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shortel and plainest Manner, and supported by Examples, all taken from Cicero. Proper to be perused and learnt by Heart, by young People who have acquired a sufficient Knowledge of the Syntax. To which is added, a very concise Treatise on Numbers, thewing in the fullest Light, the Way, of expresling them in Latin. With the Roman Manner of counting the Days of Months. By A. De Burcy. 12mo. I s. 6d. Printed for the Author. Sold by Fielding and Walker.
This work is divided into five chapters. The firft confifts of such general roles as were reducible under no particular head; the second is confined to-nouds; the third to pronouns; the fourth to verbs; and the fifth to conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs, and other particles. The rules are drawn up with perspicuity and brevity, and in general, are judiciously exemplified. There are some, however, which we think not altogether unexceptionable ; those we mean, in which the young pupil is taught, that words are fometimes added in Latin merely for the sake of ornament. In this point, we apprehend the Writer to be mistaken. Whatever is merely useless, can never by good writers be considered as ornamental. It is posible, indeed, that in a dead language, there will sometimes be shades of meaning, too faint to strike the eye of a modern observer. Yet we may assure curselves, that what may now appear to be altogether expletive, was originally intended to give fulness to the sense as well as hara mony to the period, either to add energy to the expression, or to render it more emphatical. That this, indeed, was the case, is obvious from many of the examples which Mr. De Burcy introduces as proving the contrary.
The Treatise on nouns of number will be very useful to young beginners, who generally find the Latin numerals extremely perplexing. Art. 43. Institutes of Arithmetic, elementary and practical; de
ligned as a Text-Book, for the Use of Schools. By William Gordon, Author of the Universal Accountant. 12mo. 2 5. Edin. burgh printed : London sold by Richardson and Urquhart. 1779.
There is a kind of classical elegance, if we may fo express oure felves, in the method used throughout this book, which is not only new, but pleasing also. The definitions and rules are brief, clear, and diftinét: but, as a school-book, we cannot help thinking, that there is a deficiency in the number of examples ; unless we are to fuppose it intended for youth of a riper age, than that at which with ùs they usually set to learn arithmetic.
S E R M O N. 1. The Magistrate's Duty with refpe&t to Vice and Immorality, set forth,
-By a Minister of the established Church. 8vo. 6 d. 1779 Sold by Evans in Pater nofter-row.
Whether this sermon was preached, or if preached, at what place, does not appear; it is, however, seasonably offered to the condidera. tion of the public, particularly those to whom it is immediately addrefled, viz. all the magiftrates of the kingdom.
After confidering the magiftrate's duty to punih vice, and enu. merating several irregularities, which call for his particular regard; 5.
fome objeâions to the exertion of his authority for this purpole, áre answered ; and among the reft, the common, but often futile plea, that the magistrate is not called to aĉ, unless some complaint is brought before him.
This Writer insists, that there are several cases in which it is the magistrate's duty to visit suspected places, and search out offenders. He obferves particularly, that the legislature has laid a pecuniary penalty on mayors, sheriffs, &c. for not searching places fulpeged of unlawful games. On the whole, it is to be doubted, that there are magistrates, who mighe profit (in the virtuous sense of the word) by a careful attention to the representations and advice delivered in this useful sermon.
Correspondent in your last, p. 399. maintains from Bingham,
that “ the use of organs came into the church foce the time of Thomas Aquinas, anno 1250, and that they were introduced into churches by Martinus Sanutus, à bout the year 1290.” But I think I carr trace them at least a hundred years higher, on the authority of Gervas, the Morik of Canterbury, who wrote about the year 1194. Jo his description of Lanfranc's church, as it was before the fire in 1174, he has these words, “ Crux auftralis fupra fornicent organa geflare folebat *.” And the ornamental foundation of this organ lott, being a projection faced with wainscotting painted, on which are the figures of St. Auguttine and St. Gregory, may ftill be seen in that cathedral, over St. Michael's chapel, and is described by Mr. Goftling, in his ingenious Walk,' p. 238. second edition. Yours, &c.
* We have read our worthy and learned Correspondent's letter, concerning the Doctrine of the Eternity of Hell Tormeots, with artention, but not with conviction. What we advanced upor that subject, in the Article concerning Bishop Pearce's Sermons, was not haftily thrown out; but was the result of long and deep enquiry and reflection. We cannot, however, as Reviewers, enter into private controversies. If our Correspondent should resolve to lay his sentiments before the Public, we Thall give them a candid and impartial confideration.
Att J. D.'s letter, relative to the want of a GENERAL INDEX to all the volumes of the Monthly Review, has afreth excited our attention to that design ; concerning which we shall speedily come to a final determination,
*** Mr. Knox's Essays, Moral and Literary, Vol. II. in our next.
• Decem Scriptores, p. 1293.
A P P E N D I X
VOLUME the SIXTY-FIRST.
ART. I. Voyage Pittoresque de la Grece. Chap. IV.-Travels through the dif. ferent Parts of Greece, represented in a Series of Engravings. Large Folio. No. IV. Paris. 1779.
be said of this noble and elegant work, that it acquires new charms, and new degrees of perfection, as it advances; mobilitate viget. The XXXIId plate, which begins this fourth part, contains a general chart of the isle of Paros, one of the most celebrated of the cluster called the Cyclades. Its opulence and population gave it a considerable ascendant over the neighbouring islands. Attacked in vain by Miltiades, conquered by Themistocles, possessed by Mithridates, and delivered up to the Romans, in consequence of the victorious arms of Sylla and Lucullus, it became the property of a noble Vene*tian † after the destruction of the Roman empire, was afterwards invaded by the successors of Mahomet, and subdued by Barbarossa, in the reign of Soliman II. The remains of its ancient opulence and grandeur, which still strike the eye of the cus rious traveller, are rich, precious, and interesting. Columns, ftatues, cornices, architraves, of noble workmanship are discerni*ble, in great abundance, in the walls of modern buildings, where they are lavished without taste, and placed without any order or arrangement. There is an old castle in this island, built of no other materials than the ruins of the most magnifi. cent ancient 'edifices. Paros was the native country of Archi
See our account of No. III. in the last Appendix, vol. lx. page 509. Numbers I. and II. were mentioned in former Reviews. .
+ Mark Sanudo.
locus, the Aretin of ancient times, of Agoracrites, the disciple of Phidias, and of Polignotes, Arcesilas, and Nicanor, who. carried the art of encaustic painting to a considerable degree of perfection. This island is also famous for having furnished the Arundel marbles, which comprehend the principal epochas of Grecian history, from Cecrops to Alexander; and which are juftly considered as one of the noblest literary ornaments of the university of Oxford.
The XXXIIId plate represents a Grecian dance at Paros.The XXXIVth the entrance of a marble quarry, in which an ancient ballo-relievo is placed, exhibiting a Bacchanal figure, ill executed. The XXXVth, which contains an accurate plan of the harbour of Naufa, where the Ruffians assembled their main force in the last war, furnishes our Author with an opportunity of entertaining the military reader with details rela. tive to the art of war.
The XXXVIth and the two following plates represent the entrance of the grotto of Anti-Paros, its geometrical plan and dimensions, and a view of its inside. This famous grotto, whích, at this time, is such an interesting object to the naturalist, seems to have been unknown to the ancients, whom terror, perhaps, restrained from founding its depth, which some suppose to be above 250 feet. The inhabitants of the island never attempted to descend into it before the year 1673, when M. de Neintel, the French Ambassador at Conftantinople, went down, with a great part of his retinue, and other travellers, and had mass celebrated in the lowest apartment of that vast cavern : the altar, employed on this occasion, was a stalagmite, whose height was 24 feet, and its bale 20 feet diameter. Our Author had allo the curiosity to undertake the formidable descent, and he describes, with the pen of a naturalist and a painter, the manner in which those masies of crystallization, which we find delineated in the XXXVIIth plate, are formed and augmented in their size and dimenfions. The stalactites (like icicles, which during the winter hang from rocks that had been overflowed by the swelling torrents) grow and extend incessantly, in length, the conic figure, which they always derive from the mechanism of their formation; while the drops that fall from them, when the filtration is abundant, form salagmites at the bottom of the cavern, which rifing in a contrary direction, exhibit, at first, a range of columns, and at length joining the stalactites, unite with them in one folid mass. Notwithstanding the zealous cubiolity-of-our-noble and very ingenious Author, M. de CHOISEUL, to get at the extremity of this subterraneous cavern, he could not engage the inhabitants of the iland to aflilt him in this perilous enterprize, They told him that a goat, which went astray in the grotto, after wandering a long time, came out in the isle of Nio. This ftory, however improbable, excited ftill more his curiosity ; but he could not satisfy it.
went 1 i 2
In the XXXVIIIth plate we have a view of the village of St. George in the island of Sciros; and in the XXXIXth a map of that illand, in which Lycomedes is said to have reigned, when Theseus, driven from his dominions, fought there a retreat, and perished miserably in the attempt. The fuperftition of the inhabitants is still more exceffive than that of the other Greeks in the Archipelago ; it is nourished by the Monks of the convent of St. George, which are a colony of the monaftic republic of Mount Athos. The superior of this convent, who is always fent from Mount Athos, governs the isle of Sciros despotically, and strikes terror into the inhabitants by an image of his faint, which performs wonders of divination and vindi&tive justice ; and thus draws ample contributions from the multitude. This convent is surrounded by 365 chapels, whose faints are a heavy burthen upon the laborious inhabitants.
The XLth plate represents the inhabitants of the island of Lemnos, the celebrated forge of Vulcan, in ancient times. It js natural to think that a volcano, or collection of fubterraneous fire, gave occasion to this fable; and, in effect, our Author found, throughout Greece, evident vestiges of the desolations ? produced by fubterraneous fires, several of which burn ftill. But who would have thought, that the Iliad and Odyssey are nothing but the sacred and symbolical books of the priests of Siris (in Lucania); and that their Heroes and Deities are allegorical beings, designed to represent the disasters produced in the territory of Troy by subterraneous fires, which had before manifefted their terrors in several parts of Greece! This new piece of critical, or rather volcanic interpretation, is announced by our Author, as the invention of a Mr. Ciro Saverio Minervino, a learned Neapolitan, who has undertaken to prove it clearly in a work composed expressly for that purpose,-nay, who intends also to demonstrate that Homer was a fabulous being, and that the word Homer is no more than the title of the books, which have been attributed to him. This propensity to torment the immortal Author of the Iliad is not new. He has already passed through the hands of the chymifts, who have pretended to discern, in his works, all the secret operations of their art, even the transmutation of metals; and he has been made, by fome allegorical theologians, the mystical painter of the events of the Christian church, and of the miracles of its founder. This method of interpreting is similar to that of those divines and critics in Holland, who follow a certain Cocceius, one of whom, fome time ago, spiritualized, in this manner, the labours of Hercules: making thiş hero pass for Jesus Christ, Alcmena for the Virgin