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fet," who have flattered themselves with the hopes of their having discovered a remedy for the sourvy, have now the fatisfaction-we lament that Dr. Macbride is not in a situation to partake of it-of finding that a whole nation have anticipated them in the discovery; and that Nature has dictated to the natives of Russia the use of that very antiseptic regimen against this disease, to which our modern philosophers have been led, in consequence of their speculations on fixed air.
Dr. Guthrie of Petersburg, the Author of the Article abovementioned, after enumerating the many pre-disponent causes which tend to produce the scurvy, and other putrid diseases, in Russia, observes that the natives are nevertheless strangers to disorders of that kind; evidently in consequence of the antifeptic diet ufed among them. He thinks that it will be doing service to mankind to describe this falutary and preservative regimen minutely; and introduces his description of it with the following reflections :
" It will probably give pleasure to those gentlemen, who have prescribed the new regimen to the British navy with so much success, to have the evidence of some millions to prove that they have actually hit upon the very secret by which Na. ture defends her creatures, in those countries where it is necelsary, from the very disease which has been the scourge of the nobleft naval establishment that ever the world faw. Nay, one would think that the diet these people use had been dictated by modern philofophy; or rather that your President,” [Sir John Pringle, we suppose] 66 your Macbrides, &c. had studied at this school; for almost every thing they use seems to be of that kind which the fortunate attention to the antiseptic qualities of fixed air has recommended for medical use. Here the experimental philosopher may be indulged in a triumph; and I really think your Lords of the Admiralty ought, in gratitude, to erect fiatues to the industrious and successful prosecutors of that noble and useful ftudy.”. .
After giving some experiments on the effects of fixed air on · the putrefactive process, and on the putrid effluvium; the Author treats of its use in cachexies and phagedenic ulcers. In confirmed cancers, he has not observed any sensible benefit produced by it, except a mitigation of the pain : but in old, spreading, ill conditioned ulcers, it has, in many instances, relieved the pain, brought on a more favourable digestion, and much improved the appearance of the ulcers; and in some it has effected a complete cure. He relates four cases likewise of its having removed some diseases of the stomach, when given in the form of effervescing draughts,
Treating next of the sedative and solvent powers of fixed air in cases of the stone, the Author observes, that they are so
far ascertained, as to give it a claim to the particular attention of the faculty. Further experience can alone determine, whether by the steady and long continued use of this medicine, a cure may not, in some instances, be happily effected: and it is no inconsiderable recommendation, that the medicine is pleasant, safe, and even friendly to the constitution; and that it will relieve the painful symptoms, though it Mould not produce a complete solution of the calculus.— The following method of. administering it he apprehends to be the most easy and powerful :
Let the patient take three times a day an ounce of the aqua mephitica alkalina, containing one fcruple of alcaline falt, saturated with fixed air according to the directions of Mr. Bewly *, and sweetened with a little honey: let him wash this down with half an ounce or a large spoonful of lemon-juice, made into lemonade. The patient thus takes not only the common proportion of fixed air contained in the alcaline salt, but likewise that which has been superadded to saturate or neutralize it. The common drink of the patient should be mephitic water, wort sweetened with honey, provided it fits easy and agrees with the stomach, mead, or sound malt liquor. Calk ale, I think, is preferable to that which is kept in bottles, on this account, that the fixed air is in a more quiescent ftate, is not loft in erudations from the prime viæ, and is consequently conveyed in a larger proportion to the kidneys and bladder. Honey may be eaten at pleasure, as perfectly coinciding with the intentions of the medicine; and where it suits the constitution, may be used to the quantity of a pound, or a pound and a quarter every week, as recommended by Sir John Pringle.
. By this method, the urine will be well impregnated with a constant and copious supply of fixed air ; more so indeed than by immediately injecting the mephitic water into the bladder. Before the patient begins his course, it is a good precaution to examine the stony sediment of the urine, or any calculous frag, ments which are passed, by putting them to ihe test of fixed air. This will determine, as Dr. Ambrose Dawson judiciously observes, whether the calculus 'is of such a nature, as to be loc luble in the medicine which is proposed.' The Author adds that, as some calculi abound so much with mucus, as to elude the action of fixed air, their solution may be facilitated by ex. hibiting the caustic alcali and fixed air alternately, as recome mended by Dr. Saunders.
Towards the end of the work, the Author gives a compara. tive view of the disposition to generate the stone, in several parts of this kingdom. His estimate is formed on the answers received by him to his inquiries, with respect to the number of
• Priesley on the Air, vol. ii, p. 346.
patients patients who had been cut for the stone, in the various hofpi- . tals to which he applied on this occasion; compared with the whole number of in and out patients that had been received at each hofpital : regard being likewise had to peculiarities in the food, drink, or fituation of the inhabitants of the respective diftri&ts.- But for the particular results of this inquiry we must refer to the work itself; which we recommend to the attention of practitioners, as containing a plain narrative of philosophical and medical facts, related with candour, and without prepos. feffion.
Art, IV. The Antiquarian Repertory. 2 Vols. 4to. Concluded. IN the former Articles concerning this work (vid. Reviews
1 for April and July) we mentioned two descriptions of England given by Frenchmen, who wrote near the times of Queen Mary and Charles the First; we are now presented with another description of later date; it is a translation of the travels of Monsieur Jorevin de Rocheford, or at least that part of his work which creats of England and Ireland. His observations were made in the reign of Charles the Second, and his book, which was printed at Paris in 1672, (in three vols. 1 2mo.) is said to be now extremely scarce. Had it utterly perished, some readers perhaps will think there would have been no great cause to lament the loss. The performance, however, is curious, as the journal of a foreigner who traversed our country upwards of a century ago, but who had not so far conquered his national prejudices as to be able to make juft observations on our cultoms and manners. The translator rightly observes that his abstract of our national history is false and ridiculous; but that his descriptions of places, buildings, &c. feem to have been accurate, as they still retain striking likenesses of the respective subjects, notwithstanding the alterations which must necessarily have happened in the space of above an hundred years.-On the whole, this narrative, with all its faults, is not unentertain. ing. It consists of several numbers, inserted in different parts of the volume.
An extract from a curious and authentic 'manuscript, a copy of which is in the possession of Thomas Altle, Eiq; furnishes an instance of the rude manners of our country in'ancient times. « This manuscript contains, among other things, the private expences of King Edward the Second, wherein it appears that cross and pile, or toffing up heads and tails (as it is now called) was a royal diversion. The following translation from the old French may afford some amusement : . Item, paid to the King himself to play'at cross and pile by the hands of Richard de Mereworth the receiver of the treasury, 12 pence.
Itemnd pile to rich he leres Barnators and arber for
bought to make ir Williant which the play at crofight per
. * Item, paid there to Henry the King's barber for money which he lent to the King to play at cross and pile, 5s.
Item, paid there to Peres Barnard ulher of the King's chamber money which he lent to the King, and which he lost at cross and pile to Monsieur Robert Wattewylle, eight pence.
• Item, paid to the King himself to play at cross and pile by Peres Barnard two shillings, which the laid Peres won of him. Item, paid to Sir William de Kyngeston, for cabbage which he bought to make portage in the boat.
Item, paid at the lodge at Wolmer when the King was stage hunting there, to Morris Ken of the kitchen, because he rode there before the King, and often fell from his horse, at which the King laughed exceedingly; a gift by command, 20 s.'
A differtation concerning an ancient manuscript, in the · Cornish language, will, no doubt, prove acceptable to most antiquaries. The manuscript itself appears to be of great antiquity, and the observations on it seem to be made by a person well acquainted with his subject. The manuscript treats of our Saviour's passion. As to the language of it,' remarks this Writer, ' it is such as the common speakers of the Cornish now used here do not understand, nor any but such as will be at the pains to study it, no more than the common speakers of the vulgar Greek do at this day Homer's Iliad. So the Lord's Prayer, in the year 700, was thus in English : Vren fader thic arth, &c. In goo, Thu ure fader the eart on heofenum.
As to the antiquity thereof, we observe the name of our Saviour is all along written Ihs, after the old form used in cruçifixes, and then also the name written Chreft, not Christ. So we find it written in Tacitus, Suetonius, and in some other Roman authors. So Chriftians were called Chrestians, as Tertullian observes, Apol. c. 3. and so the vulgar in Cornih speak it Chreit, and not Christ.
• In this old piece are no words anciently intermixt of the Saxon tongue or Angles, which shews, in all probability, that it was written before their time at least, if not much farther off; whereas the common speech of it now carries much of those latter figures, to the disfiguring of the face thereof.'
We are informed by a note at the end of this dissertation, that it was written by --- Scawen, Esq; Vice-warden of the Stannaries, and was communicated by Mr. Thomas Astle; but we are not told how long it is since it was first composed.
The true lovers of antiquity cannot fee or hear of the demolition of very ancient monuments and buildings without some regret; to such persons no doubt it yields a kind of pleasure, as we acknowledge it does to us, that Alnwick Castle, the great Baronial seat of the Earls of Northumberland, which was fallen to decay, has been within these twenty years most nobly repaired by the present Duke of Northumberland, who has, sayo this Writer, with great taste and judgment, chastely adhered to the ancient Gothic style of the primitive fabric, and restored it as much as possible (consistently with present convenience, and the more improved state of the arts) to what it anciently was, or would necessarily have been at present if it had never suffered by the ravages of time.'
The plate which is here given of this building represents it before it was so completely repaired. But the Writer declines inserting a particular account of this castle, as a very exact description of it is to be seen in Groffe's Antiquities of England and Wales; and the plan of the Repertory, it is said, does not allow of reprinting Articles ro lately published. These Gentlemen are not always so scrupulous; we have occasionally met with an extract from Pennant's Tour, &c. Some little remarks, however, on the age and original of the building might have been added, without any charge of plagiarism; and the omission of such particulars is a defect, and likely to prove a disadvantage to a work of this nature.
Streatlam Castle, in the weftern part of the county of Dura ham, is somewhat remarkable on account of its fituation. It was part of the possessions of Bernard Baliol, grandfather of
John, King of Scotland : he gave this castle and lordfhip in dowry with his niece Agnes, who married Sir John Trayne. Sir John's son and immediate successor had one child, Alice, bis heiress, who was married to Sir Adam Bowes, Knight, Jura tice in Oyer of the liberties of Durham, and Steward of Richa mondshire, about the year 1310, when Streatlam became the poffeffion of the family of Bowes, who are owners of it at this time. In what state the castle was at that period is not known: but it was rebuilt about the year '1 424 by Sir William Bowes, Chamberlain to John Duke of Bedford, and Regent' in France during the minority of Henry VI. The castle after that model remained to the beginning of this century, when the prefent structure was erected on the same ground.
« Nothing, says our Author, but a veneration for the ans cient seat of the family, could induce the proprietor to erect fuch a manfion, in so ineligible a situation. It stands in a deep vale, a small brook runs close to its front, high and irregular. hills arise on every fide, in some parts covered with a forest of oaks ; and the whole aspect is folemn. The opposite grounds are occupied as a park for deer, and afford a narrow prospect; there is fomething romantic in these secluded scenes, which please the contemplative mind; but they are better adapted to the vicinity of a cottage than a palace. The purling brook, the broken cliff, from whose shaken fides old oaks impend, and caft a long extended shadow over the narrow dell; the ivy
s heihn's Tomis niece and