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that M. de Voltaire was very grossly mistaken, or that the imperial income must have been more than doubled since the year 1735, or that our Author has valued it at, by far, too great a rate; any of these three may have been the case. Voltaire says, that in 1735, reckoning the tribute paid by the Tartars, with all taxes and duties in money, the sum total amounted to 13 millions of rubles, and that this income was sufficient, at that timè, to pay 339,500, as well sea as land forces. Things indeed are greatly changed in Russia since that period. : Our Au. thor tells us that above 60 millions of rubles (i. e, about 12 millions sterling) circulate in Bank Bills in the Russian empire. Every kind of means has been employed to promote national improvement in Russia. The establishment of a seminary formed by the Empress for the education of the young Greeks costs annually 41,613 rubles. Our Author reckons at Petersburgh 80 manufactures of different forts, among which are 11 of woollen cloth : he reckons the same number at Moscow. Beside these, there are in the rest of the empire 53 woolle:3 manufactures, which furnish coarse cloths to the annual am ount of 500,0. rubles. It is a remarkable proof of the infancy of letters ana; science and Russia (if it be true), that in the whoie compire there are but 16 printing-presses, of which 12 are at Petersburgh and Moscow : it is, however, to be observed, that Livonia and Esthonia are not comprehended in this account. The number of monasteries in Russia amounts to 458, and that of the churches to 19,435. The Author promises another volume of letters on the Russian empire, with an accurate chart of the Caspian Sea.

IX. Teutsche Reichsgeschichte, &c. i.e. A History of the Gero, man Empire, in which the most effential Points of Teutonic History are more especially unfolded and illustrated. By M. Putter, Counsellor of Justice at Gottingen. 8vo. 1778. The grand lines of the German History are perfectly exhibited in the work before us. The ancient state of that country, both with respect to its territory and its inhabitants, the character of the latter, and their division into different nations, are accurately described : the progress of civilization, and the almost imperceptible gradations of moral, civil, and political, improvement, are distinguished, with a peculiar sagacity and precision, from the earliest ages to the present time. The various effects of the peace of Westphalia, with respect to the princes and cities of the empire, to the imperial court, and to the state of religion, are pointed out by M, PUTTER, who brings down this political history to the entrance of the King of Prussia into Bohemia in 1778. The learned Writer confirms his relations and decisions by the very best authorities, and we make no doubt but his work will meet with the most favour


from the peace of Weltpreihe imperiale counter, who

able reception. We mult caution the Reader of foreign productions not to confound this work with the Historical Manual of the Empire, or with the View of the Revolutions of Germany, for which the Public is indebted also to M. PUTTER. The same ingenious man employed his pen in the late formidable contest in Germany, which has ended so happily for humanity, and his historical and literary Illustrations on the Succession of Bavaria were highly esteemed.

X. Jo. Gottlob Boehmii de Litteratura Lipsiensi Opuscula Acas demica : i.e. Academical Differtations concerning the Literature of Leipfic. By M. BOEHME, Counsellor, &c. 8vo. Leiplic. 1779. There is a great deal of erudition in this publication, and several things, quæ tollere velles.


For J U 'L Y, 1779. .

Art. 17. History of the Origin of Medicine : An Oration deli-

vered at the anniversary Meeting of the Medical Society of
London. By John Coakley Letilom, M. D. F. R. S. &c. 410.
5 s. Phillips. 1778.
T EIS oration, printed at the request of the Medical Society, com-

prehends the firit chapter of an hisiory of the origin and progress of medicine, and its professors, which the Author appears to have planned on a very extensive scale, if we may judge from this foeci. men. The first chapter of the first book, which creats of medicine in general, from the creation to the Trojan war (being the forll of nine periods or æras into which the history is supposed to be divided), contains seven' fections, in which the Author treats, 1. Of the Practice of Physic; 2. Or Surgery ; 3. Of Midwifery ; 4. Of Anatomy; 5. Of Botany and Pharmacy; 6. Of Chemistry; and 7. Of Mystic Medicine.

Our Medical Historian, or Orator rather, has rendered his oration equally intructive and amusing, by numerous anecdotes and quotations, in the form of notes; and by a still more numerous hof of references, which evince an immense share of multifarious reading, well digested and applied. Art. 18. Obfervations on the Plan proposed for establishing - A

Dispensary and Medical Society for the private and only immediate Use of the Subscribers, their families, and Friends." 8vo. 6d. Dilly. 1779.

In the speculating and planning age in which we have the good fortune to live, it seems, from the contents of this pamphlet, chat certain schemers, who doubtless have the public interest only at heart, and who think that health is purchased too dear from the apoche. cary, have proposed or opened a kind of wholesale warehouse; where, as they pretend, healih may be bad a pennyworth. In this inftitution, besides audilois, messengers, &c. we aje told there are to be

nine officers under the title of managers - Doctors belike — who are to receive sol. each for thirty-five visits.

It requires fome little arithmetic, but we have been at the pains to calculate the very fractional fee of these medical managers. Each of che managerial visits will precisely cost the patient one pound eight shillings and sixpence and Oths of a penny:-while the honeit apothecary,' says the Author, in the common line of business, would pay twice as many vifits for half the money; and yet the authors of this new scheme modeftly apply to these practitioners the epithet of “greedy men,” and pretend to found their plan upon the principle of economy.' He calculates, too that by this æconomical scheme, adopted to the extent of the plan, the first year's expence would be 500,000 I. and that of every succeeding year 250,0c0l.; and that the least of these fums is more than all the practitioners within the bills of mortality raise from the public annually.

As we consider law as a greater evil, and a more costly commodity than even physic; and as every man that has property is liable to the vilitation of a law-fuit, as well as to that of a fever; we should not wonder if some other schemers were to take in subscribers, and fare among them a fund for maintaining suits in law or equity, in behalf of such of the adventurers as might happen to be faddled with them. But we leave this hint to be improved upon, and extended, by the adepts in the art of raising money by voluntary taxation. Art. 19. The Medical Register for the Year 1779. 8vo. 4.5

fewed. "Murray. The plan of this work is to give lilts of all the members of every medical body in the kingdom ; of phylicians and surgeons to the soyal family, to the feet and army, and to hospitals ; of medical professors; and even of all the medical practitioners of every class throughout Great Bri:ain, with their places of residence, and a catalogue of the works of such among them as are authors. Likewise, lists of the principal of the faculty in Ireland ; of profesors and eminent men in foreign countries; accounts of medical books, English and foreign; articles of medical news, &c. It is proposed to make the publication annual ; and the faculty are iovited to contribute their respective shares of information to so useful a design. That many of the articles comprised in the above lists are objects of a just and laudable curiosity to the profession, will be univer. sally acknowledged ; and so far the plan will probably be thought worthy of encouragement; but we apprehend, that part of it which pretends to reginer every practitioner, however obscure, in the whole kingdom, will be conceived by many equally impracticable and nugatory. In effect, who can possibly be interelled to know that the village of Gotham is served in medical matters by Mefirs, Julep and Forceps ? unless it be the druggilt's rider, who may be tempted to deviate from his regular track, in order to inspect their • beggarly account of empty boxes.'

From our own knowledge, we can pronounce several of these country lists to be both defective and erroneous. The other parts of the plan appear to be executed with sufficient accuracy and judgmeat.

.. Art, Art. 20. Observations on Baron Dimfdale's Remarks on Dr. Lett.

fom's Letter to Sir Robert Barker and George Stacpoole, Elg; refpe&t. ing General Inoculation. By John Coakley Lettsom, M. D. F. R. S. and S. A. 8vo. 1 s. Dilly; &c. 1779.

We have with much concern observed this dispute relative to general inoculation be coming more and more personal in each fucceffive publication. Now that it is become entirely so, we shall excuse ourselves from entering into particulars which can be of no consequence to our Readers. Art. 21. Advice to lying-in Women, on the Custom of drawing the

Breasts. By C. Cruttwell, Surgeon, at Bath. Second Edition. 400. 15. Bath printed, for Dilly, &c. London. 1779.

The purpose of this pamphlet is to hew that drawing the breasts in all cases, whether the child be to be fuckled or not, is an unnecessary and mischievous practice. He affirms, that when the breasts are hardened and obstructed by too great a flow of milk, a state of irritability is induced, which renders the strong suction of a grown person extremely painful, and liable to produce inflammation; and that such suction will rather invite a greater quantity of fluid to the gland than unload it: on the contrary, he asserts, that if they be let alone, a re-absorption of the milk will take place, the breast will return to its usual state, and no sort of inconvenience will happen. The proof of this point he chiefly derives from experience in his own practice, which he represents as uniformly successful in preventing the common disorders of the breasts. Whether he does not carry " the matter too far in forbidding drawing the breasts in all cases, we fall not determine ; but, on the whole, what he says appears well to merit the attention of those concerned. Art. 22. A Treatise on the Teeth: Wherein an accurate Idea of

their Structure is given, the Cause of their Decay pointed out, and their various Diseases enumerated. To which is added, the most effectual Method of treating the Disorders of the Teeth and Gums, established by a long and successful Practice, By Barth. Rufpini, Surgeon-Dentist. A new Edition, with an Appendix of new Cases. 12mo. Fielding and Walker. 1779.

An account of the first edition of this work is contained in the Monthly Review, Vol. xxxix. p. 157. The cases now first published in the Appendix are five in number. The first is of a collection of matter in the antrum maxillare, consequent on the unkilful extraction of one of the upper grinders, which was cured by perforation. The second and third are of excrescences in the mouth arising from the irritation of broken points of the teeth. There were successfully removed by the knife. The fourth we ihall print entire for the benefit of our fair Readers.

"A lady of distinction, about twenty-two years of age, in the month of July 1777, sent for me in consequence of a very alarming complaint in her mouth. Her gums appeared greatly swelled, looked very Aorid, and were exceedingly painful; The complained of a braliy talte, and had some difficulty of swallowing any kind of folid food.

• Am

. An apothecary in the neighbourhood had been applied to the day before I saw her, and pronounced the disease an inflammatory sore throat, from cold. Though at that time I had some suspicion that her distress arose from another source, I had no objections to her continuing the use of an emollient gargle with nitre, which had been ordered for her. The next day all her symptoms were aggravated, when being still further confirmed in the conjecture I had at first formed, I requested an experienced Surgeon might be consulted ; and accordingly Mr. Glover, Surgeon-Major of the Ellex Regiment, the following morning was called in. On inspecting the seat of the disorder, we found three of the lower incisores loose, the breath very fetid, and a great quantity of saliva secreted from the glands.--The last-mentioned Gentleman, on our retiring, declared the Lady had been taking some preparation of Mercury, which was the cause of the above symptoms. .

. As the matter was of so delicate a nature, and the other Practi. tioner did not fall in with this opinion, though it entirely correfponded with that I had at first adopted, the utmost caution was observed in asking the necessary questions of the Lady and her dom meftics. One of them, after a long enquiry, said the Hair-dresser had occasionally used a small quantity of some mercurial pomatum. The man, who lived in the neighbourhood, was directly fent for; and after some hesitation produced a box, which was found to cons. tain about an ounce of the Unguent um Neapolitanum, not above balf a dracbm of which, it appeared, he had used in the drefling, in order to prevent a certain kind of animalcula breeding in the hair. By proper medical treatment the Lady recovered her health, in about ten days after; but her gums continued in a spongy, flaccid (tate, for some time."

The fifth case is of painful symptoms proceeding from the eruption of the Dentes Sapientia, which were mistaken for rheumatic and nervous complaints, but at length were removed by lancing the gums. Art. 23 A Treatise upon the Inflammation in the Breasts, peculiar.

to lying in Women; and also upon fome Diseases attending them, which are the Consequences of Neglect or Malıreatment. By J. Clubbe, Surgeon, of Ipswich. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Longman, &c. 1779.

This Wri:er begins with an anatomical account of the structure of the breasts and uterus, particularly describing their vascular con. nexion, whence he deduces the conclusion, that the breasts are. appendages to the uterus, and undergo all their changes in consequence of changes happening in that organ. On this rational foundation all his method of treatment in inflammations of the breasts is built. The practice he inculcates is extremely simple, furning solely upon depletion of the mammary arteries by internals, and relaxation of the orifices of the lactiferous tubes by externals. The only topical application which he recommends in all disorders of the breasts, is the common bread and milk poultice softened with oil. He makes a proper distinction between those indurations of the breasts proceeding from impacted membrane and cellular substance, and true scintic of the glands; juftly considering the former as mere topical diseases.


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