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in these cases the connective may always be resolved into a phrase containing a relative pronoun; as,

Oft let me wander o'er the dewy fields
Where freshness breathes.Thomson.

Here where =“in which ;" so also,
The time when he will arrive; when = “at which."
The reason why I speak; why = for which.

By the omission of the correlative (fields, time, reason), the clause becomes substantive, as explained in 38 53, 54. 61. By modern writers, all the relative pronouns are used to introduce attributive clauses, whether they are explanatory or restrictive (see § 47); but the proper relative of restriction or limitation is that, which was exclusively used in this sense by the seventeenth century writers.

62. The relative may be omitted when it is the object of a restrictive clause ; as,

I am monarch of all (that) I survey.-Cowper. 63. All relative clauses are not attributive. Sometimes the clause introduced by the relative is 'adverbial; as,

I pity you, who make this man your enemy; who =

tosince you." 64. Sometimes the relative stands between co-ordinate clauses, and is equivalent to a conjunction with a noun or pronoun; as, A little fire is quickly trodden out; which,

being suffered,
Rivers cannot quench.-Shakespeare.

Which="but it.” (Compare & 80, c.) 65. After negatives, the attributive clause is sometimes introduced by but, =

that not;" as,
There is no fireside, howsoe'er defended,

But has one vacant chair.Longfellow.
The second line is equivalent to “ that has not one vacant chair."
Here but is a subordinative or governing conjunction, =

except”

66

* See Bain's English Grammar, p. 23.

in meaning. The sentence is to be thus explained : Except, or leave out, the firesides that have one vacant chair, and there will be “no

fireside” remaining. 66. The connectives of attributive clauses may be thus classified: The clause may qualify

1. A person, and be introduced by who, that, as, &c. 2. A thing,

which, that, as, fc. 3. A place,

where, gc.) = in, to, 4. A time,

when, gc. from, why, &c. which, &c.

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5. A reason,

Exercise 11. Distinguish the SUBSTANTIVE from the ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES in the following sentences, and say regarding the latter whether they are EXPLANATORY OF RESTRICTIVE :

1. The cry is still “ They come.”Shakespeare.
2. I may do that I shall be sorry for.Shakespeare.
3. The nurse sleeps sweetly, hired to watch the sick,

Whom snoring she disturbs.-Cowper. 4. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody.—Shakespeare. 5. Surely, we imagine, we can never feel too much for those who

have suffered so dreadful a calamity.—Adam Smith. 6. Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot

O’er the grave where our hero we buried.— Wolfe. 7. It seemed as if the English people had, in this brief period, utterly

forgotten the mighty princess whose reign had been so glorious,

and over whose bier they had so lately mourned.— Tytler. 8. Who steals my purse steals trash.Shakespeare. 9. On the fifth day of the moon, which, according to the custom of

my forefathers, I always keep holy, after having washed myself and offered up my morning devotions, I ascended the high hills of Bagdat, in order to pass the rest of the day in meditation

and prayer.--Addison. 10. That thou art happy owe to God.—Milton. 11. Whoever wishes to attain an English style, familiar but not

coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and

nights to the volumes of Addison.Johnson. 12. In this we may see the reason why some men of study and

thought, that reason aright and are lovers of truth, do make no great advances in their discoveries of it.- Locke.

3. Connectives of Adverbial Clauses. 67. Adverbial clauses are generally introduced by a subordinative or governing conjunction (8 50); as,

When the age is in, the wit is out. --Shakespeare. 68. The relation of dependence may be expressed without a conjunction; as, The more they multiply, the more friends you will have.

Burke. Compare the Latin, quo plus, eo melius, =“the more the better." It should be observed that the in such phrases is not the definite article, but the old ablative of the demonstrative; cf. Anglo-Saxon, thi betera, the

mara.

69. Adverbial clauses of time express point of time, duration of time, or repetition of time, and are introduced by such subordinative conjunctions as when, while, since, whenever, &c.; as, When I was a boy, I used always to choose the wrong

side of a debate.-Johnson. He steers his flight aloft till on dry land he lights.-Milton. It has been already observed ( 60) that when meaning at which, and relating to a noun expressed, introduces an attributive clause. It may also introduce a substantive clause ( 54, 3).

70. Adverbial clauses of place, expressing motion to or from a place, or rest in a place, are introduced by such conjunctions as where, whither, &c.; as,

Where once we dwelt our name is heard no more.-Cowper. Adverbial clauses both of time and place are frequently contracted by the omission of the verb; as,

He came when (he was) called. 171. Adverbial clauses of manner express, 1. Manner simply, answering to the question how? intro

duced by as; as,

(a) He acted as he was told.
(6) The upright man speaks as he thinks.

Manner may be expressed conditionally; as, He speaks as if he were innocent. This is elliptical for, as he would speak if, &c. A8 has sometimes this force without if; as,

The noise pursues me wheresoe'er I go,
As fate sought only me.- - Dryden.

A8 = as it would do if fate, &c. 2. Manner by comparison, introduced by as ... as, than,

&c.; as,
(a) Death spares the rich as little as he forgets the

poor.
(6) It becomes the throned monarch better than his

crown. --Shakespeare. The adverbial clause of comparison is frequently contracted (as in b) by the omission of the predicate, when the verb is the same as that of the principal clause; as,

John is as old as James (is old).

John is older than James (is old). The second member of the comparison is also expressed elliptically and conditionally; as,

He is as happy as if he were a king:

As if = as he would be if.
3. Manner by effect, introduced by so

He spoke so low that he could not be heard.
72. Adverbial clauses of cause express,
1. Reason, introduced by as, because, &c.; as,

He was disappointed because he lost the prize. The notion of reason is sometimes implied in a relative pronoun or adverb; as,

I pity you who (since you) make this man your friend (vide 63).

He was disappointed when (because) he lost the prize. The conjunction of time (when) is used in this sense, because we may attach the idea of cause to that which is antecedent in time. 2. Purpose, introduced by that = in order that, or lest = in

order that not; as, Strive that you may enter in; i.e., in order that. Take heed lest you fall; i.e., in order that you may

not fall.

that ; as,

3. Condition, introduced by if, unless, = if not, &c.; as,

If he persevere he will succeed.
Unless he persevere he will not succeed; i.e., if he do

not persevere. Condition in past or in future time is frequently expressed by the subjunctive mood without a conjunction; as,

Had he persevered, he would have succeeded.

Should ħe persevere, he will succeed. A sentence containing a condition is called a hypothetical sentence. The principal clause, containing the conclusion, is called the apodosis (Greek, a giving back, a result). The subordinate clause, containing the condition, is called the protasis (Greek, a stretching forward, a premiss). Some grammarians apply these names to all correlative clauses. 4. Concession, introduced by though; as,

I will trust in him though he slay me. When the concessive clause precedes the principal clause, the latter is frequently introduced by the correlative conjunction yet; as,

Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him. The conjunction is sometimes omitted altogether; then the idea of condition, as well as of concession, is implied; as,

Were he to slay me, I should trust in him. This may be converted into antithetical co-ordination ( 82, note); thus:

He may slay me; but I will trust in him. 73. The connectives of adverbial clauses may be thus classified: The clauses may express

1. Time, and be introduced by when, while, &c.
2. Place,

where, whence, 8c.
3. Manner, simply,

comparison,
effect,

that.
4. Cause, reason,

because, gc. purpose

(in order) that, lest, gc. condition,

if, unless, &c. concession,

though, although.

Exercise 12. In the following sentences, distinguish the adverbial clauses of TIME from those of PLACE : 1. Oh what a tangled web we weave

When first we practise to deceive.- Scott. 2. He swam the Esk river where ford there was none.-Scott.

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