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manners, rites, and customs, that words come, as it were, along with these, by imperceptible degrees, to vary considerably from their primitive signification. Perhaps it is oftener than we are aware, to be ascribed to this cause, that the terms employed by translators, are found so feebly to express the meaning of the original.

$ 2. The first of the words above mentioned, xnpuogelv, rendered to preach, is derived from xnpuě, rendered preacher, whence also xmpuyua, rendered 2 preaching. The primitive xnpuž signifies properly both herald and common crier, and answers exactly to the Latin word caduceator in the first of these senses, and to præco in the second. The verb xnpuocetv is accordingly to cry, publish, or proclaim authoritatively, or by commission from another, and the noun xnpuyua is the thing published or proclaimed. The word anput occurs only twice in the Septuagint, and once in the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus, and evidently means in them all cri

The other sense of the word, namely, herald, or messenger of important intelligence between princes and states, is nearly related, as the same persons had often the charge of carrying such em. bassies, and of proclaiming war or peace: but it is not quite the same. In the New Testament the word seems to partake of both senses, but more evidently of that of crier. And to this sense the derivatives κηρυσσώ and κηρυγμα, more properly accord than to the other : for, to discharge the office of herald is,


in Greek, κηρυκευειν, and the office itself κηρυκευσης. But these words, though frequent in classical writers, are not found in Scripture. The word xmput occurs but thrice in the New Testament, once in each of the Epistles to Timothy 183, wherein Paul calls himself κηρυξ και αποςολος ; and once it is used by the Apostle Peter, who, speaking of Noah, calls him 189 κηρυξ δικαιοσυνης. The word κηρυγμα occurs but in three places in the Septuagint, and imports in them all proclamation or thing proclaimed. In one of those places it relates to that made by the Prophet Jonah, through the streets of Nineveh, called, as in the Gospel, preaching 190, and in another 19, is, in the common version, rendered proclamation. In the New Testament it occurs eight times, and is always rendered preaching. In two of those places it relates to Jonah's proclamation in Nineveh. The verb xnpuoow occurs in the New Testament about five and twenty times, always in nearly the same sense : I proclaim, prædico, palam annuncio. In at least twelve of these cases it relates solely to proclamations made by human authority, and denotes in them all to warn, or, by crying out, to advertise people openly of any thing done or to be done, or danger to be avoided. This may be called the primitive sense of the word, and in this sense it will be found to be oftenest employed in the New Testament.

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198 1 Tim, ii. 7. 2 Tim. i. 11. 189 2 Pet. ii. 5.

190 Jonah, iii. 2. 191 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22.

0 3. Now if it be asked, whether this suits the import of the English word, to preach, by which it is almost always rendered in the common version of this part of the canon, I answer that, in my judgment, it does not entirely suit it. To preach, is de fined, by Johnson, in his Dictionary, “ to pro

nounce a public discourse upon sacred subjects.” This expresses, with sufficient exactness, the idea we commonly affix to the term. For, we may admit, that the attendant circumstances of church, pulpit, text, worship, are but appendages. But the definition, given by the English lexicographer, cannot be called an interpretation of the term xmpvoow, as used in Scripture. For, so far is it from being necessary that the unpuyua should be a discourse, that it may be only a single sentence, and a very short sentence too. Nay, to such brief notifications we shall find the term most frequently applied. Besides the word κηρυσσω, and κηρυγμα, were adopted, with equal propriety, whether the subject were sacred or civil. Again, though the verb xnpvoow always implied public notice of some event, either accomplished, or about to be accomplished, often accompanied with a warning, to do or forbear some. thing; it never denoted either a comment on, or explanation of, any doctrine, critical observations on, or illustrations of, any subject, or a chain of reasoning, in proof of a particular sentiment. And, if so, to pronounce publicly such a discourse as, with us, is denominated sermon, homily, lecture, or preaching, would, by no means, come within thre VOL.


meaning of the word xmpvoow, in its first and common acceptation. It is, therefore, not so nearly synonymous with Sišaomw, I teach, as is now common ly imagined.

4. BUT, that we may be more fully satisfied of this, it will be necessary to examine more closely the application of the word in the Gospels, and in the Acts. The first time it occurs, is in the account that is given of our Lord's harbinger 192. In those days came John the Baptist, κηρυσσων εν τη ερημω της Iουdalas, xau neywv, making proclamation in the wilderness of Judea, and saying. Now, what was it that he cried, or proclaimed in the wilderness? It imme. diately follows, Μετανοειτε ηγγικε γαρ η βασιλεια TWV spavwv. Reform; for the reign of heaven approacheth. This is, literally, his xnpuyua, proclamation, or preaching, stript of the allegorical language in which it is clothed by the Prophet 193, as quoted in the next verse, to this effect: For this is he to whom Isaiah alludeth in these words, The cry of a crier in the desert, Prepare a way for the Lord, make his * road straight.Hence we may learn, what the Evangelists call βαπτισμα μετανοιας, which John preached for the remission of sins. He proclaimed to all within hearing, that if they would obtain the pardon of former offences, they must now enter on a new life; for that the reign of the Messiah was just about to commence ; and, as a pledge of their

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intended reformation, and an engagement to it, he called on all to come and be baptized by him, confessing their sins.

Another public intimation, which John made to the people, and to which the word xnpuoow is also applied, we have in Mark 194 : He proclaimed, say. ing, After me cometh one mightier than I, whose "shoe latchet I am not worthy to stoop down and untie. I indeed baptize you in water, but he will bap.

you in the Holy Spirit.Such short calls, warnings, notices, or advertisements, given with a loud voice to the multitude, from whomsoever, and on what subject soever, come under the notion of xnpuyuata, as used in Scripture. To the particular moral instructions which John gave the people severally, according to their different professions, the Word κηρυσσειν is not applied, but παρακαλειν, to admonish, to exhort 195, Joana MeV 8V XOL ÉTEPA no. ρακαλων ευαγγελιζετο τον λαον. Which is very improperly translated, And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people. Ilona is manifestly construed with παρακαλων, not with ευηγγελιζετο, whose only regimen is τον λαον. The meaning is therefore: Accompanied with many other exhor. tations, he published the good news to the people,

5. Let us next consider in what manner the term xnpuoow is applied to our Saviour. The first time we find it used of him 196, the very same pro

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