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The only point, therefore, in compound sentences that requires explanation is the relation of principal clauses to each other.

78. The relation subsisting between the principal members of a compound sentence is that of co-ordination.

Two or more subordinate clauses having a common dependence on a superior clause, are also held to be co-ordinate with one another. ( 43).

79. Co-ordinate relations are of four kinds, each indicated by characteristic conjunctions, though the conjunction is not always expressed.

Co-ordination is, 1st, Copulative; 2d, Alternative; 3d, Antithetical; 4th, Causative.

80. I. COPULATIVE CO-ORDINATION implies simply the addition of one independent statement to another, and is represented, in the analytic notation, by the sign + (plus). It admits of the following varieties :(a) With a conjunction; as,

The brooks are become dry, and the ground is

i parched. A + B. Nor is frequently used as a negative copulative, = and not; as,

Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard.-English Bible.

That is, “ And ear hath not heard.”
Neither is used in the same sense; as,

Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it.-English Bible.
That is, “ And ye shall not touch it."

Compare the Latin neque = et non.
(6) Without a conjunction; as,

I came, I saw, I conquered. A + B + C. (c) The conjunction absorbed in a relative; as,

I met your brother, who told me that you were

here. Who = and he. A + B. I walked with him to the bridge, where we parted.

Where = and there. A + B.

81. II. ALTERNATIVE CO-ORDINATION implies that the one of two statements excludes the other, and is represented by the sign – (minus). It is either(a) Affirmative, in which both the alternative statements are

asserted; as, He will either come himself, or he will send a

representative; or, (6) Negative, in which both the alternative statements are

denied; as, He will neither come himself, nor will he send a

representative. Any sentence of this kind may be resolved into a hypothetical sentence; e.g.,

In (a) If he do not come himself, he will send a representative,

is asserted.
In (6) If he do not come himself, he will send a representative,-

is denied. 82. III. ANTITHETICAL CO-ORDINATION implies that the two statements are contrasted, so that the second is an exception to the general truth expressed in the first; and is represented by the sign X (adversity). It admits of the following constructions :(a) With a conjunction; as,

Men may come and men may go;
But I go on for ever.--Tennyson.
Then shall he that smote him be quit; only ne shall

pay for the loss of his time.—English Bible. This construction is convertible with concessive subordination ( 72, 4); thus:

Though men come and go; yet I go on for ever (6) Without a conjunction; as,

Men's evil manners live in brass;

Their virtues we write in water.Shakespeare. 83. IV. CAUSATIVE CO-ORDINATION is the relation of antecedent and consequent, and is represented by the sign ... (therefore) when the consequent is stated last; by the sign :: (for) when the consequent is stated first. Its varieties are,

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(a) The consequent stated last ; as,

This is the latest parley we will admit, .
Therefore to our best mercy give yourselves.

Shakespeare. The consequent is frequently introduced by the copulative conjunction and; e.g.,

Falstaff is dead, And we must yern therefore. Shakespeare. In this case, therefore is used in its original and proper sense as an adverb, there-for =for that reason. (6) The consequent stated first; as,

Take the instant way;
For honour travels in a strait so narrow, .

Where one but goes abreast.—Shakespeare. Causative co-ordination, expressed by for must be distinguished from causative subordination, expressed by because ( 72, 1). The two constructions are often confounded. The difference between them is this : Becausc implies the cause of the previously-mentioned action; for implies the ground of the preceding statement. Because introduces a reason, not for its own sake, but as an integral part of another predication. For introduces a reason for its own sake, as an independent addition to a previous predication; e.g.,

“His subjects despised him because he was a bad man.” His badness was the cause of their hatred.

“His subjects must have despised him; for he was a bad man.” His badness is the ground of the inference. When for is used, as it sometimes is, in the sense of because, it is used elliptically for the obsolete phrase forthat; e.g., Many excrescences of trees grow chiefly where the tree is

dead or faded, for that (= because) the natural sap of the

tree corrupteth into some preternatural substance.-Bacon.
And with that omitted,

They are not ever jealous for a cause,
But jealous for (that) they 're jealous.Shakespeare.

For is here to be regarded as a preposition, governing the noun clause following it in the objective.

That for is not a subordinating conjunction is evident from the fact that it often introduces a complete sentence; e.g., Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which

hath ten talents. For unto every one that hath shall be given, &c.- English Bible.

84. Connectives proper to co-cordinate clauses :-
I. Copulative (+).-And; as well as ; who (= and he);

when (=and then); nor (= and not), &c.
II. AlternatIVE (—).—Either, or; Neither, nor.
III. ANTITHETICAL (X).—But; only.
IV. CAUSATIVE (.. or ::-).—Therefore; for.

Exercise 18.
Distinguish the KINDS of Co-ORDINATION.

Loveliness
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament,

But is, when unadorned, adorned the most.Thomson. 2. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,

And all the air a solemn stillness holds.—Gray. 3. He who tells a lie is not sensible how great a task he undertakes;

for he must be forced to invent twenty more to maintain one.

Pope.
4. I chatter, chatter, as I go

To join the brimming river,
For men may come and men may go,

But I go on for ever.Tennyson. 5. She has heard honesty praised; but never dreamt of its application

to herself.—Lamb. 6. In the mind of Champion the sight had a deep import; for he was

of the faith that God's providence is especial.—Kinglake. 7. When beggars die there are no coinets seen; The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.

Shakespeare. 8. A good stout bodily machine being provided, we must be actively

occupied, or there can be little happiness.—Sidney Smith, 9. We cannot all be masters,

Nor all masters cannot be truly followed. Shakespeare. 10. We had not been long in the camp, when a party set out in

quest of a bee-tree; and being curious to witness the sport, I gladly accepted an invitation to accompany them.- Washington

Irving.

11. Neither a borrower nor a lender be;

For loan oft loses both itself and friend;

And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.-Shakespeare. 12. He seemed to be in a state of grievous excitement; but perhaps it

was the violence of his bodily exertion which gave him this appearance; for he had quitted his horse in order the better to mount the steep; and he rushed up bareheaded to Lord Raglan, to ask that he would give some support to the French.

--Kinglake. 85. When an element common to two or more co-ordinate clauses is omitted, the sentence is said to be contracted; as,

The expiring taper rises and * sinks in the socket.

Goldsmith. (Contracted in subject.)
The king must reach Italy, or * forfeit his crown for ever.

-Milman. (Contracted in subject; partly, also, in

predicate.) When the predicate relates to two or more subjects in combination, the sentence is not contracted but simple; as,

(Three and two) make five.
(Tennyson and Browning) are the only great living poets.
For contraction in Complex Sentences, see 2 71. 2. b.

Exercise 19. Explain the CONTRACTION in each of the following sentences :1. Give thy thoughts no tongue,

Nor any unproportioned thought his act.Shakespeare. 2. And much he wished, yet feared, to try

The long-forgotten melody.-Scott. 3. A man's first care should be to avoid the reproaches of his own

heart; his next, to escape the censures of the world.—Spectator. 4. I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.—Shakespeare. 5. Fire from his eyes, clouds from his nostrils flow,

He bears his rider headlong on the foe.Dryden. 6. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few

to be chewed and digested.-Bacon. 7. He is but a landscape painter,

And a village maiden she.—Tennyson. 8. To each his sufferings; all are men,

Condemned alike to groan;
The tender, for another's pain,
The unfeeling, for his own.-Gray.

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