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38. Each of the terms of a simple sentence may be an interrogative word or phrase; as,
1st, Who has done this? Interrogative subject.
A. 1. Play on.— Willis. 2. Not a drum was heard.— Wolfe. 3. The Greeks fled towards the city.–Gibbon. 4. My hopes no more must change their name.- Wordsworth. 5. So work the honey-bees.-Shakespeare. 6. Her home is on the deep.-Campbell. 7. Lucy remained silent.—Scott. 8. Then bugle's note and cannon's roar the death-like silence broke.
Macaulay. 9. Britannia needs no bulwarks.— Campbell. 10. Diamonds on the brake are gleaming.–Scott. 11. There lay the rider distorted and pale.—Byron. 12. Jerusalem has derived some reputation from the number and importance of her memorable sieges. — Gibbon.
Unto thy guidance from this hour.— Wordsworth.
5. His house was known to all the vagrant train.— Goldsmith.
His acts being seven ages.—Shakespeare. 10. Those barbarous ages past, succeeded next
The birthday of Invention.- Cowper. 11. You can hear him swing his heavy sledge
With measured beat and slow.- Longfellow. 12. Full many a gem of purest ray serene
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear.—Gray.
1. The service past, around the pious man
With teady zeal each honest rustic ran.—Goldsmith. 2. Slowly and sadly we laid him down,
From the field of his fame fresh and gory.- Wolfe. 3. There he lives in state and bounty,
Lord of Burleigh fair and free.- Tennyson. 4. The bonfires shone bright along the whole circuit of the ramparts.
-Macaulay. 5. You wronged yourself to write in such a case.—Shakespeare.“ 6. No surly porter stands, in guilty state,
To spurn imploring famine from the gate.— Goldsmith. 7. They came on the third day, by the direction of the peasants, to
the hermit's cell.-Johnson. 8. We are to try for some historical conception of this man and
king.-Carlyle. 9. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace
The day's disasters in his morning face. — Goldsmith. 10. The favourite diversions of the middle ages, in the intervals of
war, were those of hunting and hawking:—Hallam. 11. The fisher left his skiff to rock on Tamar's glittering waves.
Macaulay. 12. I love to rejoice their poor hearts at this season.-Spectator.
D. 1. This to me in dreadful secrecy impart they did. --Shakespeare. 2. Stormed at with shot and shell
Boldly they rode and well. — Tennyson. 3. Thus, after a siege of fifty-three days, was Constantinople irretriev
ably subdued by the arms of Mahomet the Second.–Gibbon. 4. Where shall poverty reside
To 'scape the pressure of contiguous pride ?- Goldsmith.
5. Whereto serves mercy but to confront the visage of offence ?
Shakespeare. 6. The business of the toilet being over, we had at last the satisfaction
of seeing him mounted upon the colt.— Goldsmith. 7. From Clive's second visit to India dates the political ascendency of
the English in that country.—Macaulay. 8. Wild as the scream of the curlew
From crag to crag the signal flew.-Scott. 9. The year is dying in the night.- Tennyson. 10. The parting gleam of sunshine kissed that haughty scroll of gold.
Macaulay. 11. I have often left my childish sports to ramble in this place.-Lamb. 12. Meanwhile our primitive great sire to meet His godlike guest walks forth.—Milton.
Around their hearths by night
Meet in the ruddy light!—Mrs Hemans. 2. The Indians with surprise found the mouldering trees of their
forests suddenly teeming with ambrosial sweets.- Irving. 3. We buried him darkly at dead of night,
The sods with our bayonets turning,
And our lanterns dimly burning. — Wolfé. 4. Two of the bee-hunters now plied their axes vigorously at the root
of the tree, to level it with the ground.—Irving. 5. What needs my Shakespeare, for his honoured bones,
The labour of an age in piled stones ?-Milton. 6.
To put the power
Is giving peace and happiness to millions.—Thomson.
With taper light
Is wasteful and ridiculous excess.—Shakespeare. 9. From peak to peak the rattling crags among
Leaps the live thunder.—Byron. 10. My heart was filled with a deep melancholy, to see several dropping
unexpectedly in the midst of mirth and jollity.--Addison. 11. Then some leaped overboard with dreadful yell,
As eager to anticipate their grave.—Byron. 12. Unwounded from the dreadful close,
But breathless all, Fitz-James arose. -Scott.
CHAPTER III.—THE COMPLEX SENTENCE.
§ 39. When any one of the terms of a simple sentence is expanded into a clause, the sentence is said to be complex (8 31); as,
Simple, A man of learning is respected.
Complex, A man who is learned is respected. 40. A complex sentence, therefore, is a sentence which, besides its principal predicate, contains one or more subordinate predicates.
The Complex Sentence, like the Simple, contains only one main proposition. The other propositions are subsidiary to this one, and are introduced for the purpose of explaining or qualifying some part of the main assertion.
41. A complex sentence contains as many clauses as it has predicates. That containing the main proposition is called the Principal clause; the others are called Subordinate clauses.
42. In Tabular analysis—or the method of arranging the clauses in a table, to show their relation to each other,—the following notation may be used :
1. The principal clause is marked by a capital letter, A. 2. The subordinate clauses are marked by small letters,
3. The degree of subordination is indicated by a number
placed over the letter (an algebraic index), thus: all clauses immediately subordinate to A, are marked at; clauses subordinate to ał are marked a”; those sub.
ordinate to ao are marked a', &c., &c. 4. Where two or more clauses are subordinate to the same
clause, they are distinguished by numbers placed before the letters (algebraic co-efficients), thus : two clauses subordinate to A, are marked laư, 2al; two or more clauses subordinate to al are marked la’, 2a, 3a, &c., &c. This is exhibited in the following table:
A. 1st degree
lal 2a1 3a1 4a-, &c. Subordinate 2d
1a2 2a? 3a2 4a?, &c.
1a3 2a3 3a3 4a3, &c.
&c, 43. Two or more subordinate clauses having the same kind of subordination to a superior clause, are said to be co-ordinate with each other; as, la2 and 2a’ in example to Exercise 9.
Exercise 9. Analyze the following sentences into CLAUSES, with Notation :
Example. " As soon as it was understood that the attack was directed against him alone, and that, if he were sacrificed, his associates might expect advantageous and honourable terms, the ministerial ranks began to waver." —Macaulay.
Clauses. al. As soon as it was understood 1az. That the attack was directed against him alone 2a. And that his associates might expect advantageous and honoura'. If he were sacrificed, A. The Ministerial ranks began to waver.
Table of relations.
a. 1. As soon as morning dawned, all doubts and fears were dispelled. —
Robertson. 2. Before I invite you into my society and friendship, I will be open
and sincere with you.—Addison. 3. The sorrow for the dead is the only sorrow from which we refuse
to be divorced.—Irving. 4. Is it possible for people, without scruple, to offend against the
law which they carry about them in indelible characters, and
that stares them in the face whilst they are breaking it ?- Locke. 5. Though this be madness, yet there is method in it.--Shakespeare.