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mous and powerful aid to the fate, in the present emergency; that voluntary subscriptions, for raising soldiers, and for giving a bounty to sailors, have been opened in several places; and (our Author doubts not) that the same spirit will diffuse itself through both the British isles. Finally, he quesions not that such as are debarred, by infirmities and years, from personal service, will certainly exbibit, on the present occasion, their love for their country, and their zeal for its safety,'-It was, probably, for the sake of this concluding paragraph, that the whole pamphlet was written ; and, so far as the Author's arguments may influence and animate us to pursue such measures as will tend most to the permanent safety and best interests of our country (without any regard to ministerial or party views), we hope that this little sketch of political history has not been written in vain. Art. 37. Guatimozin's Letters on the present State of Ireland,

and the Right of binding it (i. e. that Country) by British Acts of Parliament, &c. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. E. Johnson. 1779.

These letters have been much talked of, from their first periodical appearance (in April and May last) in one of the Dublin prints. They are written with great energy and spirit; and they contain an earneft, pay a vehement exhortation to the people of Ireland, to persevere in their new system of CONSUMING, EXCLUSIVELY, the manufa&tures of their own country, as the mof easy and probable means of procuring for themselves that redress of their national grievances which, he says, they will ever look in vain for from the justice or mercy of England. He enters particularly into the great question of England's right of imperial sovereignty over Ireland; which he denies; and he argues the point notably, if not convincingly t.-He is extremely severe in his reflections on the English, whose treatment of Ireland he avers to have been in the highett degree unjuft and tyrannical. The Scots, too, are not overlooked.- Or our Northern countrymen he thus, in the bitterness of his jealousy, expresseth himfelf:

After fully, and, we think, fatisfactorily, explaining the peculiar nature, and present circumstances, of the linen manufacture and trade of Ireland, and lamenting, as a national reproach, the encouragement given by the Irish to the importation of linens from Scotland, which he says are shamefully worn by his countrywomen, he then proceeds• Bui, in truth, kentings and gauzes are not the moft pernicious commodity imported from Scotland into this country. The men of Scotland, who are overrunning us universally, are infinitely more dangerous. I am an enemy to national reflections; but when the people of an entire country are all marked with the same distinguishing features of character, the observation on them ceases to be called na. tional reflection. These men have a propenfity to emigration, and they carry with them into every country the vices of their own; religious hypocrisy, servility of manners, and political depravicy di

* The Freeman's Journal, we suppose. + Convincingly to the English reader, we mean :-such of the Irish who are disaffected to the British government, will, no doubt, be convinced.

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Ninguish them from all the nations of the earth. The only fatit, fa&tion we have is, that the principles of thele Scotchmen in England have contributed very much to the ruin of the British empire. Eng: land has pledged us in the bitter draught.'

But, he adds, ' I perceive my paper swelling along with my in. dignation'--and so will the breast of many a Northern reader; who will be ready to cry out, * Enough of this Irish Indian f; away with biên.Art. 38. A View of the Evidence relative to the Conduct of the

American War, wider Sir William Howe, Lord Viscount Howe, and General Burgoyne ; as given belore a Committee of the House of Commons, Jait Session of Parliament, To which is added, a Collection of Fugitive Picces, that are faid to have given rise to that important Inquiry. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Richardlon and Ur. quhart, &c. 1779.

Praise is due to the Edi:or of this publication, for the care and attention which he has manifeftad in cigetting the very important materials of which it is composed. He has introduced them by a proper fummary of the contents; he has pointed, by marginal notes, to the most effential and fliiking fa&is ; and he has illustrated the evidence of the offisers and other gentlemen *, by the addition of many occaîonal rimarks and priclures, published as events occurred; and especially by letters from Bolton, New York, &c. which contain very pertinent but severe comments on the conduct of our commanders in chief

Speaking, in his prefatory advertisement, of the fugitive pieces in this collection, the Editor observes, that they will be found to bear hard upon the commanders in chief. This, however, he juftly adds, thould not be attributed to any partiality in the collector, but to the nature of the subject; as almost every essay that has appeared in the public prints, containing either reasoning or fa&ts, has been a severe censure on the conduct of the war.'

It is, really, a melancholy retrospect which is here given of our military exploits in attempting to reduce the revolted colonies; and our Editor, with all his professed candour, appears to have been n.uch affected by his view of the facts, details, and strictures, which he had been arranging : for he closes the whole with a 'REVIEW of the war,' which is written with a spirit that may serve, alternately, jo freeze and fire the blood of the indignant reader. His concluding paragraph is as follows:

# Guatimozin, the nephew and son-in law of Montezuma, was the latt of the Mexican Emperors. He defended his country againlt the Spaniards, with admirable courage and fortitude, to the last extremity. He was finally taken prisoner by Cortes, who completed the infamy of his bloody career in America, by putting this gallant young Prince, first to the torture, and then to an ignominious death, Such were the character and the fate of that hero whose name is assumed by this patriotic assertor of the liberties of Ireland.

Among these are included the evidence of Mr. Galloway, late a member of the American Congress.

• The

2 S.

$ The consequences of this man's † unaccountably weak and wretched conduct are, thirty thousand brave men destroyed, thirty millions of money expended, thirteen provinces loft, and a war with the whole House of Bourbon.-If such misconduct is to pass without censure or punishment, there must be a radical weakness, either in the constitution of the state, or in the minds of the people, and the total dissolution of this empire must be fast approaching : for the people who fit in patient stupidity, and see themselves become the victims of ignorance or treachery, 'cannot, and do not, deserve to exilt as a nation.' Art. 39. The Examination of Joseph Galloway, Efq; late Speaker

of the House of Assembly of Pennsylvania ; before she H use of Commons, in a Committee on the American Papers. With explanatory Notes. 8vo. Wilkie.

1779. We believe that the whole of Mr. Galloway's very important evidence appears in this printed copy; with the addition of many useful and interesting notes, relative to the conduct of the war in America,--the situations and movements of the British troops, - the circumstances of the friends to government,-the proceedings of the Congress, their adherents, their forces, &c. &c. * The result of this examination and enquiry is by no means favourable to the commander of the royal army. It is, indeed, in many capital respects, totally inconsistent with the representations given in the examinations of Lord Cornwallis, General Grey, and ocher evidences, according to which it appeared (as we observed in our last Month's Review I, page 478), that our commanders in chief had accomplished all that in their situation could have been accomplished, for the good of the service. Mr. Galloway's evidence was not then before us.-After all, Time holds out to us the truet lights, with respect to the views, and motives, and actions of great men: and, as the politician in the play sagely remarks, those who live longest will see mort.'

Mr. Galloway was a member of Congress; he came over to the royal army in December 1776; and continued with it till the evacuation of Philadelphia in June 1778: abandoning his eitate and + Sir W. H-e.

In giving an account of the distresses of the Congress-party, many circumstances arise which cannot fail to knock the humanity

of the reader, whatever be his party. Among other particulars, Mr. Galloway said, in examination, that in the year 1777, the Americans had loft, in the Canada expedition, in the severai engagements with the British troops, taken prisoners, and by deaths in their mili. tary hospitals, nearly 40,000 men. Bue in a note to this part of the evidence, it is said the rebel states, since the commencement of the rebellion, have lost in their military hospitals, and in battle, in their naval and land service, not much thort of 100,00* men; which amount to a fifth part of the white men in America capable of bear. ing arms.'- A dreadful reckoning, indeed! What have they not to answer for, whose wicked politics have been the first cause of so much calamity to their fellow-creatures! | Art. Exam, of the Earl of Cornwallis. F4


property in America, to the value, as he declared to the Committos, of above forty thousand pounds Sterling. Art. 40. De Primordijs Civitatum Oratio. In qua agitur de Bella

Civili inter M. Britanniam & Colonias nunc flagranti, &c. i. e, An Oration concerning the Origin of States, in which the Author trears of the Civil War between Great Britain and her Colonies. By James Dunbar, Professor of Philosophy in the King's College, Aberdeen. 410.

1 s. 6d. Cadell. 1779. As an academical difcourse in praise of the late Earl of, Chatham, this performance is entitled to some commendation ; being written, in general, with a confiderable degree of classical purity. We could point out, however, several passages, of which the construction might be rendered more easy and perspicuous; in a few, the expression is not agreeable to the Latin idiom; and the oration throughout, like most other productions of modern Latinity, is deficient in those unaffected graces of compofition which distinguih and adorn the wri. tings of the Auguftan age.

if we consider Mr. Dunbar's performance as a political treatise addressed to the public, it is not easy to discover its obje&t or defiga; The first part of the discourse is evidently written with a view to introduce a panegyric on the Earl of Chatham; who, if called to the administration of affairs, would, in Mr. Dunbar's opinion, restore the ancient splendor of the British empire. This observation necessarily occasions a noie, in which Mr. Dunbar laments the death of that great man. As to the Colonies, the Author concludes by advising that we hould endeavour to recover and to retain them by benefits, noe by injuries ;-and that Britons, if they cannot be the masters, should be the patrons of the New World, “ Novi orbis terrarum patrocinium, Jo non imperium, fuftineant Britanni. Atque volentes per populos dent jura, viamqu: affectent Olympo." Art. 41. Observations on the National Debt, with Proposals for

reducing the said Debt, and for raising future Supplies, in an easy and eligible Manner, by which the National Credit, and the Pro. perty of Individuals, will be preserved and improved. Humbly addreffed to, and earnestly recommended to the Confideration of, every Pulleffor of Property, of what Nature or Kind soever, within the Kingdom. By a fincere Well-wither of his Country, Svo, 6d. Dilly.

This jin tre well-wisher of his country may, for what we know to the contrari, be fome ily gue of a landholder, although we rather suspect it is only ad Parnafjum, who artłally endeavours to persuade the stockholders to give up one fittieth part of their whole property every year to government, in order to lessen the enormous weight of the bational debi. He, howeve, obligingly thinks they ought not to give up, the whole, buc stop when they have, by these means, reduced it to fixty, eighty, or even to a hundred millions; for our

• If we entirely abandon the imperium, it is not obvious what the Auibor means by dent jura. I belongs not to those who have the patrocinium only dare jura.

Aushop Aathor does not presume to draw the line absolutely, but generoolly leaves it to their own discretion where to stop in this respect.

This glorious and disinterefted act of the ftockholders, as our Author allows it to be, moft, he hints, have its proper effect on the minds of the gentlemen landholders, and induce them also to contribute to the exigencies of government, perhaps one per cent. of their net yearly income, or at least one per cent. of what they Itand charged at in the poors rates, which every one knows is aot above one-fourtha part of their property in many parts of England.

Time alone can Thew, with certainty, whether the holders of stock will think one per cent. of the net yearly income of a landed gentleman, as he may have been pleased to give it in to the assessors of the poors sates, equivalent to two per cent of their whole property; for it must be remembered, that although the consilidated three and four per cent, annuities fell now for about fixty pounds, they cof many of the prefent proprietors upwards of one hundred pounds. NATURAL HISTORY,

&c. . Art. 42. The Natural History of English Song-Birds, including such foreign Birds as are usually brought

over, and esteemed for their Singing: their proper Management, Diseases and Cures. To which are added, Figures of the Cock, Hen, and Egg of eack Species, exactly copied from Nature. By Mr. Eleazar Albin. A new Edition, corrected, with several Improvements under the Article of Canary Birds. 8vo. 3 s. plain, and 7 s. coloured. Lowndes. 1779.

Albin's Natural Hiftory of English Song-Birds is a work well known, and efteemed for the accuracy of the drawings. The present Edition, thus reduced, in size and price, cannot fail of meeting with a due acceptance from the public, -and especially from young readers, who are bird-fanciers. The engravings are neat; the hiftory, &c. plain and intelligible to all capacities ; and, on the whole, this is a very pretty book to be given, by way of present, to youth of both sexes. Art. 43. Descriptions and figures of Petrifactions found in the

Quarries, Gravel.pits, &c. near Bath. Collected and drawn by John Walcott, Ela, 8vo. 23. 6 d. fewed. Matthews, &c. .

Although the engravings are not very elegant, the enumeration and description of the many subjects here colle&ed, will, no doubt, prove acceptable to the curious enquirer into this extensive branch of Natural History.

NOVEL S and MEMOIR S. Art. 44. Shenfione Green; or, the New Paradise Lost: Being a

History of Human Nature. In shree Volumes. Written by the Proprietor of the Green. The Editor Courtney Melmoth. izmo. 7 s. 6 d. sewed. Baldwin. 1779.

The idea of this entertaining tale was suggefted by a passage in the works of Mr. Shenstone, in which he says, ' had ( a fortune of eight or ten thousand pounds a year, I would build myself a neigh. bourhood.'- This plan Mr. Melmoth supposes carried into execution by a worthy knight, who has more good nature than penetration, and more money than wice The narrative discovers no inconsider


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