaro puthey appointed libations to be made to the gods. And as rus est; bovis trigesimo. Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. vii. they held their fields and cities as gifts from their gods, they Verse 31. Neither shall ye cat-flesh--torn of beasts consecrated a certain part, in the temples and shrines, where in the field] This has been supposed to be an ordinance they worshipped.”

against eating flesh cut off the animal while alive, and so Pliny is express on the same point, who attests, that the the Syriac seems to have understood it. If we can credit Romans never tasted either their new corn or wine, till the Mr. Bruce, this is a frequent custom in Abyssinia—but hupriests had offered the FIRST-FRUITS to the gods. Ac ne man nature revolts from it. The reason of the prohibition degustabant quidem novas fruges aut vina, antequam sa against eating the flesh of animals that had been torn, or, cerdotes PRIMITIAS LIBASSENT.-Hist. Nat. lib. xviii. c. 2. as we term it, worried in the field, appears to have been

Horace bears the same testimony, and shows that his simply this: that the people might not eat the blood, which countrymen offered not only their first-fruits, but the in this case must be coagulated in the flesh; and the blood choicest of all their fruits, to the Lares, or household gode; being the life of the beast, and emblematical of the blood and he shows also, the wickedness of those who sent these of the Covenant, was ever to be held sacred, and was proas presents to the rich, before the gods had been thus hibited from the days of Noah.-See on Gen. ix. 4. honoured :

In the conclusion of this chapter, we see the grand rea

son of all the ordinances and laws which it contains. No Et quoscumque feret cultus tibi fondue honores, Ante Larem guslel, venerabiior, Lare dives.

command was issued merely from the sorereignty of

God. He gave them to the people as restraints on disor. " What your garrlen yiells, The choicest honours of your cultur'd fields

derly passions and incentives to holiness; and hence he To hon besucrified, ani let him taste, Before your gods, the vegetable feast."

says, Ye shall be holy men unto me. Mere outward ser

Drileia poma,

Satyr lib.ii. s. v. ver. 12

Dunkin.

and what they leave, the beasts of the field shall, on the seventh day thou shalt rest; that thine eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of vineyard, and with thy "oliveyard,

thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be re12 9 * Six days thou shalt do thy work, and freshed.

w Or, olive-treca.

* Ch. 20.9,9. Deut. 5. 13. Luke 13. 11.

vices could neither please him, nor profit them; for, from every serenth day was a sabbath day, so every serenth the very beginning of the world, the end of the command year was to be a sabbath year. The reasons for this ordiment was love ont of a pure heart, and good conseience, nance Calmet gives thus :-and faith unfeigned, 1 Tim. i. 5. And without these accom “1. To maintain, as far as possible, an equality of conpaniments, no set of religious duties, however punctually dition among the people, in setting the slaves at liberty, performed, could be pleasing in the sight of that God who and in permitting all, as children of one family, to have the seeks truth in the inward parts, and in whose eyes the faith free and indiscriminate use of whatever the earth produced. that worketh by love, is alone valuable. A holy heart, and 2. To inspire the people with sentiments of humanity, a holy useful life, God invariably requires in all his wor- by making it their duiy to give rest, proper and sufficient shippers, --Reader, how standest thou in his sight? nourishment to the poor, the slave, and the stranger, and NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII.

even to the cattle. Verse 1. Thou shall not raise a false report! Acting the divine Providence, and expect their support from that

“3. To accustom the people to submit to, and depend on, contrary to this precept, is a sin against the ninth commandment. And the inrentor and receirer of false and in the seventh year, by an extraordinary provision on the slanderous reports, are almost equally criminal. The word sixth. seems to refer to either, and our translators have very pro “4. To detach their affections from earthly and perishperly retained both senses, putting raise in the text, and able things, and to make them disinterested and heavenlyreceive in the margin. The original nun xs lo tissá has minded. been translated, thou shalt not publish. Were there no “5. To show them God's dominion over the country, publishers of slander and calumny, there would be no re and that He, not they, was Lord of the soil: and that they ceivers; and were there none to receive them, there would held it merely from his bounty.” See this ordinance at be none to raise them: and were there no raisers, receir- | length, Lev. xxv. ers, nor propagators of calumny, lies, &c. society would That God intended to teach them the doctrine of provibe in peace.

dence by this ordinance, there can be no doubt; and this is Verse 2. Thou shalt not follou a multitude to do evil] marked very distinctly, Lev. xxv. 20, 21. And if ye shall Be singular. Singularity, if in the right, can never be say, What shall we eat the serenth year? behold, we shall criminal. So completely disgraceful is the way of sin, not sou nor gather in our increase: Then I will comthat if there were not a multitude walking in that way, mand my blessing upon you, in the sixth year, and it who help to keep each other in countenance, every solitary shall bring forth fruit for three years. That is, there sinner would be obliged to hide his head. But san rab- shall be, not three crops in one year, but one crop, equal in bim, which we translate multilude, sometimes signifies the its abundance to thrce, because it must supply the wants grcal, chiefs, or mighty ones; and is so understood by of three years. 1. For the sixth year, supplying fruit for some eminent critics in this place:--Thou shalt not follow its own consumption. 2. For the seventh year, in which the example of the great or rich, who may so far disgrace they were neither to sow nor reap. And 3. For the eighth their own character, as to live without God in the world; year, for though they ploughed, sowed, &c. that year, yet and trample under foot his laws. It is supposed that these a whole course of its seasons was requisite, to bring all directions refer principally to matters which come under these fruits to perfection, so that they could not have the the eye of the civil magistrate; as if he had said, Do not fruits of the cighth year till the ninth, see ver. 22. till which join with great men in condemning an innocent or righteous time, God promised that they should eat of the old store. person, against whom they had conceived a prejudice on What an astonishing proof did this give of the being, powthe account of his religion, &c.

er, providence, mercy, and goodness of God! Could there Verse 3. Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in be an infidel in such a land, or a sinner against God and his cause.) The word 57 dal, which we translate poor his own soul, with such proofs before his eyes, of God and man, is probably put here in opposition to Dan rabbim, his attributes, as one sabbatical year afforded ? the great, or noblemen, in the preceding verse: if so, the It is very remarkable, that the observance of this ordimeaning is, thou shalt neither be influenced by the great, nance is nowhere expressly mentioned in the Sacred to make an unrighteous decision, nor by the poverty or dis- | Writings; though some suppose, but without sufficient tress of the poor, to give thy voice against the dictates of reason, that there is a reference to it in Jer. xxxiv. 8, 9. justice and truth. Hence the ancient maxim, FIAT JUS- Perhaps the major part of the people could not trust God, TITIA, BUAT CELUY. Let justice be done, though the and therefore continued to sow and reap on the seventh hearens should be dissolved.

year, as on the preceding. This greatly displeased the Verse 4. If thou meet thine enemy's or--going astray] Lord, and therefore he sent them into captivity; so that the From the humane and heavenly maxim in this and the land enjoyed those sabbaths through lack of inhabitants, following verse, our blessed Lord has formed the following of which their ungodliness had deprived it. See Lev. xviii. precept: "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, 24, 25, 28. xxvi. 34, 35, 43. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 20, 21. Comdo good to them that hate you, and pray for them which mentators have been much puzzled to ascertain the time in despitefully use you and persecule you." Matt. v. 41. A which the sabbatical year began; because, if it began in precepi so plain, wise, benevolent, and useful, can receive Abib, or March, they inust have lost two harvests: for no other comment than that which its influence on the heart they could neither reap nor plant that year, and of course of a kind and merciful man produces in his life.

they could have no crop the year following; but if it began Verse 6. Thou shall not wrest the judgment of thy with what was called the civil yeur, or in Tisri, or Marpoor] Thou shalt neither countenance him in his crimes, heshvan, which answers to the beginning of our autumn, nor condemn him in his righteousness. See ver. 5. and they would then have had that year's produce reaped and ver. 7.

gathered in. Verse 8. Thou shalt take no gift] A strong ordinance Verse 12. Six days shalt thou do thy work] Though against selling justice, which has been the diagrace and they were thus bound to keep the sabbatical year, yet they ruin of every state where it his been practised. In the must not neglect the seventh day's rest, or weekly sabbath; excellent charter of British liberties, called Magna Charla, for that was of perpetual obligation, and was paramount to there is one article expressly on this head: Nulli vende all others. That the sanctification of the sabbath was of mus, nulli negabimus qui differemus rectum aut jus- great consentence in the sight of God, we may learn from tician. Art. xxxiii. "To none will we sell, to none will we the various repetitions of this law: and we may observe, deny or defer right or justice." This was the more neces that it has still for its object, not only the benefit of the srry, in those early and corrupt times, as he who had most soul, but the health and comfort of the body also. Doth money, and gave the largesi presents, (called then oblatu) God care for oren? Yes, and he mentions them with to the king or gueen, was sire to gain his cause in the tenderness--that thine or and thine ass may rest. How king's court, whether he had right and justice on his side criminal to einploy the labouring cattle on the salbath, as or not.

well as upon the other days of the week! More cattle are Verse 9. Ye know the heart of a stranger] Having destroved in England, than in any other part of the world, been strangers yourselves, under severe, long-continued, in proportion, by excessive and continued labour. The and cruel oppression, ye know the fears, cares, anxieties, noble horse, in general, has no sabbath! Does God look and dismal forebodings which the heart of a stranger feels. on this with an indifferent cye? Surely he does not. What a forcible appeal to hunanity and compassion!

England,” said a foreigner, " is the paradise of women, Verse 11. The seventh year, thou shalt let il res] As I the purgatory of serranis, and the hell of horscs.” VOL. 1.--34

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13 | And in all things that I have said unto | end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy you y be circumspect: and make no mention of labours out of the field. the name of other gods, neither let it be heard 17 'Three times in the year, all thy males out of thy mouth.

shall appear before the LORD God. 14 T • Three times thou shalt keep a feast 18 18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of unto me in the year.

my eacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall 15 - Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened the fat of my sacrifice remain until the bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven morning. days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed 19 i The first of the first-fruits of thy land of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy from Egypt: «and none shall appear before me God. k Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his empty :)

mother's milk. 16. And the seast of harvest, the first-fruits 20 T Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to of thy labours, which thou hast sown in thy field: keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the and e the feast of ingathering, which is in the place which I have prepared.

y Deut. 4. 9. Josh. 22. 5. Psa. 33. 1. Eph. 5. 15. I Tim. 4. 16.-2 Nunb. 32 38. Deut. 12 3. Josh. 2. 7. Psa. 16. 4. Hos. 217. Zech 13. 2.-a Ch. 31. 23. Lev. 23. 4. Deut. 16. 16.-b Ch. 12. 15. & 13. 6. & 31. 13. Lev. 23. 6. Deut. 16. 8.o Ch. 34. 20. Deut. 16. 16. Eoclus. 35. 4.

d Ch. 31. 22. Lev. 23. 10.- Deut. 16. 13.- Ch. 31. 23. Deut. 16-16-8 Ch 12.8.
31. 3. Lev. 2. 11. Deut. 16.4-b Or, Jarl.-i Ch. 22 29. & 34. 26. Lev. 22. 10, 17.
Nurnb. 18. 12, 13. Deut. 26. 10. Neh. 10. 35.-- Ch 34. 2. Deut. 14. 21.- Ch.14 18
& 32 31. & 3. 2. 14. Numb. 20. 16. Joshs. 5. 13. & 6.2 P. 91. 11. I. 63.9.

ch. xil.

The son of thine hand maid, and the strangerbe re The feast for the death of Nicanor, 1 Mac. vii. 48, &c. freshed. Ud?' yinna phesh, may be re-spirited, or neu The feast for the discovery of the sacred fire, 2 Mac. i. souled; have a complete renewal both of bodily and spi- | 18, &c. ritual strength. The expression used by Moses here, is The feast of the carrying of wood to the temple, called very like that used by St. Peter, Acis iii. 19. Repent ye, Xylophoria, mentioned by Josephus.--War, b. i. c. 17. therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted Verse 17.' All thy males) Old men, sick men, male out, when the times of refreshing (xropas avayučews the times idiots, and male children under thirteen years of age, of re-souling) shall come from the presence of the Lord;" excepted; for so the Jewish doctors understand this comalluding, probably, to those times of refreshing and rest for mand. body and soul originally instituted under the law.

Verse 18. The blood of my sacrifice with leavened Verse 14. Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me bread] The sacrifice here mentioned, is undoubtedly the in the year.) The three feasts here referred to were, passover : see chap. xxxiv. 25. this is called, by way of 1. The feast of the Passover; 2. The feast of PENTECOST; eminence, my sacrifice, because God had instituted it for 3. The feast of TABERNACLES.

that especial purpose, the redemption of Israel from the 1. The feast of the pass-orer, was celebrated to keep in Egyptian bondage, and because it typified THE LAMB of remembrance the wonderful deliverance of the Hebrews God, who taketh away the sin of the world. We have from Egypt. 2. The feast of Pentecost, called also the already seen how strict the prohibition against leaven was, feast of harvest, and the feast of weeks, chap. xxiv. 22. during this festival, and what was signified by it.-See on was celebrated fifty days after the pass-over, to commemorate the giving of the law on mount Sinai; which took Verse 19. Thou shalt not scethe a kid in his mother's place fifty days after, and hence called by the Greeks milk] This passage has greatly perplexed commentaPentecost. 3. The feast of Tabernacles, called also the tors; but Dr. Cudworth is supposed to have given it its feast of the ingathering, was celebrated about the 15th of true meaning by quoting a MS. comment of a Caraïte the month Tisri, to commemorate the Israelites dwelling Jew, which he me: with, on this passage. It was a cusin tents for forty years, during their stay in the wilderness. tom of the ancient heathens, when they had gathered in -See on Lev. xxii.

all their fruits, to take a kid, and boil it in the milk of its 'God, out of his great wisdom," says Calmet, "ap- dam; and then, in a magical way, to go about and bepointed several festivals among the Jews, for many rea- sprinkle with it all their trees and fields, gardens and sons: 1. To perpetuate the memory of those great events, orchards ; thinking, by these means, to make them fruitand the wonders he had wrought for the people; for ex ful, that they might bring forth more abundantly in the ample, the sabbath brought to remembrance the creation following year.-Cud:corth on the Lord's Supper, 4to. of the world ; the passover, the departure out of Egypt; I give this comment as I find it; and add, that Spencer the Pentecost, the giving of the law; the feast of Taber- has shown, that the Zabii used this kind of magical milk nacles, the sojourning of their fathers in the wilderness, &c. to sprinkle their trees and fields, in order to make them 2. To keep them faithful to their religion, by appropriate fruitful. Others understand it of eating flesh and milk ceremonies, and the splendour of the divine service. 3. To together-others, of a lamb or kid, while it is sucking its procure them lawful pleasures, and necessary rest. 4. To mother; and that the paschal lamb is here intended, give them instruction, for in their religious assemblies, the which it was not lawful to offer while sucking. law of God was always read and explained. 5. To con After all the learned labour which critics have bestowed solidate their social union, by renewing the acquaintance on this passage, and by which the obscurity, in some of their tribes and families; for, on these occasions, they cascs, is become more intense, the simple object of the came together, from different parts of the land, to the holy precept seems to be this—"Thou shalt' do nothing that city."

may have any tendency to blunt thy moral feelings, or Besides the feasts mentioned above, the Jews had, teach thee hardness of heart." Even human nature 1. The feast of the sabbath, which was a weekly feast. shudders at the thought, of causing the mother to lend her

2. The feast of the sabbatical year, which was a sep- milk, to seethe the flesh of her young one! We need go tennial feast.

no farther for the delicate, tender, humane, and impressive 3. The feast of trumpets, which was celebrated on the meaning of this precept. first day of what was called their civil year, which was Verse 20. Behold, I send an Angel before thee) Some ushered in by the blowing of a trumpet, Lev. xxiii. 23, have thought that this was Moscs, others Joshua, because &c.

the word 7500 malac, signifies an angel or messenger; 4. The feast of the new moon, which was celebrated on but as it is said, verse 21. My name is in him pa the first day the moon appeared after her change.

bekirbo, intimately, essentially in him, it is more likely 5. The feast of expiation, which was celebrated annu that the great Angel of the Covenant, the Lord Jesus ally, on the tenth day of Tisri, or September, on which a Christ, is meant, in whom diell all the fulness of the general atonement was made for all the sins, negligences, Godhead bodily. We have had already much reason to and ignorances, throughout the year.

believe, that this glorious Personage often appeared in a 6. The feast of lots or purim, to commemorate the pre- human form, to the patriarchs, &c. and of him Joshua servation of the Jews from the general massacre projected was a very expressive type, the names Joshua and Jesus, by Haman.-See the book of Esther.

in Hebrew, and Greek, being of exactly the same signif7. The feast of the dedication, or rather the restoration, cation, because radically the same, from yor yashe, he of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus saved, delivered, preserved, or kept safe. Nor does it Epiphancs. This was also called the feast of lights. appear that the description given of the angel in the text

Besides these, the Jews have had several other feasts, can belong to any other person. such as the feast of branches, to commemorate the taking Calmet has referred to a very wonderful comment on of Jericho.

these words, given by Philo Judæus, De Agricultura, The feast of collections, on the 10th day of September, which I shall produce here at full length, as it stands in on which they make contributions for the service of the Mangey's edition, vol. I. p. 308.-—~5 Tousy *** Businses temple and synagogue.

Θιος αγοι κατα δικην και νομον προστησαμενος τον ερθες αυτες

21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, m pro 27 I will send b my fear before thee, and will voke him not; for he will not pardon your destroy all the people to whom thou shalt transgressions : for my name is in him.

come, and I will make all thine enemies turn 22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, their backs unto thee. and do all that I speak; then p I will be an enemy 23 And I will send hornets before thee, unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, thine adversaries.

and the Hittite, from before thee. 23 · For mine Angel shall go before thee, and 29 ' I will not drive them out from before thee • bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hit- in one year; lest the land become desolate, and tites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the beast of the field multiply against thee. the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut 30 By little and little, I will drive them out them off.

from before thee, until thou be increased, and 24 Thou shalt not 'bow down to their gods, inherit the land. nor serve them, "nor do after their works: 31 And 6 I will set thy bounds from the Red but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and sea, even unto the sea of the Philistines, and quite break down their images.

from the desert unto the river: for I will de25 And ye shall serve the Lord your God, liver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and " he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and thou shalt drive them out before thee. and I will take sickness away from the midst 32 i Thou shalt make no covenant with them, of thee.

nor with their gods. 26 - There shall nothing cast their young, nor 33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they be barren in thy land: the number of thy days make thee sin against me: for it thou serve I will « fulfil.

their gods, k it will surely be a snare unto thee.

m Num. 11 IL Pa 73 40, 56. Eph. 4. 30. Hebr. 3. 10, 16.-n Ch. 32. 31. Niusb 14 31 Deut 3 19. Josh 21. 19. Jer. 5. 7. He', 3. 11 1 John 5. 16.-1m 9.6. Jer 23 6. John 10. 30, 36-p. Gen. 12 3. Deut. 30. 7. Jer. 30. 20.- Or, I till a Rict then tha! atirt teer Ver. 20. Ch. 33. 2.- Josh. 24.8. 11.-i Ch. 5. a Lev. N3 Deul 12 30.31 -v Ch. 34. 13 Nurnb. 33. 32. Deut. 7. 5. 25. & 12 3.

Deut. 6. 13. & 10. 12. 20. 11. 13, 14. & 13 d. Josh 22. 5. & 21. 14, 15, 21, 21. 1 Sam. 73. 12. 20, 21. Matt. 4' 10.-* Deut. 7. 13. & 28. 5,&-y Ch. 15. 25.

Deut. 7. 15.- Deut. 7. 14. & 29. 4. Job 21. 10. Mal. 3. 10, 11.-a Gen. 25. 8. & 35. 29. I Chron. 22. 1. Job 5 6& 42 17. Psal. 51 33. & 90. 10.-b Gen. 35. 5. Ch. 15. 11, 16. Dent. 2 25. & IL 2 Josh 2. 9.11. I San. 14. 15. 2 Chron. 14. 14.-c Deul 7. 2.- Heb. neck. Psa. 18. 10.-e Deut. 7. 20. Josh. 24. 12 Wiel. 12. 8. - Deut. 7. 22.-5 Gen. 15. 18. Numb. 31. 3. Deut. 11. 21. Josh. I. 4. I Kinga + 21, 24. Psa. 728.- Josk. 21. 11. Judg. 1. 4. & 11 21.-i Ch. 31. 12, 15. Deut. 7. 2.--k Ch. 34. 12 Deut. 7. 16. & 12 30. Josh 23. 13. Judg. 2 3. 1 San. 18. A1. Psa. 106. 36.

Atyor ***Toyorov vior, 5 TM 177111*TM;189:35 TXUT*5*

75, of these might be, any person may conjecture: even the ει και τις μεγαλου βασιλέως υπαρχες διαδέξεται, X sa potpi** bees of one hive would be sufficient to sting a thousand

Tδου εγω ειμι, αποστελω αγγελον μου εις προσωπόν σου του men to madness : but how much worse must wasps and Qulacan 01, AV T208.-“God, as the Shepherd and King, hornets be! No armour, no weapons, could avail against conducts all things according to law and righteousness, these. A few thousands of them would be quite suflicient having established over them his right Wond, his ONLY to throw the best disciplined army into confusion and BEGOTTEN Son, who as the Viceroy of the Great King, rout. From Josh. xxiv. 12. we find that two kings of takes care of, and ministers to, this sacred flock. For it is the Amorites were actually driven out of the land by these somewhere said, (Exod. xxiii. 20.) Behold I AM, and I hornets, so that the Israelites were not obliged to use will send my Angel before thy face to keep thee in the either sword or bow in the conquest. way."

Verse 31. I will set thy bounds from the Red sea-on This is a testimony, liable to no suspicion, coming from the southeast-eren unto the sea of the Philistines-the a person who cannot be supposed to be even friendly to Mediterranean on the northwest--and from the desert of Christianity, nor at all acquainted with that particular Arabia, or the wilderness of Shur, on the west-to the doctrine, to which his words seem so pointedly to refer. river- The Euphrates, on the northeast. Or, in general

Verse 21. He will not pardon your transgressions] terms, from the Euphrates on the east, to the MediterraHe is not like a min, with whom ye may think that ye nean sea, on the west: and from Mount Libanus, on the may trifle : were he either man or angel, in the common north, to the Red sea and the Nile, on the south. This acceptation of the term, it need not be said, He will not promise was not completely fulfilled till the days of Dapardon your transgressions ; for neither man nor angel vid and Solomon. The general disobedience of the people could do it.

before this time, prevented a more speedy accomplishMy name is in him.] Thę Jehorah dwells in him-in ment; and their disobedience afterward caused them to him dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily ; and be lose the possession. So, though all the promises of God cause of this he could either pardon or punish.-All power are vea and AMEN, yet they are fulfilled but to a few; beis given unto me in hearen and earth, Matt. xxviii. 18. cause men are slow of heart to believe: and the blessings

Verse 23. Unto the Amorites] There are only six of of providence and grace are taken away from several, bethe seren nations mentioned here; but the Septuagint, cause of their unfaithfulness. Samaritan, Coptic, and one Hebrew MS. add Girgashite, Verse 32. Thou shalt make no covenant with them) thus making the seren nations.

They were incurable idolaters, and the cup of their iniquity Verse 24. Break down their images] Dinaso matse was full. And had the Israelites contracted any alliance boteyhem, from 939 natsab, to stand up; pillars, anointed with them, either sacred or civil, they would have enticed stones, &c. such as the baithyllia. See on Gen. chap. them into their idolatries, to which the Jews were at all xxvii. 18.

times most unhappily prone; and as God intended that Verse 25. Shall bless thy bread and thy water] That they should be the preservers of the true religion till the is, all thy provisions, no matter of what sort : the meanest coming of the Messiah, hence he strictly forbade them to fare shall be sufficiently nutritive, when God's blessing is tolerate idolatry.

Verse 33. They shall not droell in thy land] They must Verse 26. Nothing shall cast their young, or be barren) be utterly expelled. The land was the Lord's, and he had Hence there must be a very great increase both of men given it to the progenitors of this people, 10 Abraham, and cattle.

Isaac, and Jacob. The latter being obliged to leave it beThe number of thy days I will fulfil.] Ye shall all cause of a famine, God is now conducting back his poslive to a good old age, and none die before his time. This terity, who alone had a dirine and natural right to it; is the blessing of the righteous; for wicked men live not and, therefore, their seeking to possess the inheritance of oul hulf their days, Psa. Iv. 23.

their fathers, can be only criminal in the sight of those Verse 23. I will send hornets before thee) nynon ha who are systematically opposed to the thing, because it is tsircah. The root is not found in Hebrew, but it may be a part of Divine Revelation. the same with the Arabic {uo saraâ, to lay prostrate, What a pity, that the Mosaic Law should be so little to strike down ; the hornet, probably so called from the studied ! What a number of just and equal laws, pious destruction occasioned by the violence of its sting. The and humane institutions, useful and instructive ordinances, hornet, in natural history, belongs to the species Crabro, does it contain! of the genus Vespa or Wasp: it is a mosi voracious in Every where we see the purity and benevolence of God, sect

, and is exceedingly strong for its size, which is always working to prevent crimes, and make the people generally an inch in length, though I have seen some an happy! But what else can be expected from that God inch and a half long, and so strong, that having caught who is love, whose tevder mercies are over all his works, ons in a small pair of forceps, it repeatedly escaped by and who hateth

nothing that he has made ?-Reader, using violent contortions, so that at last I was obliged to thou art not straitened in him; be not strajtened in thy abandon all hopes of securing it alive, which I wished to own bowels. Learn from him to be just, humane, kind, and bave done. How distressing and destructive a multitude I merciful. Love thy enemy, and do good to him that hates

in it.

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